1Cheal, KL, Abbasi, F, Lamendola, C, McLaughlin, T, Reaven, GM & Ford, ES (2004) Relationship to insulin resistance of the adult treatment panel III diagnostic criteria for identification of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 53, 1195–1200.
2Clarke, SD (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a molecular mechanism to improve the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 131, 1129–1132.
3Mori, TA & Beilin, LJ (2001) Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, blood lipids and cardiovascular risk reduction. Curr Opin Lipidol 12, 11–17.
4Connor, WE (2000) Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 71, Suppl., 171S–175S.
5Li, Z, Lamon-Fava, S, Otvos, J, Lichtenstein, AH, Velez-Carrasco, W, McNamara, JR, Ordovas, JM & Schaefer, EJ (2004) Fish consumption shifts lipoprotein subfractions to a less atherogenic pattern in humans. J Nutr 134, 1724–1728.
6Lombardo, YB & Chicco, A (2006) Effects of dietary polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids on dislipemia and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. A review. J Nutr Biochem 17, 1–13.
7Simopoulos, AP (1999) Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 70, Suppl. 3, 560S–569S.
8Kawashima, Y & Kozuka, H (1993) Dietary manipulation by perilla oil and fish oil of hepatic lipids and its influence on peroxisomal β-oxidation and serum lipids in rat and mouse. Biol Pharm Bull 16, 1194–1199.
9Gu, JY, Wakizono, Y, Dohi, A, Nonaka, M, Sugano, M & Yamada, K (1998) Effect of dietary fats and sesamin on the lipid metabolism and immune function of Sprague–Dawley rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62, 1917–1924.
10Iritani, N, Komiya, K, Fukuda, H & Sugimoto, T (1998) Lipogenic enzyme gene expression is quickly suppressed in rats by a small amount of exogenous polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr 128, 967–972.
11Ihara, M, Umekawa, H, Takahashi, T & Furuichi, Y (1998) Comparative effects of short and long-term feeding of safflower oil and perilla oil on lipid metabolism in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol Biochem Mol Biol 121, 223–231.
12Kim, HK, Choi, S & Choi, H (2004) Suppression of hepatic fatty acid synthase by feeding α-linolenic acid rich perilla oil lowers plasma triacylglycerol level in rats. J Nutr Biochem 15, 485–492.
13Kim, HK & Choi, H (2001) Dietary α-linolenic acid lowers post prandial lipid levels with increase of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents in rat hepatic membrane. Lipids 36, 1331–1336.
14Javadi, M, Geelen, MJH, Lemmeus, AG, Lankhorst, AE, Schonewille, JT, Terpstra, AHM & Beynen, AC (2007) The influence of dietary linoleic and α-linolenic acid on body composition and the activities of key enzymes of hepatic lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in mice. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 91, 11–18.
15Weber, CW, Gentry, HS, Kohlhepp, EA & McCrohan, PR (1991) The nutritional and chemical evaluation of chia seeds. Ecol Food Nutr 26, 119–125.
16Bushway, AA, Wilson, AM, Houston, L & Bushway, RJ (1984) Selected properties of the lipid and protein fractions from chia seed. J Food Sci 49, 555–557.
17Ayerza, R & Coates, W (2005) Ground chia seed and chia oil effects on plasma lipids and fatty acids in the rat. Nutr Res 25, 995–1003.
18Reaven, GM (1984) Diabetic hypertriglyceridemia in the rat: animal models simulating the clinical syndrome of impaired glucose tolerance, non insulin-dependent diabetes andinsulin-dependent diabetes. In Lessons from Animal Diabetes, pp. 531–536 [Shaffrir, E and Renold, AS, editors]. London: Libby.
19Pagliassotti, MJ, Prach, PA, Koppenhafer, TA & Pan, DA (1996) Changes in insulin action, triglycerides and lipid composition during sucrose feeding in rats. Am J Physiol 271, R1319–R1326.
20Lombardo, YB, Chicco, A, Mocchiutti, N, Rodi, M, Nusimovich, B & Gutman, R (1983) Effect of sucrose diet on insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro and on triglyceride storage and mobilization of the heart of rats. Horm Metab Res 15, 69–76.
21Luo, J, Rizkalla, SW, Lerer-Metzger, M, Boillot, J, Ardeleanu, A, Bruzzo, F, Chevalier, A & Slama, G (1995) A fructose-rich diet decreases insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids but not glucose transport in adipocytes of normal and diabetic rats. J Nutr 125, 164–171.
22Bezerra, RM, Ueno, M, Silva, MA, Tavares, DQ, Carvalho, CRO & Saad, MJA (2000) A high fructose diet affects the early steps of insulin action in muscle and liver of rats. J Nutr 130, 1531–1535.
23Gutman, RA, Basílico, MZ, Bernal, C, Chicco, A & Lombardo, YB (1987) Long-term hypertriglyceridemia and glucose intolerance in rats fed chronically an isocaloric sucrose rich diet. Metabolism 36, 1013–1020.
24Chicco, A, Basabe, JC, Karabatas, L, Ferraris, N, Fortino, A & Lombardo, YB (2000) Troglytazone (CS-045) normalizes hypertriglyceridemia and restores the altered patterns of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in dyslipemic rats. Metabolism 49, 1346–1351.
25Chicco, A, D'Alessandro, ME, Karabatas, L, Pastorale, C, Basabe, JC & Lombardo, YB (2003) Muscle lipid metabolism and insulin secretion are altered in insulin-resistant rats fed a high sucrose diet. J Nutr 133, 127–133.
26Pighin, D, Karabatas, L, Rossi, A, Chicco, A, Basabe, JC & Lombardo, YB (2003) Fish oil affects pancreatic fat storage, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and insulin secretion in rats fed a sucrose-rich diet. J Nutr 133, 4095–4101.
27Ghafoorunissa, , Ibrahim, A & Natarajan, S (2005) Substituting dietary linoleic acid with α-linolenic acid improves insulin sensitivity in sucrose fed rats. Biochem Biophys Acta 1733, 67–75.
28Lombardo, YB, Chicco, A, D'Alessandro, ME, Martinelli, M, Soria, A & Gutman, R (1996) Dietary fish oil normalize dislipidemia and glucose intolerance with unchanged insulin levels in rats fed a high sucrose diet. Biochim Biophys Acta 1299, 175–182.
29Herbert, V, Lau, KS, Gottlieb, CH & Bleicher, SJ (1965) Coated charcoal immunoassay of insulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 25, 1375–1384.
30Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
31Rössner, S (1974) Studies on an intravenous fat tolerance test. Methodological, experimental and clinical experiences with Intralipid. Acta Med Scand Suppl 564, 1–24.
32Snedecor, GWP & Cochran, WG (editors) (1967) Statistical Methods. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
33Soria, A, D'Alessandro, ME & Lombardo, YB (2001) Duration of feeding on a sucrose-rich diet determines metabolic and morphological changes in rat adipocytes. J Appl Physiol 91, 2109–2116.
34Lombardo, YB, Hein, G & Chicco, A (2007) Metabolic syndrome: effects of n-3 PUFAs on a model of dislipidemia, insulin resistance and adiposity. Lipids 42, 427–437.
35Nagai, Y, Nishio, Y, Nakamura, T, Maegawa, H, Kikkawa, R & Kashiwagi, A (2002) Amelioration of high fructose induced metabolic derangements by activation of PPARα. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, E1180–E1190.
36Kim, HJ, Takahashi, M & Ezaki, O (1999) Fish oil feeding decreases mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) by down-regulation of SREBP-1c mRNA in mouse liver. J Biol Chem 274, 25892–25898.
37Benatti, P, Peluso, G, Nicolai, R & Calvani, M (2004) Polyunsaturated fatty acids: biochemical, nutritional and epigenetic properties. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 281–302.
38Jeffery, NM, Sanderson, P, Sherringtton, EJ, Newsholme, EA & Calder, PC (1996) The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat diet alters serum lipid levels and lymphocyte function. Lipids 31, 737–745.
39Ide, T (2000) Effect of dietary α-linolenic acid on the activity and gene expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Biofactors 13, 9–14.
40Ide, T, Murata, M & Sugano, M (1996) Stimulation of the activities of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes by dietary fat rich in α-linolenic acid in rats. J Lipid Res 37, 448–463.
41Kabir, Y & Ide, T (1996) Activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rats fed α-linolenic acid. Biochem Biophys Acta 1304, 105–119.
42Bravo, E, Ortu, G, Cantafora, A, Lambert, MS, Avella, M, Mayes, PA & Botham, KM (1995) Comparison of the hepatic uptake and processing of cholesterol from chylomicrons of different fatty acid composition in the rat in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 1258, 328–336.
43Li, J, Kaneko, T, Qing, L, Wang, J, Wang, Y & Sato, A (2003) Long-term effects of high dietary fiber intake on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in GK rats: comparison among barley, rice and cornstarch. Metabolism 52, 1206–1210.
44Martinez-Flores, HE, Chang, YK, Martinez-Bustos, F & Sgarbieri, V (2004) Effect of high fiber products on blood lipids and lipoproteins in hamsters. Nutr Res 24, 85–93.
45Okuno, M, Kajiwara, K, Imai, S, Kobayashi, T, Honma, N, Maki, T, Suruga, K, Goda, T, Takase, S, Muto, Y & Moriwaki, H (1997) Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr 127, 1752–1757.
46Bronwyn, AE, Poynten, A, Lowry, AJ, Furler, SM, Chisholm, DJ, Kraegen, EW & Cooney, GJ (2000) Long-chain acyl-CoA esters as indicators of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rat and human muscle. Am J Physiol 279, E554–E560.
47Burdge, GC & Calder, PC (2005) Conversion of α-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans adults. Reprod Nutr Dev 45, 581–597.
48Vuksan, V, Whitham, D, Sievenpiper, JL, Jenkins, AL, Rogovik, AL, Bazinet, RP, Vidgen, E & Hanna, A (2007) Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, 2804–2810.