Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 14
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Angelo, Giana Drake, Victoria J. and Frei, Balz 2015. Efficacy of Multivitamin/mineral Supplementation to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk: A Critical Review of the Evidence from Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 55, Issue. 14, p. 1968.

    Paganini-Hill, A. Kawas, C. H. and Corrada, M. M. 2015. Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Mortality: The Leisure World Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 181, Issue. 2, p. 120.

    Åkesson, Agneta Larsson, Susanna C. Discacciati, Andrea and Wolk, Alicja 2014. Low-Risk Diet and Lifestyle Habits in the Primary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction in Men. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 64, Issue. 13, p. 1299.

    Larsson, Susanna C. Åkesson, Agneta and Wolk, Alicja 2014. Overall diet quality and risk of stroke: A prospective cohort study in women. Atherosclerosis, Vol. 233, Issue. 1, p. 27.

    Denison, H. J. Jameson, K. A. Syddall, H. E. Dennison, E. M. Cooper, C. Aihie Sayer, A. and Robinson, S. M. 2012. Patterns of dietary supplement use among older men and women in the UK: Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 307.

    Latino-Martel, Paule and Bachman, Patrick 2012. Nutrition chez le patient adulte atteint de cancer : compléments alimentaires antioxydants pendant et au décours du traitement des cancers. Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme, Vol. 26, Issue. 4, p. 238.

    Li, Kuanrong Kaaks, Rudolf Linseisen, Jakob and Rohrmann, Sabine 2012. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg). European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 51, Issue. 4, p. 407.

    Park, S.-Y. Murphy, S. P. Wilkens, L. R. Henderson, B. E. and Kolonel, L. N. 2011. Multivitamin Use and the Risk of Mortality and Cancer Incidence: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 173, Issue. 8, p. 906.

    Gerber, M. 2010. Les effets de la nutrition sur la longévité. Médecine & Longévité, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 168.

    Pocobelli, G. Peters, U. Kristal, A. R. and White, E. 2009. Use of Supplements of Multivitamins, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E in Relation to Mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 170, Issue. 4, p. 472.

    Poprzecki, Stanislaw Zajac, Adam Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata Waskiewicz, Zbigniew and Langfort, Józef 2009. Modification of blood antioxidant status and lipid profile in response to high-intensity endurance exercise after low doses of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in healthy volunteers. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Vol. 60, Issue. sup2, p. 67.

    Sahmoun, Abe E. and Schwartz, Gary G. 2009. Smoking and Supplement Use Among Men in a Rural Population. Journal of Dietary Supplements, Vol. 6, Issue. 3, p. 280.

    Åkesson, Agneta and Wolk, Alicja 2008. Dietary supplement use and mortality in a cohort of Swedish men – response from Åkesson and Wolk. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 100, Issue. 06, p. 1346.

    Boucher, Barbara J. 2008. Dietary supplement use and mortality in a cohort of Swedish men – comments by Boucher. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 100, Issue. 06, p. 1345.


Dietary supplement use and mortality in a cohort of Swedish men

  • Maria Messerer (a1), Niclas Håkansson (a1), Alicja Wolk (a1) and Agneta Åkesson (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2008

The use of dietary supplements has increased substantially in most industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the association between use of dietary supplements and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality and CVD mortality in men. We used the population-based prospective cohort of 38 994 men from central Sweden, 45–79 years of age, with no cancer or CVD at baseline and who completed a self-administered FFQ including questions on dietary supplement use and life-style factors in 1997. During average 7.7 years of follow-up, 3403 deaths were ascertained; among them, 771 due to cancer and 930 due to CVD (during 5.9 years of follow-up). In multivariate adjusted models including all men there was no association observed between use of any dietary supplement or of multivitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E or fish oil specifically and all-cause mortality, cancer or CVD mortality. Among current smokers, regular use of any supplement was associated with statistically significant increased risk of cancer mortality: relative risk (RR) 1·46 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·99). Among men reporting an inadequate diet at baseline (assessed by Recommended Food Score), there was a statistically significant inverse association between use of any dietary supplement and CVD mortality (RR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·91), no associations were observed among men with adequate diets. In conclusion, we cannot exclude that the use of dietary supplements is harmful for smokers. On the other hand, among men with an insufficient diet, the use of supplements might be beneficial in reducing CVD mortality.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary supplement use and mortality in a cohort of Swedish men
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary supplement use and mortality in a cohort of Swedish men
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary supplement use and mortality in a cohort of Swedish men
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr AgnetaÅkesson, fax +46 8 30 45 71, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1M Messerer , SE Johansson & A Wolk (2001) Use of dietary supplements and natural remedies increased dramatically during the 1990s. J Intern Med 250, 160166.

2AE Millen , KW Dodd & AF Subar (2004) Use of vitamin, mineral, nonvitamin, and nonmineral supplements in the United States: the 1987, 1992, and 2000 National Health Interview Survey results. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 942950.

3S Hercberg , P Galan , P Preziosi , (2004) The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 164, 23352342.

4WJ Blot , JY Li , PR Taylor , (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 14831492.

5G Bjelakovic , D Nikolova , LL Gluud , RG Simonetti & C Gluud (2007) Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 297, 842857.

6CD Morris & S Carson (2003) Routine vitamin supplementation to prevent cardiovascular disease: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 139, 5670.

7G Bjelakovic , D Nikolova , RG Simonetti & C Gluud (2004) Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 364, 12191228.

8ER Miller 3rd, R Pastor-Barriuso , D Dalal , RA Riemersma , LJ Appel & E Guallar (2005) Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 142, 3746.

9The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 330, 10291035.

10GS Omenn , GE Goodman , MD Thornquist , (1996) Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 11501155.

12T Byers (1999) What can randomized controlled trials tell us about nutrition and cancer prevention? CA Cancer J Clin 49, 353361.

13LH Kushi , AR Folsom , RJ Prineas , PJ Mink , Y Wu & RM Bostick (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 334, 11561162.

16J Muntwyler , CH Hennekens , JE Manson , JE Buring & JM Gaziano (2002) Vitamin supplement use in a low-risk population of US male physicians and subsequent cardiovascular mortality. Arch Intern Med 162, 14721476.

17ML Watkins , JD Erickson , MJ Thun , J Mulinare & CW Heath Jr (2000) Multivitamin use and mortality in a large prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 152, 149162.

19JE Enstrom , LE Kanim & MA Klein (1992) Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 3, 194202.

20NR Sahyoun , PF Jacques & RM Russell (1996) Carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and mortality in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol 144, 501511.

22EJ Jacobs , AK Henion , PJ Briggs , (2002) Vitamin C and vitamin E supplement use and bladder cancer mortality in a large cohort of US men and women. Am J Epidemiol 156, 10021010.

26JA Foote , SP Murphy , LR Wilkens , JH Hankin , BE Henderson & LN Kolonel (2003) Factors associated with dietary supplement use among healthy adults of five ethnicities: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 157, 888897.

27M Messerer , SE Johansson & A Wolk (2001) Sociodemographic and health behaviour factors among dietary supplement and natural remedy users. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 11041110.

28M Brustad , T Braaten & E Lund (2004) Predictors for cod-liver oil supplement use - the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 128136.

29A Norman , R Bellocco , F Vaida & A Wolk (2002) Total physical activity in relation to age, body mass, health and other factors in a cohort of Swedish men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 670675.

31M Messerer & A Wolk (2004) Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported use of dietary supplements. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 16691671.

33KB Michels & A Wolk (2002) A prospective study of variety of healthy foods and mortality in women. Int J Epidemiol 31, 847854.

34AK Kant , A Schatzkin , BI Graubard & C Schairer (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA 283, 21092115.

35SD Mark , W Wang , JF Fraumeni Jr, (1996) Lowered risks of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease after vitamin/mineral supplementation: the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trial. Am J Epidemiol 143, 658664.

38GE Goodman , MD Thornquist , J Balmes , (2004) The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial: incidence of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality during 6-year follow-up after stopping beta-carotene and retinol supplements. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 17431750.

39AJ Duffield-Lillico & CB Begg (2004) Reflections on the landmark studies of beta-carotene supplementation. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1729–1731.

40ST Mayne , GJ Handelman & G Beecher (1996) Beta-carotene and lung cancer promotion in heavy smokers - a plausible relationship? J Natl Cancer Inst 88, 1513–1515.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *