1 Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, et al. (2004) Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27, 1047–1053.
2 Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, et al. (2010) Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet 375, 2215–2222.
3 Seshasai SR, Kaptoge S, Thompson A, et al. (2011) Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death. N Engl J Med 364, 829–841.
4 Colditz GA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (1992) Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 1018–1023.
5 Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346, 393–403.
6 Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, et al. (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362–366.
7 Ludwig DS (2002) The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287, 2414–2423.
8 Willett W, Manson J & Liu S (2002) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 274S–280S.
9 Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545–550.
10 Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472–477.
11 Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. (2000) Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 921–930.
12 Stevens J, Ahn K, Juhaeri , et al. (2002) Dietary fiber intake and glycemic index and incidence of diabetes in African-American and white adults: the ARIC study. Diabetes Care 25, 1715–1721.
13 Hodge AM, English DR, O'Dea K, et al. (2004) Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27, 2701–2706.
14 Schulze MB, Liu S, Rimm EB, et al. (2004) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 348–356.
15 Barclay AW, Flood VM, Rochtchina E, et al. (2007) Glycemic index, dietary fiber, and risk of type 2 diabetes in a cohort of older Australians. Diabetes Care 30, 2811–2813.
16 Krishnan S, Rosenberg L, Singer M, et al. (2007) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cereal fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in US black women. Arch Intern Med 167, 2304–2309.
17 Mosdol A, Witte DR, Frost G, et al. (2007) Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk of diabetes in the Whitehall II study. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 988–994.
18 Villegas R, Liu S, Gao YT, et al. (2007) Prospective study of dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Chinese women. Arch Intern Med 167, 2310–2316.
19 Sahyoun NR, Anderson AL, Tylavsky FA, et al. (2008) Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 126–131.
20 Hopping BN, Erber E, Grandinetti A, et al. (2010) Dietary fiber, magnesium, and glycemic load alter risk of type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. J Nutr 140, 68–74.
21 Sluijs I, van der Schouw YT, van der AD, et al. (2010) Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 905–911.
22 Barclay AW, Petocz P, McMillan-Price J, et al. (2008) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and chronic disease risk – a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 627–637.
23 Higgins JP & Thompson SG (2002) Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21, 1539–1558.
24 DerSimonian R & Laird N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7, 177–188.
25 Begg CB & Mazumdar M (1994) Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50, 1088–1101.
26 Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, et al. (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315, 629–634.
27 Zhang C, Liu S, Solomon CG, et al. (2006) Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 29, 2223–2230.
28 Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (2001) Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345, 790–797.
29 Halton TL, Liu S, Manson JE, et al. (2008) Low-carbohydrate-diet score and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 339–346.
30 Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, et al. (2007) Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 167, 956–965.
31 Du H, van der AD, van Bakel MM, et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 1280–1288.
32 Racette SB, Evans EM, Weiss EP, et al. (2006) Abdominal adiposity is a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than fitness among 50–95 year olds. Diabetes Care 29, 673–678.
33 Vazquez G, Duval S, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. (2007) Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiol Rev 29, 115–128.
34 Thomas DE & Elliott EJ (2010) The use of low-glycaemic index diets in diabetes control. Br J Nutr 104, 797–802.
35 UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group (1998) Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 352, 854–865.
36 Goodyear LJ & Kahn BB (1998) Exercise, glucose transport, and insulin sensitivity. Annu Rev Med 49, 235–261.
37 Jeon CY, Lokken RP, Hu FB, et al. (2007) Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 30, 744–752.