This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2MG Hertog , EJ Feskens , PC Hollman , et al. (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 1007–1011.
3P Knekt , R Jarvinen , A Reunanen , et al. (1996) Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 312, 478–481.
6B Buijsse , EJ Feskens , FJ Kok , et al. (2006) Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med 166, 411–417.
7A Cassidy , EJ O'Reilly , C Kay , et al. (2011) Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and incident hypertension in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 338–347.
8MG Hertog , D Kromhout , C Aravanis , et al. (1995) Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 155, 381–386.
12D Taubert , R Roesen , C Lehmann , et al. (2007) Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 298, 49–60.
13B Buijsse , C Weikert , D Drogan , et al. (2010) Chocolate consumption in relation to blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease in German adults. Eur Heart J 31, 1616–1623.
14C Heiss & M Kelm (2010) Chocolate consumption, blood pressure, and cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J 31, 1554–1556.
15K Ried , T Sullivan , P Fakler , et al. (2010) Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis. BMC Med 8, 39.
16MB Engler , MM Engler , CY Chen , et al. (2004) Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 197–204.
, et al. (2008) Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol
21C Heiss , S Jahn , M Taylor , et al. (2010) Improvement of endothelial function with dietary flavanols is associated with mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 56, 218–224.
23DA Pearson , TG Paglieroni , D Rein , et al. (2002) The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res 106, 191–197.
24LM Ostertag , N O'Kennedy , PA Kroon , et al. (2010) Impact of dietary polyphenols on human platelet function–a critical review of controlled dietary intervention studies. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 60–81.
26M Monagas , N Khan , C Andres-Lacueva , et al. (2009) Effect of cocoa powder on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1144–1150.
27DL Katz , K Doughty & A Ali (2011) Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox signal 15, 2779–2811.
29DD Schramm , M Karim , HR Schrader , et al. (2003) Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavanols. Life Sci 73, 857–869.
30M Urpi-Sarda , M Monagas , N Khan , et al. (2009) Epicatechin, procyanidins, and phenolic microbial metabolites after cocoa intake in humans and rats. Anal Bioanal Chem 394, 1545–1556.
32AP Neilson , JC George , EM Janle , et al. (2009) Influence of chocolate matrix composition on cocoa flavan-3-ol bioaccessibility in vitro and bioavailability in humans. J Agric Food Chem 57, 9418–9426.
35H Schroeter , RR Holt , TJ Orozco , et al. (2003) Nutrition: milk and absorption of dietary flavanols. Nature 426, 787–788, .
, et al. (2003) Plasma antioxidants from chocolate. Nature
40JI Ottaviani , TY Momma , C Heiss , et al. (2011) The stereochemical configuration of flavanols influences the level and metabolism of flavanols in humans and their biological activity in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 50, 237–244.
41M Richelle , I Tavazzi , M Enslen , et al. (1999) Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 22–26.
45T Ooshima , A Izumitani , T Minami , et al. (1992) Noncariogenicity of maltitol in specific pathogen-free rats infected with mutans streptococci. Caries Res 26, 33–37.
46KB Miller , WJ Hurst , N Flannigan , et al. (2009) Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao. J Agric Food Chem 57, 9169–9180.
51SA Riley , M Kim , F Sutcliffe , et al. (1992) Effects of a non-absorbable osmotic load on drug absorption in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 34, 40–46.
53JP Spencer , G Chowrimootoo , R Choudhury , et al. (1999) The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. FEBS Lett 458, 224–230.
54XJ Tian , XW Yang , X Yang , et al. (2009) Studies of intestinal permeability of 36 flavonoids using Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Int J Pharm 367, 58–64.
56VY Njike , Z Faridi , K Shuval , et al. (2011) Effects of sugar-sweetened and sugar-free cocoa on endothelial function in overweight adults. Int J Cardiol 149, 83–88.