Skip to main content
×
Home

Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity

  • Leone C. A. Craig (a1) (a2), Geraldine McNeill (a1) (a2), Jennie I. Macdiarmid (a2), Lindsey F. Masson (a1) and Bridget A. Holmes (a3)...
Abstract

The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5–11 and 12–17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. ‘Healthier’ patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more ‘unhealthy’ patterns (‘snacks’ and ‘puddings’) were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with ‘healthier’ patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with ‘puddings’ and ‘snacks’ in girls aged 5–11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Leone Craig, fax +44 1224 559348, email l.craig@abdn.ac.uk
References
Hide All
1Michels KB & Schulze MB (2005) Can dietary patterns help us detect diet–disease associations? Nutr Res Rev 18, 241248.
2North K, Emmett P & the ALSPAC Study Team (2000) Multivariate analysis of diet among three-year-old children and associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 7380.
3Northstone K, Emmett P & the ALSPAC Study Team (2005) Multivariate analysis of diet at four and seven years of age and associations with socio-demographic characteristics. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 751760.
4Northstone K & Emmett P (2008) Are dietary patterns stable throughout early and mid-childhood? A birth cohort study. Br J Nutr 100, 10691076.
5Reilly JJ, Armstrong J, Dorosty AR, et al. (2005) Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study. BMJ 330, 1357.
6Aranceta J, Perez-Rodrigo C, Ribas L, et al. (2003) Sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of food patterns in Spanish children and adolescents: the enKid study. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S40S44.
7McNaughton SA, Ball K, Mishra GD, et al. (2008) Dietary patterns of adolescents and risk of obesity and hypertension. J Nutr 138, 364370.
8Li SJ, Paik HY & Joung H (2006) Dietary patterns are associated with sexual maturation in Korean children. Br J Nutr 95, 817823.
9Shin KO, Oh SY & Park HS (2007) Empirically derived major dietary patterns and their associations with overweight in Korean preschool children. Br J Nutr 98, 416421.
10Mikkila V, Rasanen L, Raitakari OT, et al. (2005) Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study. Br J Nutr 93, 923931.
11Mikkila V, Rasanen L, Raitakari OT, et al. (2005) Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Br J Nutr 98, 218225.
12Sheehy C, McNeill G, Masson L, et al. (2008) Survey of sugar intake among children in Scotland. Food Standards Agency Scotland.http://www.food.gov.uk/scotland/scotnut/scotsug.
13The Scottish Executive (2006) Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2006: General Report. The Scottish Executive.http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/10/13142739/0.
14A Shaw, A McMunn & J Field (editors) (2000) The Scottish Health Survey 1998 (2 vols). Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
15C Bromley, K Sproston & N Shelton (editors) (2005) The Scottish Health Survey 2003 (4 vols). Edinburgh: The Stationery Office.
16Cole TJ, Freeman JV & Preece MA (1995) Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73, 2529.
17SPSS Inc. (2006) SPSS for Windows: Release 15.0. Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
18Cattell RB (1966) The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behav Res 1, 245276.
19Kline P (1994) An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis. London: Routledge.
20McCann SE, Marshall JR, Brasure JR, et al. (2001) Analysis of patterns of food intake in nutritional epidemiology: food classification in principal components analysis and the subsequent impact on estimates for endometrial cancer. Public Health Nutr 4, 989997.
21Gregory J, Lowe S, Bates CJ, et al. (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years. London: The Stationery Office.
22Muller MJ, Koertzinger I, Mast M, et al. (1999) Physical activity and diet in 5 to 7 years old children. Public Health Nutr 2, 443444.
23Coon KA & Tucker KL (2002) Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature. Minerva Pediatr 54, 423436.
24Scully M, Dixon H, White V, et al. (2007) Dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Australian secondary students in 2005. Health Promot Int 22, 236245.
25Miller SA, Taveras EM, Rifas-Shiman SL, et al. (2008) Association between television viewing and poor diet quality in young children. Int J Pediatr Obes 4, 19.
26Alexy U, Sichert-Hellert W, Kersting M, et al. (2004) Pattern of long-term fat intake and BMI during childhood and adolescence – results of the DONALD Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 12031209.
27Rodriguez G & Moreno LA (2006) Is dietary intake able to explain differences in body fatness in children and adolescents? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16, 294301.
28Newby PK (2007) Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity? A comprehensive review of the evidence. J Law Med Ethics 35, 3560.
29Newby PK & Tucker KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62, 177203.
30Comrey AL & Lee HB (1992) A First Course in Factor Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
31Costello AB & Osborne JW (2005) Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, vol. 10, no. 7.http://pareonline.net/pdf/v10n7.pdf.
32Schulze MB & Hoffmann K (2006) Methodological approaches to study dietary patterns in relation to risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Br J Nutr 95, 860869.
33Kennedy ET, Ohls J, Cralson S, et al. (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 11031108.
34Patterson RE, Haines PS & Popkin BM (1994) Diet quality index: capturing a multidimensional behavior. J Am Diet Assoc 94, 5764.
35Trichopoulou A, Kouris-Blazos A, Wahlqvist ML, et al. (1995) Diet and overall survival in elderly people. BMJ 311, 14571460.
36Hoffmann K, Schulze MB, Schienkiewitz A, et al. (2004) Application of a new statistical method to derive dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 159, 935944.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 69
Total number of PDF views: 316 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 676 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.