This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1RA Hannon & R Eastell (2003) Biochemical markers of bone turnover and fracture prediction. J Br Menopause Soc 9, 10–15.
3C De Laet , JA Kanis , A Oden , (2005) Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int 16, 1330–1338.
4JA Kanis , F Borgstrom , N Zethraeus , O Johnell , A Oden & B Jonsson (2005) Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis in the UK. Bone 36, 22–32.
5F Borgstrom , O Johnell , JA Kanis , B Jonsson & C Rehnberg (2006) At what hip fracture risk is it cost-effective to treat? International intervention thresholds for the treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 17, 1459–1471.
6J Heikkinen , R Vaheri & U Timonen (2006) A 10-year follow-up of postmenopausal women on long-term continuous combined hormone replacement therapy: update of safety and quality-of-life findings. J Br Menopause Soc 12, 115–125.
7HD Nelson , LL Humphrey , P Nygren , SM Teutsch & JD Allan (2002) Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review. JAMA 288, 872–881.
8SD Reed , KM Newton & AZ Lacroix (2004) Indications for hormone therapy: the post-Women's Health Initiative era. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 33, 691–715.
9M Whitehead & R Farmer (2004) The million women study: a critique. Endocrine 24, 187–193.
11JC Stevenson (2006) HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Human Reprod 21, 1668–1671.
13JA Udell , MA Fischer , MA Brookhart , DH Solomon & NK Choudhry (2006) Effect of the Women's Health Initiative on osteoporosis therapy and expenditure in Medicaid. J Bone Miner Res 21, 765–771.
14C Usher , M Teeling , K Bennett & J Feely (2006) Effect of clinical trial publicity on HRT prescribing in Ireland. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62, 307–310.
15MP Guay , A Dragomir , D Pilon , Y Moride & S Perreault (2007) Changes in pattern of use, clinical characteristics and persistence rate of hormone replacement therapy among postmenopausal women after the WHI publication. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety 16, 17–27.
16MC Chapuy , ME Arlot , F Duboeuf , (1992) Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. N Engl J Med 327, 1637–1642.
17T Chevalley , R Rizzoli , V Nydegger , (1994) Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. Osteoporos Int 4, 245–252.
18RR Recker , S Hinders , KM Davies , (1996) Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res 11, 1961–1966.
19B Dawson-Hughes , SS Harris , EA Krall & GE Dallal (1997) Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337, 670–676.
20B Shea , G Wells , A Cranney , (2002) Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VII. Meta-analysis of calcium supplementation for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Rev 23, 552–559.
21S Boonen , HA Bischoff-Ferrari , C Cooper , (2006) Addressing the musculoskeletal components of fracture risk with calcium and vitamin D: a review of the evidence. Calcif Tissue Int 78, 257–270.
22M Rossini , G Bianchi , O Di Munno , (2006) Determinants of adherence to osteoporosis treatment in clinical practice. Osteoporos Int 17, 914–921.
23TW Downey , SH Foltz , SJ Boccuzzi , MA Omar & KH Kahler (2006) Adherence and persistence associated with the pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis in a managed care setting. South Med J 99, 570–575.
24S Boonen , R Rizzoli , PJ Meunier , (2004) The need for clinical guidance in the use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis: a consensus report. Osteoporos Int 15, 511–519.
25JP Bonjour , MA Schurch , T Chevalley , P Ammann & R Rizzoli (1997) Protein intake, IGF-1 and osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 7, Suppl. 3, S36–S42.
27MT Hannan , KL Tucker , B Dawson-Hughes , LA Cupples , DT Felson & DP Kiel (2000) Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 15, 2504–2512.
28JP Bonjour (2005) Dietary protein: an essential nutrient for bone health. J Am Coll Nutr 24, Suppl., 526S–536S.
29A Rogers , RA Hannon & R Eastell (2000) Biochemical markers as predictors of rates of bone loss after menopause. J Bone Miner Res 15, 1398–1404.
30RD Chapurlat , P Garnero , G Breart , PJ Meunier & PD Delmas (2000) Serum type I collagen breakdown product (serum CTX) predicts hip fracture risk in elderly women: the EPIDOS study. Bone 27, 283–286.
31O Bruyere , J Collette , P Delmas , (2003) Interest of biochemical markers of bone turnover for long-term prediction of new vertebral fracture in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Maturitas 44, 259–265.
32P Ravn , DE Thompson , PD Ross & C Christiansen (2003) Biochemical markers for prediction of 4-year response in bone mass during bisphosphonate treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Bone 33, 150–158.
33F Grados , M Brazier , S Kamel , (2003) Prediction of bone mass density variation by bone remodeling markers in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency treated with calcium and vitamin D supplementation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 5175–5179.
34DC Bauer , DM Black , P Garnero , (2004) Change in bone turnover and hip, non-spine, and vertebral fracture in alendronate-treated women: the fracture intervention trial. J Bone Miner Res 19, 1250–1258.
39G Gascoin-Lachambre , C Trivin , R Brauner & JC Souberbielle (2007) Serum procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) as an early predictor of the growth response to growth hormone treatment: comparison of intrauterine growth retardation and idiopathic short stature. Growth Horm IGF Res 17, 194–200.
41B Dawson-Hughes , RP Heaney , MF Holick , P Lips , PJ Meunier & R Vieth (2005) Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 16, 713–716.
42RJ Walton & OL Bijvoet (1977) A simple slide-rule method for the assessment of renal tubular reaborption of phosphate in man. Clin Chim Acta 81, 273–276.
43B Buchs , R Rizzoli & JP Bonjour (1991) Evaluation of bone resorption and renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and phosphate in malignant and nonmalignant hypercalcemia. Bone 12, 47–56.
44JP Bonjour , J Philippe , G Guelpa , (1988) Bone and renal components in hypercalcemia of malignancy and responses to a single infusion of clodronate. Bone 9, 123–130.
45RP Heaney , DA McCarron , B Dawson-Hughes , (1999) Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. J Am Dietetic Assoc 99, 1228–1233.
46PJ Meunier , C Jenvrin , F Munoz , V de la Gueronniere , P Garnero & M Menz (2005) Consumption of a high calcium mineral water lowers biochemical indices of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with low calcium intake. Osteoporos Int 16, 1203–1209.
47D Storm , R Eslin , ES Porter , (1998) Calcium supplementation prevents seasonal bone loss and changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover in elderly New England women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 3817–3825.
49S Palacios , C Castelo-Branco , I Cifuentes , (2005) Changes in bone turnover markers after calcium-enriched milk supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Menopause 12, 63–68.
50JA Kanis , O Johnell , A Oden , A Dawson , C De Laet & B Jonsson (2001) Ten year probabilities of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD and diagnostic thresholds. Osteoporos Int 12, 989–995.
51JA Kanis , O Johnell , A Oden , (2005) Intervention thresholds for osteoporosis in men and women: a study based on data from Sweden. Osteoporos Int 16, 6–14.
52O Johnell , JA Kanis , A Oden , (2005) Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures. J Bone Miner Res 20, 1185–1194.
53JA Kanis , O Johnell , C De Laet , (2004) A meta-analysis of previous fracture and subsequent fracture risk. Bone 35, 375–382.
56RP Heaney (2001) The bone remodeling transient: interpreting interventions involving bone-related nutrients. Nutr Rev 59, 327–334.
58RP Heaney , K Rafferty & MS Dowell (2002) Effect of yogurt on a urinary marker of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Am Dietetic Assoc 102, 1672–1674.
59S Aoe , T Koyama , Y Toba , A Itabashi & Y Takada (2005) A controlled trial of the effect of milk basic protein (MBP) supplementation on bone metabolism in healthy menopausal women. Osteoporos Int 16, 2123–2128.
60P Garnero (2000) Markers of bone turnover for the prediction of fracture risk. Osteoporos Int 11, Suppl. 6, S55–S65.
61R Lindsay , JC Gallagher , M Kleerekoper & JH Pickar (2002) Effect of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone in early postmenopausal women. JAMA 287, 2668–26676.
63PJ Meunier , C Roux , E Seeman , (2004) The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fracture in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 350, 459–468.
64B Ettinger , DM Black , BH Mitlak , (1999) Reduction of vertebral fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with raloxifene: results from a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) Investigators. JAMA 282, 637–645.
65J Reginster , HW Minne , OH Sorensen , (2000) Randomized trial of the effects of risedronate on vertebral fractures in women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Vertebral Efficacy with Risedronate Therapy (VERT) Study Group. Osteoporos Int 11, 83–91.
66UA Liberman , SR Weiss , J Broll , (1995) Effect of oral alendronate on bone mineral density and the incidence of fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The Alendronate Phase III Osteoporosis Treatment Study Group. N Engl J Med 333, 1437–1443.