Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effects of weight loss on a low-carbohydrate diet on flow-mediated dilatation, adhesion molecules and adiponectin

  • Jennifer B. Keogh (a1), Grant D. Brinkworth (a1) and Peter M. Clifton (a1)
Abstract

Our aim was to determine whether short-term weight loss on a low-carbohydrate/low-saturated fat diet improved endothelial function compared with a conventional high-carbohydrate diet, as this diet is expected to lower both blood glucose and LDL-cholesterol. In a randomised parallel design of two energy-restricted diets in an outpatient setting, thirty-six subjects (BMI 33 (sem 4) kg/m2) were randomised to a low- or high-carbohydrate diet both low in saturated fat. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, adiponectin and adhesion molecules were measured at baseline, during weight loss and at 52 weeks. FMD did not change with either diet (5·2 (sem 0·6) to 5·5 (sem 0·6) %) despite weight loss of 5 % and significant reductions in glucose and insulin and LDL-cholesterol and was not different after sustained weight loss of 5 % at 52 weeks. Adiponectin fell by 6 % at 12 weeks (P = 0·1) with weight loss but rose by 17 % at 12 months (P < 0·05) with 5 % weight loss. There were no effects of diet. In contradistinction, adhesion molecules fell at 12 weeks, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by 14 % and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 by 13 % (both P < 0·05). There were correlations between change in adiponectin at 12 months and change in HDL (r 0·778, P < 0·01) and glucose (r − 0·563, P = 0·057). In summary, weight loss does not improve FMD. Novel cardiovascular risk factors improved at 12 weeks but the improvement in adiponectin was delayed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of weight loss on a low-carbohydrate diet on flow-mediated dilatation, adhesion molecules and adiponectin
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of weight loss on a low-carbohydrate diet on flow-mediated dilatation, adhesion molecules and adiponectin
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of weight loss on a low-carbohydrate diet on flow-mediated dilatation, adhesion molecules and adiponectin
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Ms Jennifer Keogh, fax +61 (0)8 83038899, email jennifer.keogh@csiro.au
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M Hashimoto , M Akishita , M Eto , K Kozaki , J Ako , N Sugimoto , M Yoshizumi , K Toba & Y Ouchi (1998) The impairment of flow-mediated vasodilatation in obese men with visceral fat accumulation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 477484.

R Bergholm , M Tiikkainen , S Vehkavaara , M Tamminen , K Teramo , A Rissanen & H Yki-Jarvinen (2003) Lowering of LDL cholesterol rather than moderate weight loss improves endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in obese women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 16671672.

M Raitakari , T Ilvonen , M Ahotupa , T Lehtimaki , A Harmoinen , P Suominen , J Elo , J Hartiala & OT Raitakari (2004) Weight reduction with very-low-caloric diet and endothelial function in overweight adults: role of plasma glucose. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24, 124128.

F Fuentes , J Lopez-Miranda , E Sanchez , (2001) Mediterranean and low-fat diets improve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic men. Ann Intern Med 134, 11151119.

E Ros , I Nunez , A Perez-Heras , M Serra , R Gilabert , E Casals & R Deulofeu (2004) A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial. Circulation 109, 16091614.

NM de Roos , ML Bots , E Siebelink , E Schouten & MB Katan (2001) Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat. Br J Nutr 86, 181188.

JB Keogh , JA Grieger , M Noakes & PM Clifton (2005) Flow-mediated dilatation is impaired by a high-saturated fat diet but not by a high-carbohydrate diet. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25, 12741279.

A Poobalan , L Aucott , WC Smith , A Avenell , R Jung , J Broom & AM Grant (2004) Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term lipid outcomes – a systematic review. Obes Rev 5, 4350.

C Ferri , G Desideri , M Valenti , C Bellini , M Pasin , A Santucci & G De Mattia (1999) Early upregulation of endothelial adhesion molecules in obese hypertensive men. Hypertension 34, 568573.

MA Miller & FP Cappuccio (2006) Cellular adhesion molecules and their relationship with measures of obesity and metabolic syndrome in a multiethnic population. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 11761182.

WJ Bemelmans , JD Lefrandt , EJ Feskens , J Broer , JW Tervaert , JF May & AJ Smit (2002) Change in saturated fat intake is associated with progression of carotid and femoral intima-media thickness, and with levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Atherosclerosis 163, 113120.

F Perez-Jimenez , P Castro , J Lopez-Miranda , (1999) Circulating levels of endothelial function are modulated by dietary monounsaturated fat. Atherosclerosis 145, 351358.

O Ukkola & M Santaniemi (2002) Adiponectin: a link between excess adiposity and associated comorbidities? J Mol Med 80, 696702.

M Bluher , M Fasshauer , A Tonjes , J Kratzsch , MR Schon & R Paschke (2005) Association of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, interleukin-10 and adiponectin plasma concentrations with measures of obesity, insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 113, 534537.

HP Kopp , K Krzyzanowska , M Mohlig , J Spranger , AF Pfeiffer & G Schernthaner (2005) Effects of marked weight loss on plasma levels of adiponectin, markers of chronic subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance in morbidly obese women. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 766771.

LU Monzillo , O Hamdy , ES Horton , (2003) Effect of lifestyle modification on adipokine levels in obese subjects with insulin resistance. Obes Res 11, 10481054.

A Dvorakova-Lorenzova , P Suchanek , PJ Havel , P Stavek , L Karasova , Z Valenta , J Tintera & R Poledne (2006) The decrease in C-reactive protein concentration after diet and physical activity induced weight reduction is associated with changes in plasma lipids, but not interleukin-6 or adiponectin. Metabolism 55, 359365.

F Abbasi , JW Chu , C Lamendola , T McLaughlin , J Hayden , GM Reaven & PD Reaven (2004) Discrimination between obesity and insulin resistance in the relationship with adiponectin. Diabetes 53, 585590.

A Hodge , AJ Patterson , WJ Brown , P Ireland & G Giles (2000) The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust N Z J Public Health 24, 576583.

TJ Anderson , A Uehata , MD Gerhard , (1995) Close relation of endothelial function in the human coronary and peripheral circulations. J Am Coll Cardiol 26, 12351241.

MJ van Trijp , JW Beulens , WJ Bos , CS Uiterwaal , DE Grobbee , HF Hendriks & ML Bots (2005) Alcohol consumption and augmentation index in healthy young men: the ARYA study. Am J Hypertens 18, 792796.

PM Clifton , JB Keogh , PR Foster & M Noakes (2005) Effect of weight loss on inflammatory and endothelial markers and FMD using two low-fat diets. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 14451451.

RD Brook , RL Bard , L Glazewski , C Kehrer , PF Bodary , DL Eitzman & S Rajagopalan (2004) Effect of short-term weight loss on the metabolic syndrome and conduit vascular endothelial function in overweight adults. Am J Cardiol 93, 10121016.

O Hamdy , S Ledbury , C Mullooly , (2003) Lifestyle modification improves endothelial function in obese subjects with the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Care 26, 21192125.

IL Williams , PJ Chowienczyk , SB Wheatcroft , AG Patel , RA Sherwood , A Momin , AM Shah & MT Kearney (2005) Endothelial function and weight loss in obese humans. Obes Surg 15, 10551060.

EJ Benjamin , MG Larson , MJ Keyes , (2004) Clinical correlates and heritability of flow-mediated dilation in the community: the Framingham Study. Circulation 109, 613619.

HO Steinberg , H Chaker , R Leaming , (1996) Obesity/insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. J Clin Invest 97, 26012610.

JA Suwaidi , ST Higano , DRJ Holmes , (2001) Obesity is independently associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction in patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 37, 15231528.

AM Nevill , AD Stewart , T Olds & R Holder (2006) Relationship between adiposity and body size reveals limitations of BMI. Am J Phys Anthropol 129, 151156.

F Abbasi , C Lamendola , T McLaughlin , J Hayden , GM Reaven & PD Reaven (2004) Plasma adiponectin concentrations do not increase in association with moderate weight loss in insulin-resistant, obese women. Metabolism 53, 280283.

AE Pontiroli , P Pizzocri , D Koprivec , P Vedani , M Marchi , C Arcelloni , R Paroni , K Esposito & D Giugliano (2004) Body weight and glucose metabolism have a different effect on circulating levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and endothelin-1 in humans. Eur J Endocrinol 150, 195200.

P Ziccardi , F Nappo , G Giugliano , K Esposito , R Marfella , M Cioffi , F D'Andrea , AM Molinari & D Giugliano (2002) Reduction of inflammatory cytokine concentrations and improvement of endothelial functions in obese women after weight loss over one year. Circulation 105, 804809.

LA Vazquez , F Pazos , JR Berrazueta , C Fernandez-Escalante , MT Garcia-Unzueta , J Freijanes & JA Amado (2005) Effects of changes in body weight and insulin resistance on inflammation and endothelial function in morbid obesity after bariatric surgery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 316322.

M Shechter , D Freimark , R Beigel , S Matetzky & MS Feinberg (2006) Short-term sibutramine therapy is associated with weight loss and improved endothelial function in obese patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 97, 16501653.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 49 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 95 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.