Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin in a milk-based formulation of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi;Fructus barbarum L.)

  • Iris F. F. Benzie (a1), Wai Y. Chung (a1), Junkuan Wang (a2), Myriam Richelle (a2) and Peter Bucheli (a3)...
Abstract

The carotenoid zeaxanthin is concentrated within the macula. Increased macular zeaxanthin is suggested to lower the risk of age-related macular degeneration. The small red berry, wolfberry (Fructus barbarum L.; Gou Qi Zi and Kei Tze), is one of the richest natural sources of zeaxanthin. However, carotenoid bioavailability is low, and food-based products with enhanced bioavailability are of interest. The present study investigated zeaxanthin bioavailability from three wolfberry formulations. Berries were homogenised in hot (80°C) water, warm (40°C) skimmed milk and hot (80°C) skimmed milk, with freeze drying of each preparation into a powdered form. A zeaxanthin-standardised dose (15mg) of each was consumed, in randomised order, together with a standardised breakfast by twelve healthy, consenting subjects in a cross-over trial, with a 3–5-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were taken via a venous cannula immediately before (fasting) and 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 10h post-ingestion. Zeaxanthin concentration in the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma was measured by HPLC. Results showed that triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein zeaxanthin peaked at 6h post-ingestion for all formulations. Zeaxanthin bioavailability from the hot milk formulation was significantly higher (p<0·001) than from the others. Mean area under the curve (n 12) results were 9·73 (sem 2·45), 3·24 (sem 0·72) and 3·14 (sem 1·09) nmol×h/l for the hot milk, warm milk and hot water formulations, respectively. Results showed clearly that homogenisation of wolfberry in hot skimmed milk results in a formulation that has a 3-fold enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin compared with both the ‘classical’ hot water and warm skimmed milk treatment of the berries.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin in a milk-based formulation of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi;Fructus barbarum L.)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin in a milk-based formulation of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi;Fructus barbarum L.)
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Enhanced bioavailability of zeaxanthin in a milk-based formulation of wolfberry (Gou Qi Zi;Fructus barbarum L.)
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author Professor Iris Benzie, fax + 852 23624365, email iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

CP Aebischer , J Schierle & W Schüep Simultaneous determination of retinol, tocopherols, carotene, lycopene, and xanthophylls in plasma by means of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Methods Enzymol (1999) 299 348362.

H Bartlett & F Eperjesi Age-related macular degeneration and nutritional supplementation: a review of randomized controlled trials. Ophthal Physiol Opt (2003) 23 383399.

S Beatty , M Boulton , D Henson , HH Koh & IJ Murray Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol (1999) 83 867877.

S Beatty , H Koh , D Henson & M Boulton The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular. Surv Ophthalmol (2000) 45 115134.

IFF Benzie Evolution of dietary antioxidants. J Compar Biochem Physiol (2003) 136 113126.

RA Bone , JT Landrum , Z Dixon , Y Chen & CM Llerena Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects. Exp Eye Res (2000) 71 239245.

JH Dwyer , MJ Paul-Labrador , J Fan , AM Shircore , CNB Merz & KM Dwyer Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (2004) 24 313319.

S Gonzalez , S Astner , W An , D Goukassian & MA Pathak Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin decreases ultraviolet B-induced epidermal hyperproliferation and acute inflammation in hairless mice. J Invest Dermatol (2003) 121 399405.

JA Humphries & F Khachik Distribution of lutein, zeaxanthin, and related geometrical isomers in fruit, vegetables, wheat and pasta products. J Agric Food Chem (2003) 51 13221327.

L Hyman & R Neborsky Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: an update. Curr Opin Ophthalmol (2002) 13 171175.

NI Krinsky , JT Landrum & RA Bone Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Ann Rev Nutr (2003) 23 171201.

KW Lam & P But The content of zeaxanthin in Gou Qi Zi, a potential health benefit to improve visual acuity. Food Chem (1999) 67 173176.

JT Landrum & RA Bone Lutein, zeaxanthin, and the macular pigment. Arch Biochem Biophys (2001) 385 2840.

JT Landrum , RA Bone , H Joa , H Joa , MD Kilburn , LL Moore & KE Sprague A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement. Exp Eye Res (1997) 65 5762.

JT Landrum , RA Bone , LL Moore & CM Gomez Analysis of zeaxanthin distribution within individual human retinas. Methods Enzymol (1999) 299 457467.

K Miwa , A Inazu , J Kobayashi , T Higashikata ,A Nohara , M Kawashiri , S Katsuda , M Takata , J Koizumi & H Mabuchi ATPbinding cassette transporter G8 M429V polymorphism as a novel genetic marker of higher cholesterol absorption in hypercholesterolaemic Japanese subjects. Clin Sci (2005) 109 183188.

SM Moeller , PF Jacques & JB Blumberg The potential role of dietary xanthophylls in cataract and age-related macular degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr (2000) 19, Suppl.5, 522S527S.

M Mozaffarieh , S Sacu & A Wedrich The role of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, in protecting against age-related macular degeneration: a review based on controversial evidence. Nutr J (2003) 2 2031.

B Olmedilla , F Granado , I Bianco , M Vaquere & C Cajigal Lutein in patients with cataracts and age-related macular degeneration: a long-term supplementation study. J Sci Food Agric (2001) 81 904909.

MC Polidori , A Cherubini , W Stahl , U Senin , H Sies & P Mecocci Plasma carotenoid and malondialdehyde levels in ischemic stroke patients: relationship to early outcome. Free Radic Res (2002) 36 265268.

P Puddu , E Cravero , GM Puddu & A Muscari Genes and atherosclerosis: at the origin of the predisposition. Int J Clin Pract (2005) 59 462472.

E Reboul , L Abou , C Mikail , O Gghiringhelli , M Andre ,H Portugal , D Jourdheuil-Rahmani , MJ Amiot , D Lairou & P Borel Lutein transport by Caco-2 TC-7 cells occurs partly by a facilitated process involving the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Biochem J (2005) 387 455461.

O Sommerburg , JE Keunen , AC Bird & FJ van Kuijk Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes. Br J Ophthalmol (1998) 82 907910.

TJW Stokkermans Treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Clin Eye Vis Care (2000) 12 1535.

AHM Terpstra Isolation of serum chylomicrons prior to density gradient ultracentrifugation of other serum lipoprotein classes. Anal Biochem (1985) 150 221227.

WM Verschuren , DR Jacobs , BP Bloemberg ,. Serum total cholesterol and long term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. Twenty-five-year follow-up of the Seven Countries Study. JAMA (1995) 274 131136.

P Weller & DE Breithaupt Identification and quatification of zeaxanthin esters in plants using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem (2003) 51 70447049.

PS Woll , NQ Hanson , VL Arends & MY Tsai Effect of two common polymorphisms in the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 gene on HDL-cholesterol concentration. Clin Chem (2005) 51 907909.

L Zhou , I Leung , MOM Tso & KW Lam The identification of dipalmityl zeaxanthin as the major carotenoid in Gou Qi Zi by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther (1999) 15 557565.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: