Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis

  • Mercedes Gil-Campos (a1), Concepción María Aguilera (a2), Ramón Cañete (a1) and Angel Gil (a2)
Abstract

Regulation of energy homeostasis requires precise coordination between peripheral nutrient-sensing molecules and central regulatory networks. Ghrelin is a twenty-eight-amino acid orexigenic peptide acylated at the serine 3 position mainly with an n-octanoic acid, which is produced mainly in the stomach. It is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptors. Since plasma ghrelin levels are strictly dependent on recent food intake, this hormone plays an essential role in appetite and meal initiation. In addition, ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The ghrelin gene is composed of four exons and three introns and renders a diversity of orexigenic peptides as well as des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin, which exhibit anorexigenic properties. Ghrelin stimulates the synthesis of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus neurons of the hypothalamus and hindbrain, which in turn enhance food intake. Ghrelin-expressing neurons modulate the action of both orexigenic NPY/AgRP and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons. AMP-activated protein kinase is activated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus, which contributes to lower intracellular long-chain fatty acids, and this appears to be the molecular signal for the expression of NPY and AgRP. Recent data suggest that ghrelin has an important role in the regulation of leptin and insulin secretion and vice versa. The present paper updates the effects of ghrelin on the control of energy homeostasis and reviews the molecular mechanisms of ghrelin synthesis, as well as interaction with GHS receptors and signalling. Relationships with leptin and insulin in the regulation of energy homeostasis are addressed.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Angel Gil, fax +34 958 248960, email agil@ugr.es
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score