1Clarke SD (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a molecular mechanism to improve the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 131, 1129–1132.
2Connor WE (2000) Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 171S–175S.
3Lombardo YB & Chicco AG (2006) Effects of dietary polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. A review. J Nutr Biochem 17, 1–13.
4de LM, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. (1994) Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 343, 1454–1459.
5Mozaffarian D, Ascherio A, Hu FB, et al. (2005) Interplay between different polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation 111, 157–164.
6Djousse L, Arnett DK, Carr JJ, et al. (2005) Dietary linolenic acid is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Circulation 111, 2921–2926.
7Kim HK & Choi H (2001) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid lowers postprandial lipid levels with increase of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents in rat hepatic membrane. Lipids 36, 1331–1336.
8Garg ML, Sebokova E, Wierzbicki A, et al. (1988) Differential effects of dietary linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid on lipid metabolism in rat tissues. Lipids 23, 847–852.
9Ghafoorunissa, Ibrahim A & Natarajan S (2005) Substituting dietary linoleic acid with alpha-linolenic acid improves insulin sensitivity in sucrose fed rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1733, 67–75.
10Weber CW, Gentry HS, Kohlhepp EA, et al. (1991) The nutritional and chemical evaluation of chia seeds. Ecol Foods Nutr 26, 119–125.
11Bushway AA, Wilson AM, Houston L, et al. (1984) Selected properties of the lipid and protein fractions from chia seed. J Food Sci 49, 555–557.
12Ayerza R Jr & Coates W (2007) Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 27–34.
13Chicco AG, D'Alessandro ME, Hein GJ, et al. (2009) Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in α-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipidaemic rats. Br J Nutr 101, 41–50.
14Lombardo YB, Drago S, Chicco A, et al. (1996) Long-term administration of a sucrose-rich diet to normal rats: relationship between metabolic and hormonal profiles and morphological changes in the endocrine pancreas. Metabolism 45, 1527–1532.
15Pighin D, Karabatas L, Rossi A, et al. (2003) Fish oil affects pancreatic fat storage, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and insulin secretion in rats fed a sucrose-rich diet. J Nutr 133, 4095–4101.
16Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Waanders J, et al. (2012) Lipid redistribution by α-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats. J Nutr Biochem 23, 153–162.
17Rossi AS, Lombardo YB, Lacorte JM, et al. (2005) Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R486–R494.
18Hein GJ, Bernasconi AM, Montanaro MA, et al. (2010) Nuclear receptors and hepatic lipidogenic enzyme response to a dyslipidemic sucrose-rich diet and its reversal by fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 298, E429–E439.
19Zimmermann R, Haemmerle G, Wagner EM, et al. (2003) Decreased fatty acid esterification compensates for the reduced lipolytic activity in hormone-sensitive lipase-deficient white adipose tissue. J Lipid Res 44, 2089–2099.
20Ascencio C, Torres N, Isoard-Acosta F, et al. (2004) Soy protein affects serum insulin and hepatic SREBP-1 mRNA and reduces fatty liver in rats. J Nutr 134, 522–529.
21Nakatani T, Kim HJ, Kaburagi Y, et al. (2003) A low fish oil inhibits SREBP-1 proteolytic cascade, while a high-fish-oil feeding decreases SREBP-1 mRNA in mice liver: relationship to anti-obesity. J Lipid Res 44, 369–379.
22Snedecor GW & Cochran WG (1967) Statistical Methods, 6th ed.Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
23Chicco A, D'Alessandro ME, Karabatas L, et al. (2003) Muscle lipid metabolism and insulin secretion are altered in insulin-resistant rats fed a high sucrose diet. J Nutr 133, 127–133.
24Vrana A, Kazdova L, Dobesova Z, et al. (1993) Triglyceridemia, glucoregulation, and blood pressure in various rat strains. Effects of dietary carbohydrates. Ann N Y Acad Sci 683, 57–68.
25Yahagi N, Shimano H, Hasty AH, et al. (1999) A crucial role of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 in the regulation of lipogenic gene expression by polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 274, 35840–35844.
26Shimomura I, Shimano H, Korn BS, et al. (1998) Nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding proteins activate genes responsible for the entire program of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in transgenic mouse liver. J Biol Chem 273, 35299–35306.
27Nagai Y, Nishio Y, Nakamura T, et al. (2002) Amelioration of high fructose-induced metabolic derangements by activation of PPARα. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, E1180–E1190.
28Jump DB, Botolin D, Wang Y, et al. (2005) Fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription. J Nutr 135, 2503–2506.
29Pegorier JP (1998) Regulation of gene expression by fatty acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1, 329–334.
30Kim HK (2004) Suppression of hepatic fatty acid synthase by feeding alpha-linolenic acid rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. J Nutr Biochem 15, 485–492.
31Benatti P, Peluso G, Nicolai R, et al. (2004) Polyunsaturated fatty acids: biochemical, nutritional and epigenetic properties. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 281–302.
32Jeffery NM, Newsholme EA & Calder PC (1997) Level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet alter serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 57, 149–160.
33Neschen S, Moore I, Regittnig W, et al. (2002) Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, E395–E401.
34Ide T, Kobayashi H, Ashakumary L, et al. (2000) Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta 1485, 23–35.
35Ide T (2000) Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on the activity and gene expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Biofactors 13, 9–14.
36Okuno M, Kajiwara K, Imai S, et al. (1997) Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr 127, 1752–1757.
37Muhlhausler BS, Cook-Johnson R & James M (2010) Opposing effects of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the expression of lipogenic genes in omental and retroperitoneal adipose depots in the rat. J Nutr Metab (Epublication ahead of print version 5 August 2010).
38Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Dias AG, et al. (2010) Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.). Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 436–438.
39Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, et al. (2007) Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 30, 2804–2810.
40Muramatsu T, Yatsuya H, Toyoshima H, et al. (2010) Higher dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid is associated with lower insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese. Prev Med 50, 272–276.