Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs

  • Yuanlong Pan (a1), Brian Larson (a1), Joseph A. Araujo (a2) (a3), Winnie Lau (a2), Christina de Rivera (a2) (a3), Ruben Santana (a1), Asa Gore (a1) and Norton W. Milgram (a2) (a3) (a4)...
Abstract

The present study focused on the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG (MCT) will improve cognitive function in aged dogs by providing the brain with energy in the form of ketones. Aged Beagle dogs were subjected to a baseline battery of cognitive tests, which were used to establish cognitively equivalent control or treatment groups. The dogs in the treatment group were maintained on a diet supplemented with 5·5 % MCT. After an initial wash-in period, all the dogs were tested with a battery of cognitive test protocols, which assessed sequentially landmark discrimination learning ability, egocentric visuospatial function and attention. The groups were maintained on the diets for 8 months. The MCT-supplemented group showed significantly better performance in most of the test protocols than the control group. The group differences also varied as a function of task difficulty, with the more difficult task showing greater supplementation effects than the easier tasks. The group given the MCT supplement showed significantly elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, a ketone body. These results indicate, first, that long-term supplementation with MCT can have cognition-improving effects, and second, that MCT supplementation increases circulating levels of ketones. The results support the hypothesis that brain function of aged dogs can be improved by MCT supplementation, which provides the brain with an alternative energy source.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary supplementation with medium-chain TAG has long-lasting cognition-enhancing effects in aged dogs
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Yuanlong Pan, fax +1 314 982 5857, email yuanlong.pan@rdmo.nestle.com
References
Hide All
1 Adams, B, Chan, A, Callahan, H, et al. (2000) The canine as a model of aging and dementia: recent developments. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 5, 675692.
2 Tapp, PD & Siwak, CT (2006) The canine model of human brain aging: cognition, behavior and neuropathology. In Handbook of Models for Human Aging, pp. 415434. Burlington, MA: Academic Press.
3 Rapoport, SI, London, ED & Takei, H (1982) Brain metabolism and blood flow during development and aging of the Fischer-344 rat. Exp Brain Res Suppl 5, 86101.
4 London, ED, Ohata, M, Takei, H, et al. (1983) Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in beagle dogs of different ages. Neurobiol Aging 4, 121126.
5 Noda, A, Ohba, H, Kakiuchi, T, et al. (2002) Age-related changes in cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in conscious rhesus monkeys. Brain Res 936, 7681.
6 Bentourkia, M, Bol, A, Ivanoiu, A, et al. (2000) Comparison of regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the normal brain: effect of aging. J Neurol Sci 181, 1928.
7 Alexander, GE, Chen, K, Pietrini, P, et al. (2002) Longitudinal PET evaluation of cerebral metabolic decline in dementia: a potential outcome measure in Alzheimer's disease treatment studies. Am J Psychiatry 159, 738745.
8 Drzezga, A, Lautenschlager, N, Siebner, H, et al. (2003) Cerebral metabolic changes accompanying conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease: a PET follow-up study. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30, 11041113.
9 Henderson, ST (2004) High carbohydrate diets and Alzheimer's disease. Med Hypotheses 62, 689700.
10 Reger, MA, Henderson, ST, Hale, C, et al. (2004) Effects of β-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. Neurobiol Aging 25, 311314.
11 Page, KA, Williamson, A, Yu, N, et al. (2009) Medium-chain fatty acids improve cognitive function in intensively treated type 1 diabetic patients and support in vitro synaptic transmission during acute hypoglycemia. Diabetes 58, 12371244.
12 Milgram, NW, Head, E, Muggenburg, B, et al. (2002) Landmark discrimination learning in the dog: effects of age, an antioxidant fortified diet, and cognitive strategy. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26, 679695.
13 Milgram, NW, Araujo, JA, Hagen, TM, et al. (2007) Acetyl-l-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid supplementation of aged beagle dogs improves learning in two landmark discrimination tests. J FASEB 13, 37563762.
14 Christie, LA, Studzinski, CM, Araujo, JA, et al. (2005) A comparison of egocentric and allocentric age-dependent spatial learning in the beagle dog. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 29, 361369.
15 Milgram, NW, Zicker, SC, Head, E, et al. (2002) Dietary enrichment counteracts age-associated cognitive dysfunction in canines. Neurobiol Aging 23, 737745.
16 Chan, ADF, Nippak, P, Murphey, H, et al. (2002) Visuospatial impairments in aged canines: the role of cognitive-behavioral flexibility. Behav Neurosci 116, 443454.
17 Laflamme, DP (2007) Five minute veterinary consult: canine and feline. In Obesity, pp. 982983. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing.
18 Milgram, NW, Head, E, Weiner, E, et al. (1994) Cognitive functions and aging in the dog: acquisition of non spatial visual tasks. Behav Neurosci 108, 5768.
19 Head, E, Callahan, H, Cummings, BJ, et al. (1998) Visual-discrimination learning ability and beta-amyloid accumulation in the dog. Neurobiol Aging 19, 415425.
20 Tapp, PD, Siwak, CT, Estrada, J, et al. (2003) Size and reversal learning in the beagle dog as a measure of executive function and inhibitory control in aging. Learn Mem 10, 6473.
21 Milgram, NW, Adams, B, Callahan, H, et al. (1999) Landmark discrimination learning in the dog. Learn Mem 6, 5461.
22 Christie, LA, Araujo, JA, de Rivera, C, et al. (2010) Novel task for assessing attention in canines: age effects on accuracy and response latency. Neuroscience (In the press).
23 de Bruijne, JJ, Altszuler, N, Hampshire, J, et al. (1981) Fat mobilization and plasma hormone levels in fasted dogs. Metabolism 30, 190194.
24 Matulka, RA, Thompson, DV & Burdock, GA (2009) Lack of toxicity by medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in canines during a 90-day feeding study. Food Chem Toxicol 47, 3539.
25 Magistretti, PJ (2009) Role of glutamate in neuron-glia metabolic coupling. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 875S880S.
26 Kodl, CT & Seaquist, ER (2008) Cognitive dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Endocr Rev 29, 494511.
27 Freemantle, E, Vandal, M, Tremblay-Mercier, J, et al. (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids, energy substrates, and brain function during aging. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 75, 213220.
28 Taha, AY, Ryan, MA & Cunnane, SC (2005) Despite transient ketosis, the classic high-fat ketogenic diet induces marked changes in fatty acid metabolism in rats. Metab Clin Exp 54, 11271132.
29 Taha, AY, Henderson, ST & Burnham, WM (2009) Dietary enrichment with medium chain triglycerides (AC-1203) elevates polyunsaturated fatty acids in the parietal cortex of aged dogs: implications for treating age-related cognitive decline. Neurochem Res 34, 16191625.
30 National Research Council (2006) Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 264
Total number of PDF views: 893 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 5524 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.