This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1GS Firestein (2003) Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis. Nature 423, 356–361.
3PC Calder (2008) PUFA, inflammatory processes and rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 409–418.
4SE Sweeney & GS Firestein (2004) Rheumatoid arthritis: regulation of synovial inflammation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36, 372–378.
5J Bowes & A Barton (2008) Recent advances in the genetics of RA susceptibility. Rheumatol 47, 399–402.
7SL Tilley , TM Coffman & BH Koller (2001) Mixed messages: modulation of inflammation and immune responses by prostaglandins and thromboxanes. J Clin Invest 108, 15–23.
9H Sano , T Hla , JAM Maier , (1992) In vivo cyclooxygenase expression in synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and rats with adjuvant and streptococcal cell wall arthritis. J Clin Invest 89, 97–108.
11TH Lee , RL Hoover , JD Williams , (1985) Effects of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on in vitro neutrophil and monocyte leukotriene generation and neutrophil function. N Eng J Med 312, 1217–1224.
12S Endres , R Ghorbani , VE Kelley , (1989) The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. N Eng J Med 320, 265–271.
13RI Sperling , AI Benincaso , CT Knoell , (1993) Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit phosphoinositide formation and chemotaxis in neutrophils. J Clin Invest 91, 651–660.
16P Yaqoob , HS Pala , M Cortina-Borja , EA Newsholme & PC Calder (2000) Encapsulated fish oil enriched in α-tocopherol alters plasma phospholipid and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions but not mononuclear cell functions. Eur J Clin Invest 30, 260–274.
17DA Healy , FA Wallace , EA Miles , PC Calder & P Newsholme (2000) The effect of low to moderate amounts of dietary fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function. Lipids 35, 763–768.
22J Faber , M Berkhout , AP Vos , (2011) Supplementation with a fish oil-enriched, high-protein medical food leads to rapid incorporation of EPA into white blood cells and modulates immune responses within one week in healthy men and women. J Nutr 141, 964–970.
23PC Calder (2008) The relationship between the fatty acid composition of immune cells and their function. Prostagland Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids 79, 101–108.
27JM Kremer , W Jubiz , A Michalek , (1987) Fish-oil supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Int Med 106, 497–503.
28JM Kremer , DA Lawrence , W Jubiz , (1990) Dietary fish oil and olive oil supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arth Rheum 33, 810–820.
29RI Sperling , M Weinblatt , JL Robin , (1987) Effects of dietary supplementation with marine fish oil on leukocyte lipid mediator generation and function in rheumatoid arthritis. Arth Rheum 30, 988–997.
31H van der Tempel , JE Tullekan , PC Limburg , FAJ Muskiet & MH van Rijswijk (1990) Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 49, 76–80.
33DW Goldman , WC Pickett & EJ Goetzl (1983) Human neutrophil chemotactic and degranulating activities of leukotriene B5 (LTB5) derived from eicosapentaenoic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 117, 282–288.
35D Bagga , L Wang , R Farias-Eisner , JA Glaspy & ST Reddy (2003) Differential effects of prostaglandin derived from ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on COX-2 expression and IL-6 secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 1751–1756.
36SP Tull , CM Yates , BH Maskrey , (2009) Omega-3 Fatty acids and inflammation: novel interactions reveal a new step in neutrophil recruitment. PLoS Biol 7, e1000177.
38CN Serhan , CB Clish , J Brannon , (2000) Novel functional sets of lipid-derived mediators with antinflammatory actions generated from omega-3 fatty acids via cyclooxygenase 2-nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and transcellular processing. J Exp Med 192, 1197–1204.
39CN Serhan , S Hong , K Gronert , (2002) Resolvins: a family of bioactive products of omega-3 fatty acid transformation circuits initiated by aspirin treatment that counter pro-inflammation signals. J Exp Med 196, 1025–1037.
40S Hong , K Gronert , P Devchand , R-L Moussignac & CN Serhan (2003) Novel docosatrienes and 17S-resolvins generated from docosahexaenoic acid in murine brain, human blood and glial cells: autocoids in anti-inflammation. J Biol Chem 278, 14677–14687.
41VL Marcheselli , S Hong , WJ Lukiw & X Hua Tian (2003) Novel docosanoids inhibit brain ischemia reperfusion-mediated leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expression. J Biol Chem 278, 43807–43817.
42R De Caterina , MI Cybulsky , SK Clinton , MA Gimbrone & P Libby (1994) The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoate reduces cytokine-induced expression of proatherogenic and proinflammatory proteins in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb 14, 1829–1836.
43B Khalfoun , F Thibault , H Watier , (1997) Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids inhibit in vitro human endothelial cell production of interleukin-6. Adv Exp Biol Med 400, 589–597.
44CJ Lo , KC Chiu , M Fu , R Lo & S Helton (1999) Fish oil decreases macrophage tumor necrosis factor gene transcription by altering the NF kappa B activity. J Surg Res 82, 216–221.
45TA Babcock , T Novak , E Ong , (2002) Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α production by ω-3 fatty acid is associated with differential cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and is independent of interleukin-10. J Surg Res 107, 135–139.
47Y Zhao , S Joshi-Barve , S Barve , LH Chen , S Barve & LH Chen (2004) Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression by preventing NF-kappaB activation. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 71–78.
49FA Wallace , EA Miles & PC Calder (2003) Comparison of the effects of linseed oil and different doses of fish oil on mononuclear cell function in healthy human subjects. Brit J Nutr 89, 679–689.
50AL Cooper , L Gibbons , MA Horan , RA Little & NJ Rothwell (1993) Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on fever and cytokine production in human volunteers. Clin Nutr 12, 321–328.
51R Abbate , AM Gori , F Martini , (1996) n-3 PUFA supplementation, monocyte PCA expression and interleukin-6 production. Prostagland Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids 54, 439–444.
52V Gallai , P Sarchielli , A Trequattrini , (1995) Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Neuroimmunol 56, 143–153.
53F Thies , EA Miles , G Nebe-von-Caron , (2001) Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 1183–1193.
55EA Miles , T Banerjee , MM Dooper , L M'Rabet , YM Graus & PC Calder (2004) The influence of different combinations of gamma-linolenic acid, stearidonic acid and EPA on immune function in healthy young male subjects. Brit J Nutr 91, 893–903.
56WL Blok , JP Deslypere , PN Demacker , (1997) Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in healthy volunteers fed various doses of fish oil for 1 year. Eur J Clin Invest 27, 1003–1008.
57J Molvig , F Pociot , H Worsaae , (1991) Dietary supplementation with omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases mononuclear cell proliferation and interleukin-1 beta content but not monokine secretion in healthy and insulin-dependent diabetic individuals. Scand J Immunol 34, 399–410.
59GT Esperson , N Grunnet , HH Lervang , (1992) Decreased interleukin-1 beta levels in plasma from rheumatoid arthritis patients after dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Clin Rheumatol 11, 393–395.
60JM Kremer , DA Lawrence , GF Petrillo , (1995) Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: clinical and immune correlates. Arth Rheum 38, 1107–1114.
61O Adam , C Beringer , T Kless , (2003) Antiinflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 23, 27–36.
62S Kolahi , A Ghorbanihaghjo , S Alizadeh , (2010) Fish oil supplementation decreases serum soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Biochem 43, 576–580.
63K Varming , EB Schmidt , N Svaneborg , (1995) The effect of n-3 fatty acids on neutrophil chemiluminescence. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 55, 47–52.
64PJ Thompson , NLA Misso , M Passarelli & MJ Phillips (1991) The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid consumption on human neutrophil chemiluminescence. Lipids 26, 1223–1226.
65R Luostarinen & T Saldeen (1996) Dietary fish oil decreases superoxide generation by human neutrophils: relation to cyclooxygenase pathway and lysosomal enzyme release. Prostagland Leukotr Essent Fatty Acids 55, 167–172.
66M Fisher , PH Levine , BH Weiner , (1990) Dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces superoxide production and chemiluminescence in monocyte enriched preparation of leukocytes. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 804–808.
67EB Schmidt , K Varming , JM Moller , I Bulow Pederson , P Madsen & J Dyerberg (1996) No effect of a very low dose of n-3 fatty acids on monocyte function in healthy humans. Scand J Clin Invest 56, 87–92.
68M Magaro , L Altomonte , A Zoli , (1988) Influence of diet with different lipid composition on neutrophil chemiluminescence and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 47, 793–796.
69PC Calder & EA Newsholme (1992) Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress human peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production. Clin Sci 82, 695–700.
70EA Miles , T Banerjee , SJ Wells & PC Calder (2006) Limited effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell numbers and functions in healthy young males. Nutrition 22, 512–519.
71TA Khair-El-Din , SC Sicher , MA Vazquez , WJ Wright & CY Lu (1995) Docosahexaenoic acid, a major constituent of fetal serum and fish oil diets, inhibits IFNγ-induced Ia-expression by murine macrophages in vitro. J Immunol 154, 1296–1306.
72DA Hughes , S Southon & AC Pinder (1996) (n-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the expression of functionally associated molecules on human monocytes in vitro. J Nutr 126, 603–610.
73PC Calder (2007) Polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the rules of engagement. Future Lipidol 2, 27–30.
75CA Leslie , WA Gonnerman , MD Ullman , (1985) Dietary fish oil modulates macrophage fatty acids and decreases arthritis susceptibility in mice. J Exp Med 162, 1336–1339.
77M Ierna , A Kerr , H Scales , K Berge & M Griinari (2010) Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskel Disord 11, 136.
78PR Fortin , RA Lew , MH Liang , (1995) Validation of a metaanalysis: The effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Epidemiol 48, 1379–1390.
80RJ Goldberg & J Katz (2007) A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain 129, 210–233.
81AR Jadad , RA Moore , D Carroll , (1996) Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Contr Clin Trials 17, 1–12.
82JJF Belch , D Ansell , R Madhok , A O'Dowd & RD Sturrock (1988) Effects of altering dietary essential fatty acids on requirements for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis 47, 96–104.
83JE Tullekan , PC Limburg , FAJ Muskiet & MH van Rijswijk (1990) Vitamin E status during dietary fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthr Rheum 33, 1416–1419.
84L Skoldstam , O Borjesson , A Kjallman , B Seiving & B Akesson (1992) Effect of six months of fish oil supplementation in stable rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind, controlled study. Scand J Rheumatol 21, 178–185.
85GL Nielsen , KL Faarvang , BS Thomsen , (1992) The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double blind trial. Eur J Clin Invest 22, 687–691.
87CS Lau , KD Morley & JJF Belch (1993) Effects of fish oil supplementation on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug requirement in patients with mild rheumatoid arthritis. Brit J Rheumatol 32, 982–989.
88P Geusens , C Wouters , J Nijs , Y Jiang & J Dequeker (1994) Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. Arth Rheum 37, 824–829.
90PH Remans , JK Sont , LW Wagenaar , (2004) Nutrient supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and biochemical effects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 839–845.
91T Sundrarjun , S Komindr , N Archararit , (2004) Effects of n-3 fatty acids on serum interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor p55 in active rheumatoid arthritis. J Int Med Res 32, 443–454.
92AA Berbert , CR Kondo , CL Almendra , T Matsuo & I Dichi (2005) Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition 21, 131–136.
93B Galarraga , M Ho , HM Youssef , (2008) Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol 47, 665–669.
94C Dawczynski , R Schubert , G Hein , (2009) Long-term moderate intervention with n-3 long-chain PUFA-supplemented dairy products: effects on pathophysiological biomarkers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Brit J Nutr 101, 1517–1526.
95AB Das Gupta , AKMM Hossain , MH Islam , SR Dey & MAL Khan (2009) Role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with indomethacin in suppression of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 35, 63–68.