This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1N Salem Jr, B Litman , HY Kim , et al. (2001) Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 36, 945–959.
3SM Innis (2003) Perinatal biochemistry and physiology of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Pediatr 143, S1–S8.
6J Drover , DR Hoffman , YS Castaneda , et al. (2009) Three randomized controlled trials of early long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on means-end problem solving in 9-month-olds. Child Dev 80, 1376–1384.
7P Willatts , JS Forsyth , MK DiModugno , et al. (1998) Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age. Lancet 352, 688–691.
8P Willatts , JS Forsyth , MK DiModugno , et al. (1998) Influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on infant cognitive function. Lipids 33, 973–980.
9DT Scott , JS Janowsky , RE Carroll , et al. (1998) Formula supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: are there developmental benefits? Pediatrics 102, E59.
10M Makrides , M Neumann , K Simmer , et al. (1995) Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet 345, 1463–1468.
14EE Birch , S Garfield , DR Hoffman , et al. (2000) A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 42, 174–181.
16N Auestad , DT Scott , JS Janowsky , et al. (2003) Visual, cognitive, and language assessments at 39 months: a follow-up study of children fed formulas containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to 1 year of age. Pediatrics 112, e177–e183.
17N Auestad , R Halter , RT Hall , et al. (2001) Growth and development in term infants fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a double-masked, randomized, parallel, prospective, multivariate study. Pediatrics 108, 372–381.
18C Agostoni , S Trojan , R Bellu , et al. (1997) Developmental quotient at 24 months and fatty acid composition of diet in early infants: a follow up study. Arch Dis Child 76, 421–424.
19C Agostoni , E Riva , S Trojan , et al. (1995) Docosahexaenoic acid status and developmental quotient of healthy term infants. Lancet 346, 638.
20C Agostoni , GV Zuccotti , G Radaelli , et al. (2009) Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and time at achievement of gross motor milestones in healthy infants: a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 64–70.
21N Auestad , MB Montalto , RT Hall , et al. (1997) Visual acuity, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, and growth in term infants fed formulas with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for one year. Ross Pediatric Lipid Study. Pediatr Res 41, 1–10.
23EE Birch , SE Carlson , DR Hoffman , et al. (2010) The DIAMOND (DHA Intake And Measurement Of Neural Development) Study: a double-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial of the maturation of infant visual acuity as a function of the dietary level of docosahexaenoic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 848–859.
24H Bouwstra , DA Dijck-Brouwer , G Boehm , et al. (2005) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and neurological developmental outcome at 18 months in healthy term infants. Acta Paediatr 94, 26–32.
25SE Carlson , AJ Ford , SH Werkman , et al. (1996) Visual acuity and fatty acid status of term infants fed human milk and formulas with and without docosahexaenoate and arachidonate from egg yolk lecithin. Pediatr Res 39, 882–888.
27A Lucas , M Stafford , R Morley , et al. (1999) Efficacy and safety of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of infant-formula milk: a randomised trial. Lancet 354, 1948–1954.
28A Beyerlein , M Hadders-Algra , K Kennedy , et al. (2010) Infant formula supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has no effect on Bayley developmental scores at 18 months of age-IPD meta-analysis of 4 large clinical trials. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 50, 79–84.
29IB Helland , L Smith , K Saarem , et al. (2003) Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 111, e39–e44.
30RA Gibson , MA Neumann & M Makrides (1997) Effect of increasing breast milk docosahexaenoic acid on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids and neural indices of exclusively breast fed infants. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 578–584.
31L Lauritzen , MH Jorgensen , SF Olsen , et al. (2005) Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants. Reprod Nutr Dev 45, 535–547.
33K Simmer & SK Patole (2008) Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. The Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews .
34DR Hoffman , JA Boettcher & DA Diersen-Schade (2009) Toward optimizing vision and cognition in term infants by dietary docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 151–158.
37SJ Meldrum , N D'Vaz , J Dunstan , et al. (2011) The Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS): design and research protocol of a double-blind, randomised controlled n-3 LCPUFA intervention trial in term infants. Contemp Clin Trials 32, 771–778.
38AA Litonjua , VJ Carey , HA Burge , et al. (1998) Parental history and the risk for childhood asthma. Does mother confer more risk than father? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158, 176–181.
39K Fekete , T Marosvolgyi , V Jakobik , et al. (2009) Methods of assessment of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in humans: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 2070S–2084S.
41JA Dunstan , J Roper , L Mitoulas , et al. (2004) The effect of supplementation with fish oil during pregnancy on breast milk immunoglobulin A, soluble CD14, cytokine levels and fatty acid composition. Clin Exp Allergy 34, 1237–1242.
42M Makrides , MA Neumann , K Simmer , et al. (1995) Erythrocyte fatty acids of term infants fed either breast milk, standard formula, or formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturates. Lipids 30, 941–948.
46M Makrides , MA Neumann , K Simmer , et al. (1999) Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids do not influence growth of term infants: a randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics 104, 468–475.
47JA Dunstan , LR Mitoulas , G Dixon , et al. (2007) The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Res 62, 689–694.
48SW Goodwyn & LP Acredolo (1998) Encouraging symbolic gestures: a new perspective on the relationship between gesture and speech. New Dir Child Dev 61–73.
49SM Innis , J Gilley & J Werker (2001) Are human milk long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids related to visual and neural development in breast-fed term infants? J Pediatr 139, 532–538.
50B Hallahan & MR Garland (2005) Essential fatty acids and mental health. Br J Psychiatry 186, 275–277.
51M Peet & C Stokes (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Drugs 65, 1051–1059.
52JT Neisworth & SJ Bagnato (2004) The mismeasure of young children: the authentic assessment alternative. Infant Young Child 17, 198–212.
55Y Chida , M Hamer & A Steptoe (2008) A bidirectional relationship between psychosocial factors and atopic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychosom Med 70, 102–116.
60JA Cramer , RD Scheyer & RH Mattson (1990) Compliance declines between clinic visits. Arch Intern Med 150, 1509–1510.
61P Bacchetti (2002) Peer review of statistics in medical research: the other problem. BMJ 324, 1271–1273.