Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide

  • Jennifer Hilger (a1), Angelika Friedel (a2), Raphael Herr (a1), Tamara Rausch (a1), Franz Roos (a2), Denys A. Wahl (a3), Dominique D. Pierroz (a3), Peter Weber (a2) and Kristina Hoffmann (a1)...
Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporosis and is thought to increase the risk of cancer and CVD. Despite these numerous potential health effects, data on vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are limited. The aims of the present study were to examine patterns of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels worldwide and to assess differences by age, sex and region. In a systematic literature review using the Medline and EMBASE databases, we identified 195 studies conducted in forty-four countries involving more than 168 000 participants. Mean population-level 25(OH)D values varied considerably across the studies (range 4·9–136·2 nmol/l), with 37·3 % of the studies reporting mean values below 50 nmol/l. The highest 25(OH)D values were observed in North America. Although age-related differences were observed in the Asia/Pacific and Middle East/Africa regions, they were not observed elsewhere and sex-related differences were not observed in any region. Substantial heterogeneity between the studies precluded drawing conclusions on overall vitamin D status at the population level. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that newborns and institutionalised elderly from several regions worldwide appeared to be at a generally higher risk of exhibiting lower 25(OH)D values. Substantial details on worldwide patterns of vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are needed to inform public health policy development to reduce risk for potential health consequences of an inadequate vitamin D status.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr K. Hoffmann, fax +49 621 383 9920, email kristina.hoffmann@medma.uni-heidelberg.de
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1WG Tsiaras & MA Weinstock (2011) Factors influencing vitamin D status. Acta Derm Venereol 91, 115124.

2M Haroon & MJ Regan (2010) Vitamin D deficiency: the time to ignore it has passed. Int J Rheum Dis 13, 318323.

5A Mithal , DA Wahl , JP Bonjour , et al. (2009) Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int 20, 18071820.

8NM van Schoor & P Lips (2011) Worldwide vitamin D status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 25, 671680.

10AC Ross , JE Manson , SA Abrams , et al. (2011) The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 5358.

11MF Holick (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266281.

13A Arabi , R El Rassi & G El-Hajj Fuleihan (2010) Hypovitaminosis D in developing countries – prevalence, risk factors and outcomes. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6, 550561.

14T Hagenau , R Vest , TN Gissel , et al. (2009) Global vitamin D levels in relation to age, gender, skin pigmentation and latitude: an ecologic meta-regression analysis. Osteoporos Int 20, 133140.

15P Lips (2007) Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 620625.

21DA Wahl , C Cooper , PR Ebeling , et al. (2012) A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations. Arch Osteoporos 7, 155172.

22MA Gharaibeh & BJ Stoecker (2009) Assessment of serum 25(OH)D concentration in women of childbearing age and their preschool children in Northern Jordan during summer. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 13201326.

23AA Ginde , MC Liu , CA Camargo , et al. (2009) Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988–2004. Arch Intern Med 169, 626632.

26LO Chailurkit , A Kruavit & R Rajatanavin (2011) Vitamin D status and bone health in healthy Thai elderly women. Nutrition 27, 160164.

27K Nakamura , M Nashimoto , Y Hori , et al. (2000) Serum parathyroid hormone in healthy Japanese women in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70, 287292.

28P Gerdhem , KA Ringsberg , KJ Obrant , et al. (2005) Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physical activity, muscle strength and fractures in the prospective population-based OPRA Study of Elderly Women. Osteoporos Int 16, 14251431.

29R Theiler , HB Stahelin , A Tyndall , et al. (1999) Calcidiol, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone serum concentrations in institutionalized and ambulatory elderly in Switzerland. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 69, 96105.

31DK Dror (2011) Vitamin D status during pregnancy: maternal, fetal, and postnatal outcomes. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 23, 422426.

32R DerSimonian & N Laird (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7, 177188.

33 JKoenig & IElmadfa (2000) Status of calcium and vitamin D of different population groups in Austria. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70, 214220.

35S Boonen , E Lesaffre , J Aerssens , et al. (1996) Deficiency of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis potentially involved in age-related alterations in body composition. Gerontology 42, 330338.

38T Richart , L Thijs , T Nawrot , et al. (2011) The metabolic syndrome and carotid intima-media thickness in relation to the parathyroid hormone to 25-OH-D(3) ratio in a general population. Am J Hypertens 24, 102109.

43M Frost , B Abrahamsen , TL Nielsen , et al. (2010) Vitamin D status and PTH in young men: a cross-sectional study on associations with bone mineral density, body composition and glucose metabolism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 73, 573580.

46M Rudnicki , J Thode , T Jorgensen , et al. (1993) Effects of age, sex, season and diet on serum ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D in a random population. J Intern Med 234, 195200.

47M Kull Jr, R Kallikorm , A Tamm , et al. (2009) Seasonal variance of 25-(OH) vitamin D in the general population of Estonia, a Northern European country. BMC Public Health 9, 22.

51K Partti , M Heliovaara , O Impivaara , et al. (2010) Skeletal status in psychotic disorders: a population-based study. Psychosom Med 72, 933940.

53T Piirainen , K Laitinen & E Isolauri (2007) Impact of national fortification of fluid milks and margarines with vitamin D on dietary intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in 4-year-old children. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 123128.

55HT Viljakainen , E Saarnio , T Hytinantti , et al. (2010) Maternal vitamin D status determines bone variables in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 17491757.

57D Bougle , JP Sabatier , F Bureau , et al. (1998) Relationship between bone mineralization and aluminium in the healthy infant. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 431435.

58MC Chapuy , P Preziosi , M Maamer , et al. (1997) Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 7, 439443.

59MJ de Carvalho , JC Guilland , D Moreau , et al. (1996) Vitamin status of healthy subjects in Burgundy (France). Ann Nutr Metab 40, 2451.

62S Bramswig , A Zittermann & HK Berthold (2003) Carbamazepine does not alter biochemical parameters of bone turnover in healthy male adults. Calcif Tissue Int 73, 356360.

63B Hintzpeter , GB Mensink , W Thierfelder , et al. (2008) Vitamin D status and health correlates among German adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 10791089.

65HW Woitge , A Knothe , K Witte , et al. (2000) Circannual rhythms and interactions of vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and biochemical markers of skeletal homeostasis: a prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 15, 24432450.

67P Nicolaidou , Z Hatzistamatiou , A Papadopoulou , et al. (2006) Low vitamin D status in mother–newborn pairs in Greece. Calcif Tissue Int 78, 337342.

68PD Papapetrou , M Triantaphyllopoulou , H Karga , et al. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency in the elderly in Athens, Greece. J Bone Miner Metab 25, 198203.

69JO Kristinsson , O Valdimarsson , G Sigurdsson , et al. (1998) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in 16–20 years-old girls: lack of association. J Intern Med 243, 381388.

70G Sigurdsson , L Franzson , L Steingrimsdottir , et al. (2000) The association between parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and bone mineral density in 70-year-old Icelandic women. Osteoporos Int 11, 10311035.

72T Hill , A Collins , M O'Brien , et al. (2005) Vitamin D intake and status in Irish postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 404410.

75S Adami , O Viapiana , D Gatti , et al. (2008) Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake. Bone 42, 267270.

76V Carnevale , S Modoni , M Pileri , et al. (2001) Longitudinal evaluation of vitamin D status in healthy subjects from southern Italy: seasonal and gender differences. Osteoporos Int 12, 10261030.

78G Vezzoli , L Soldati , T Arcidiacono , et al. (2005) Urinary calcium is a determinant of bone mineral density in elderly men participating in the InCHIANTI study. Kidney Int 67, 20062014.

84S Pilz , H Dobnig , G Nijpels , et al. (2009) Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71, 666672.

86M Brustad , T Sandanger , L Aksnes , et al. (2004) Vitamin D status in a rural population of northern Norway with high fish liver consumption. Public Health Nutr 7, 783789.

87M Brustad , E Alsaker , O Engelsen , et al. (2004) Vitamin D status of middle-aged women at 65–71 degrees N in relation to dietary intake and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Public Health Nutr 7, 327335.

88G Grimnes , N Emaus , RM Joakimsen , et al. (2010) Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the Tromso Study 1994–95 and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus during 11 years of follow-up. Diabet Med 27, 11071115.

89HE Meyer , JA Falch , AJ Sogaard , et al. (2004) Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism and the association with bone mineral density in persons with Pakistani and Norwegian background living in Oslo, Norway, The Oslo Health Study. Bone 35, 412417.

91R Sapir-Koren , G Livshits & E Kobyliansky (2003) Genetic effects of estrogen receptor alpha and collagen IA1 genes on the relationships of parathyroid hormone and 25 hydroxyvitamin D with bone mineral density in Caucasian women. Metabolism 52, 11291135.

92J Almirall , M Vaqueiro , ML Bare , et al. (2010) Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and high arterial blood pressure in the elderly. Nephrol Dial Transplant 25, 503509.

96F Perez-Llamas , MJ Lopez-Contreras , MJ Blanco , et al. (2008) Seemingly paradoxical seasonal influences on vitamin D status in nursing-home elderly people from a Mediterranean area. Nutrition 24, 414420.

98A Burgaz , A Akesson , K Michaelsson , et al. (2009) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D accumulation during summer in elderly women at latitude 60 degrees N. J Intern Med 266, 476483.

99E Hagstrom , P Hellman , TE Larsson , et al. (2009) Plasma parathyroid hormone and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the community. Circulation 119, 27652771.

100L Lind , A Hanni , H Lithell , et al. (1995) Vitamin D is related to blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men. Am J Hypertens 8, 894901.

101A Melin , J Wilske , H Ringertz , et al. (2001) Seasonal variations in serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone but no detectable change in femoral neck bone density in an older population with regular outdoor exposure. J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 11901196.

102H Salminen , M Saaf , H Ringertz , et al. (2008) The role of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 status and secondary hyperparathyroidism in relation to osteoporosis in elderly Swedish women. Osteoporos Int 19, 201209.

104MA Krieg , J Cornuz , AF Jacquet , et al. (1998) Influence of anthropometric parameters and biochemical markers of bone metabolism on quantitative ultrasound of bone in the institutionalized elderly. Osteoporos Int 8, 115120.

108PS Davies , CJ Bates , TJ Cole , et al. (1999) Vitamin D: seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 195198.

110NG Forouhi , J Luan , A Cooper , et al. (2008) Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990–2000. Diabetes 57, 26192625.

111V Hegarty , P Woodhouse & KT Khaw (1994) Seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy elderly people. Age Ageing 23, 478482.

112TR Hill , AA Cotter , S Mitchell , et al. (2008) Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort. Br J Nutr 99, 10611067.

115HM Macdonald , FE McGuigan , A Stewart , et al. (2006) Large-scale population-based study shows no evidence of association between common polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD in British women. J Bone Miner Res 21, 151162.

117NJ Wareham , CD Byrne , C Carr , et al. (1997) Glucose intolerance is associated with altered calcium homeostasis: a possible link between increased serum calcium concentration and cardiovascular disease mortality. Metabolism 46, 11711177.

118R Barake , H Weiler , H Payette , et al. (2010) Vitamin D supplement consumption is required to achieve a minimal target 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of > or = 75 nmol/l in older people. J Nutr 140, 551556.

122BA Liu , M Gordon , JM Labranche , et al. (1997) Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 45, 598603.

123S Mark , K Gray-Donald , EE Delvin , et al. (2008) Low vitamin D status in a representative sample of youth from Quebec, Canada. Clin Chem 54, 12831289.

125TR Overton & TK Basu (1999) Longitudinal changes in radial bone density in older men. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 211215.

127M Sinotte , C Diorio , S Berube , et al. (2009) Genetic polymorphisms of the vitamin D binding protein and plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 634640.

129S Arunabh , S Pollack , J Yeh , et al. (2003) Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 157161.

131W Chai , G Maskarinec & RV Cooney (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mammographic density among premenopausal women in a multiethnic population. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 652654.

135AC Looker , B Dawson-Hughes , MS Calvo , et al. (2002) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 30, 771777.

136MT Hannan , DT Felson , B Dawson-Hughes , et al. (2000) Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 15, 710720.

137KM Hill , GP McCabe , LD McCabe , et al. (2010) An inflection point of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone is not evident from multi-site pooled data in children and adolescents. J Nutr 140, 19831988.

143 DHKim , SSabour , UNSagar , et al. (2008) Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in cardiovascular diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004). Am J Cardiol 102, 15401544.

144R Kremer , PP Campbell , T Reinhardt , et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and its relationship to body fat, final height, and peak bone mass in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 6773.

145JM Lappe , KM Davies , D Travers-Gustafson , et al. (2006) Vitamin D status in a rural postmenopausal female population. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 395402.

146JM Mansbach , AA Ginde , CA Camargo , et al. (2009) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? Pediatrics 124, 14041410.

147FS Mirza , ID Padhi , LG Raisz , et al. (2010) Serum sclerostin levels negatively correlate with parathyroid hormone levels and free estrogen index in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 19911997.

150 JRSabetta , PDePetrillo , RJCipriani , et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One 5, 11088.

155L Bowyer , C Catling-Paull , T Diamond , et al. (2009) Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70, 372377.

157JR Center , TV Nguyen , PN Sambrook , et al. (1999) Hormonal and biochemical parameters in the determination of osteoporosis in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 36263635.

165W Chen , SM Dawsey , YL Qiao , et al. (2007) Prospective study of serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration and risk of oesophageal and gastric cancers. Br J Cancer 97, 123128.

167MA Strand , J Perry , J Zhao , et al. (2009) Severe vitamin D-deficiency and the health of North China children. Matern Child Health J 13, 144150.

168KS Tsai , SH Hsu , JP Cheng , et al. (1997) Vitamin D stores of urban women in Taipei: effect on bone density and bone turnover, and seasonal variation. Bone 20, 371374.

177K Nakamura , M Nashimoto , Y Hori , et al. (1999) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in active women of middle and advanced age in a rural community in Japan. Nutrition 15, 870873.

178K Nakamura , M Nashimoto & M Yamamoto (2001) Are the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in winter associated with forearm bone mineral density in healthy elderly Japanese women? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71, 2529.

182 MJBolland , ABGrey , RWAmes , et al. (2006) Determinants of vitamin D status in older men living in a subtropical climate. Osteoporos Int 17, 17421748.

184MJ Bolland , AB Grey , RW Ames , et al. (2007) Age-, gender-, and weight-related effects on levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are not mediated by vitamin D binding protein. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67, 259264.

187LA Houghton , EA Szymlek-Gay , AR Gray , et al. (2010) Predictors of vitamin D status and its association with parathyroid hormone in young New Zealand children. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 6976.

192R Scragg , I Holdaway , R Jackson , et al. (1992) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and its relation to physical activity and other heart disease risk factors in the general population. Ann Epidemiol 2, 697703.

193MK Kim , M Il Kang , K Won Oh , et al. (2010) The association of serum vitamin D level with presence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged Korean subjects. Clin Endocrinol 73, 330338.

199LT Ho-Pham , ND Nguyen , TQ Lai , et al. (2011) Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone in a urban population in Vietnam. Osteoporos Int 22, 241248.

203 SHashemipour , BLarijani , HAdibi , et al. (2004) Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health 4, 38.

205F Hosseinpanah , M Rambod , A Hossein-nejad , et al. (2008) Association between vitamin D and bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab 26, 8692.

206A Kazemi , F Sharifi , N Jafari , et al. (2009) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in an Iranian population. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 18, 835839.

208AA Mirsaeid Ghazi , F Rais Zadeh , P Pezeshk , et al. (2004) Seasonal variation of serum 25 hydroxy D3 in residents of Tehran. J Endocrinol Invest 27, 676679.

211A Rabbani , SM Alavian , ME Motlagh , et al. (2009) Vitamin D insufficiency among children and adolescents living in Tehran, Iran. J Trop Pediatr 55, 189191.

212M Salek , M Hashemipour , A Aminorroaya , et al. (2008) Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in Isfahan, Iran. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 116, 352356.

214MH Gannage-Yared , R Chemali , N Yaacoub , et al. (2000) Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: relation to lifestyle and bone markers. J Bone Miner Res 15, 18561862.

217TJ Aspray , L Yan & A Prentice (2005) Parathyroid hormone and rates of bone formation are raised in perimenopausal rural Gambian women. Bone 36, 710720.

220GL Saraiva , MS Cendoroglo , LR Ramos , et al. (2005) Influence of ultraviolet radiation on the production of 25 hydroxyvitamin D in the elderly population in the city of Sao Paulo (23 degrees 34′S), Brazil. Osteoporos Int 16, 16491654.

221ME Breen , EM Laing , DB Hall , et al. (2011) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I, and bone mineral accrual during growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 8998.

223H Sadideen & R Swaminathan (2004) Effect of acute oral calcium load on serum PTH and bone resorption in young healthy subjects: an overnight study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 16611665.

225S Boonen , E Lesaffre , J Dequeker , et al. (1996) Relationship between baseline insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and femoral bone density in women aged over 70 years: potential implications for the prevention of age-related bone loss. J Am Geriatr Soc 44, 13011306.

226A Kilkkinen , P Knekt , A Aro , et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and the risk of cardiovascular disease death. Am J Epidemiol 170, 10321039.

230TR Hill , MM O'Brien , C Lamberg-Allardt , et al. (2006) Vitamin D status of 51–75-year-old Irish women: its determinants and impact on biochemical indices of bone turnover. Public Health Nutr 9, 225233.

231D McCarthy , A Collins , M O'Brien , et al. (2006) Vitamin D intake and status in Irish elderly women and adolescent girls. Ir J Med Sci 175, 1420.

233E Hypponen , D Berry , M Cortina-Borja , et al. (2010) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and pre-clinical alterations in inflammatory and hemostatic markers: a cross sectional analysis in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. PLoS One 5, 10801.

234E Hypponen , BJ Boucher , DJ Berry , et al. (2008) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Diabetes 57, 298305.

236HM Macdonald , A Mavroeidi , RJ Barr , et al. (2008) Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the UK in relation to bone health, overweight, sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D. Bone 42, 9961003.

237R Barake , H Weiler , H Payette , et al. (2010) Vitamin D status in healthy free-living elderly men and women living in Quebec, Canada. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 2530.

238DP Kiel , RH Myers , LA Cupples , et al. (1997) The BsmI vitamin D receptor restriction fragment length polymorphism (bb) influences the effect of calcium intake on bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 12, 10491057.

239CA Camargo Jr, T Ingham , K Wickens , et al. (2011) Cord-blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of respiratory infection, wheezing, and asthma. Pediatrics 127, 180187.

244KYZ Forrest & WL Stuhldreher (2011) Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res 31, 4854.

245HG Skinner & GG Schwartz (2009) The relation of serum parathyroid hormone and serum calcium to serum levels of prostate-specific antigen: a population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 28692873.

250V Gilsanz , A Kremer , AO Mo , et al. (2010) Vitamin D status and its relation to muscle mass and muscle fat in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 15951601.

253G Grimnes , B Almaas , AE Eggen , et al. (2010) Effect of smoking on the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D depends on the assay employed. Eur J Endocrinol 163, 339348.

256PJ Buizert , NM van Schoor , P Lips , et al. (2009) Lipid levels: a link between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 24, 11031109.

260IS Wicherts , NM van Schoor , AJ Boeke , et al. (2007) Vitamin D status predicts physical performance and its decline in older persons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 20582065.

261GE Hicks , M Shardell , RR Miller , et al. (2008) Associations between vitamin D status and pain in older adults: the Invecchiare in Chianti study. J Am Geriatr Soc 56, 785791.

262DK Houston , M Cesari , L Ferrucci , et al. (2007) Association between vitamin D status and physical performance: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62, 440446.

263F Lauretani , S Bandinelli , CR Russo , et al. (2006) Correlates of bone quality in older persons. Bone 39, 915921.

265HA Bischoff-Ferrari , DP Kiel , B Dawson-Hughes , et al. (2009) Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to BMD among U.S. adults. J Bone Miner Res 24, 935942.

266PN Black & R Scragg (2005) Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and pulmonary function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chest 128, 37923798.

267M Chonchol & R Scragg (2007) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, insulin resistance, and kidney function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Kidney Int 71, 134139.

268IH de Boer , GN Ioannou , B Kestenbaum , et al. (2007) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and albuminuria in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am J Kidney Dis 50, 6977.

271DM Freedman , AC Looker , CC Abnet , et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cancer mortality in the NHANES III study (1988–2006). Cancer Res 70, 85878597.

274J Kendrick , G Targher , G Smits , et al. (2009) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Atherosclerosis 205, 255260.

277S Saintonge , H Bang & LM Gerber (2009) Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Pediatrics 123, 797803.

278R Scragg & CA Camargo Jr (2008) Frequency of leisure-time physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the US population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 168, 577591.

280R Scragg , M Sowers & C Bell (2007) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Hypertens 20, 713719.

282AM Tolppanen , DM Williams & DA Lawlor (2011) The association of serum ionized calcium and vitamin D with adult cognitive performance. Epidemiology 22, 113117.

289E Liu , JB Meigs , AG Pittas , et al. (2009) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with markers of the insulin resistant phenotype in nondiabetic adults. J Nutr 139, 329334.

290MK Shea , EJ Benjamin , J Dupuis , et al. (2009) Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 458464.

293SK Jassal , M Chonchol , D von Muhlen , et al. (2010) Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo study. Am J Med 123, 11141120.

294EE Delvin , M Lambert , E Levy , et al. (2010) Vitamin D status is modestly associated with glycemia and indicators of lipid metabolism in French-Canadian children and adolescents. J Nutr 140, 987991.

296D Maggio , A Cherubini , F Lauretani , et al. (2005) 25(OH)D Serum levels decline with age earlier in women than in men and less efficiently prevent compensatory hyperparathyroidism in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60, 14141419.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score