This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1CM Skeaff & J Miller (2009) Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: summary of evidence from prospective cohort and randomised controlled trials. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 173–201.
2PM Kris-Etherton , WS Harris & LJ Appel (2003) Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 23, 20–30.
3AH Lichtenstein , LJ Appel , M Brands , (2006) Summary of American Heart Association Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations revision 2006. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26, 2186–2191.
4FJ van Kuijk , LL Holte & EA Dratz (1990) 4-Hydroxyhexenal: a lipid peroxidation product derived from oxidized docosahexaenoic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta 1043, 116–118.
6WA Pryor & NA Porter (1990) Suggested mechanisms for the production of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal from the autoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free Radic Biol Med 8, 541–543.
7H Yin , JD Brooks , L Gao , (2007) Identification of novel autoxidation products of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 282, 29890–29901.
8H Esterbauer , RJ Schaur & H Zollner (1991) Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radic Biol Med 11, 81–128.
11VK Shukla & EG Perkins (1991) The presence of oxidative polymeric materials in encapsulated fish oils. Lipids 26, 23–26.
13W Kolanowski (2010) Omega-3 LC PUFA contents and oxidative stability of encapsulated fish oil dietary supplements. Int J Food Prop 13, 498–511.
15R Blomhoff (2005) Dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 16, 47–54.
16TY Aw (2005) Intestinal glutathione: determinant of mucosal peroxide transport, metabolism, and oxidative susceptibility. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 204, 320–328.
17K Wingler , C Muller , K Schmehl , (2000) Gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase prevents transport of lipid hydroperoxides in CaCo-2 cells. Gastroenterology 119, 420–430.
18DA Dickinson & HJ Forman (2002) Cellular glutathione and thiols metabolism. Biochem Pharmacol 64, 1019–1026.
19F Ursini , A Zamburlini , G Cazzolato , (1998) Postprandial plasma lipid hydroperoxides: a possible link between diet and atherosclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med 25, 250–252.
20I Staprans , XM Pan , JH Rapp , (2005) The role of dietary oxidized cholesterol and oxidized fatty acids in the development of atherosclerosis. Mol Nutr Food Res 49, 1075–1082.
21JS Cohn (2002) Oxidized fat in the diet, postprandial lipaemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 19–24.
22PE Bowen & G Borthakur (2004) Postprandial lipid oxidation and cardiovascular disease risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep 6, 477–484.
23M Guichardant & M Lagarde (2009) Analysis of biomarkers from lipid peroxidation: a comparative study. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 111, 75–82.
24P Montuschi , PJ Barnes & LJ Roberts (2004) Isoprostanes: markers and mediators of oxidative stress. FASEB J 18, 1791–1800.
26D Pratico , J Rokach , J Lawson , (2004) F2-isoprostanes as indices of lipid peroxidation in inflammatory diseases. Chem Phys Lipids 128, 165–171.
27TA Pearson , GA Mensah , RW Alexander , (2003) Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 107, 499–511.
28LJ Roberts & JD Morrow (2000) Measurement of F(2)-isoprostanes as an index of oxidative stress in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 28, 505–513.
29S Basu (2008) F2-isoprostanes in human health and diseases: from molecular mechanisms to clinical implications. Antioxid Redox Signal 10, 1405–1434.
30MC Myhrstad , K Retterstol , VH Telle-Hansen , (2011) Effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating inflammatory markers in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Inflamm Res 60, 309–319.
31A Basu , S Devaraj & I Jialal (2006) Dietary factors that promote or retard inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26, 995–1001.
33TA Mori (2004) Effect of fish and fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acids on lipid oxidation. Redox Rep 9, 193–197.
35EK Long & MJ Picklo Sr (2010) trans-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, a product of n-3 fatty acid peroxidation: make some room HNE. Free Radic Biol Med 49, 1–8.
36HH Draper , AS Csallany & M Hadley (2000) Urinary aldehydes as indicators of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 29, 1071–1077.
37N Zarkovic (2003) 4-Hydroxynonenal as a bioactive marker of pathophysiological processes. Mol Aspects Med 24, 281–291.
38M Guichardant , S Bacot , P Moliere , (2006) Hydroxy-alkenals from the peroxidation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and urinary metabolites. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 75, 179–182.
39A Kitase , K Hino , T Furutani , (2005) In situ detection of oxidized n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with hepatic steatosis. J Gastroenterol 40, 617–624.
40S Yamada , T Funada , N Shibata , (2004) Protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal as a marker of oxidized n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 45, 626–634.
41C Calzada , R Colas , N Guillot , (2010) Subgram daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid protects low-density lipoproteins from oxidation in healthy men. Atherosclerosis 208, 467–472.
42CM Spickett , I Wiswedel , W Siems , (2010) Advances in methods for the determination of biologically relevant lipid peroxidation products. Free Radic Res 44, 1172–1202.
44HE Bays (2007) Safety considerations with omega-3 fatty acid therapy. Am J Cardiol 99, 35C–43C.
45European Food Safety Authority (2010) Scientific opinion on fish oil for human consumption. Food hygene, including rancidity. EFSA J 8, 1874.
46H Maenpaa , OP Heinonen & V Manninen (1991) Medication compliance and serum lipid changes in the Helsinki Heart Study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 32, 409–415.
47SK Bohn , S Smeland , AK Sakhi , (2006) Post-radiotherapy plasma total glutathione is associated to outcome in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Lett 238, 240–247.
48NE Bastani , TE Gundersen & R Blomhoff (2009) Determination of 8-epi PGF(2alpha) concentrations as a biomarker of oxidative stress using triple-stage liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23, 2885–2890.
49XP Luo , M Yazdanpanah , N Bhooi , (1995) Determination of aldehydes and other lipid peroxidation products in biological samples by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 228, 294–298.
50G Panfili , A Fratianni & M Irano (2003) Normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cereals. J Agric Food Chem 51, 3940–3944.
51CR Wheeler , JA Salzman , NM Elsayed , (1990) Automated assays for superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity. Anal Biochem 184, 193–199.
52EG Bligh & WJ Dyer (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37, 911–917.
53E Olsen , G Vogt , A Veberg , (2005) Analysis of early lipid oxidation in smoked, comminuted pork or poultry sausages with spices. J Agric Food Chem 53, 7448–7457.
55M Yokoyama , H Origasa , M Matsuzaki , (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369, 1090–1098.
57D Harats , Y Dabach , G Hollander , (1991) Fish oil ingestion in smokers and nonsmokers enhances peroxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis 90, 127–139.
59SM Ulven , B Kirkhus , A Lamglait , (2011) Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids 46, 37–46.
60EM Balk , AH Lichtenstein , M Chung , (2006) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Atherosclerosis 189, 19–30.
61R Freese , LO Dragsted , S Loft , (2008) No effect on oxidative stress biomarkers by modified intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids or vegetables and fruit. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 1151–1153.
62G Ravn-Haren , S Bugel , BN Krath , (2008) A short-term intervention trial with selenate, selenium-enriched yeast and selenium-enriched milk: effects on oxidative defence regulation. Br J Nutr 99, 883–892.
63Y Miyamoto , YH Koh , YS Park , (2003) Oxidative stress caused by inactivation of glutathione peroxidase and adaptive responses. Biol Chem 384, 567–574.
64YC Awasthi , Y Yang , NK Tiwari , (2004) Regulation of 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated signaling by glutathione S-transferases. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 607–619.
66N Bouzidi , K Mekki , A Boukaddoum , (2010) Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acid supplementation on redox status in chronic renal failure patients with dyslipidemia. J Ren Nutr 20, 321–328.
67DS Barbosa , R Cecchini , MZ El Kadri , (2003) Decreased oxidative stress in patients with ulcerative colitis supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 19, 837–842.
69MM Kesavulu , BK Rao , R Giri , (2001) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme status in type 2 diabetics with coronary heart disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 53, 33–39.
70J Cao , KA Schwichtenberg , NQ Hanson , (2006) Incorporation and clearance of omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and plasma phospholipids. Clin Chem 52, 2265–2272.
72WS Harris & SC Von (2004) The omega-3 index: a new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease? Prev Med 39, 212–220.
73K Wingler & R Brigelius-Flohe (1999) Gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase. Biofactors 10, 245–249.
74FF Chu , RS Esworthy & JH Doroshow (2004) Role of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases in gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer. Free Radic Biol Med 36, 1481–1495.
75K Kanazawa & H Ashida (1998) Dietary hydroperoxides of linoleic acid decompose to aldehydes in stomach before being absorbed into the body. Biochim Biophys Acta 1393, 349–361.
76AW Bull & JC Bronstein (1990) Production of unsaturated carbonyl compounds during metabolism of hydroperoxy fatty acids by colonic homogenates. Carcinogenesis 11, 1699–1704.
77M Naruszewicz , E Wozny , E Mirkiewicz , (1987) The effect of thermally oxidized soya bean oil on metabolism of chylomicrons. Increased uptake and degradation of oxidized chylomicrons in cultured mouse macrophages. Atherosclerosis 66, 45–53.
78I Staprans , JH Rapp , XM Pan , (1994) Oxidized lipids in the diet are a source of oxidized lipid in chylomicrons of human serum. Arterioscler Thromb 14, 1900–1905.
79I Staprans , DA Hardman , XM Pan , (1999) Effect of oxidized lipids in the diet on oxidized lipid levels in postprandial serum chylomicrons of diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 22, 300–306.
80AJ Wallace , WH Sutherland , JI Mann , (2001) The effect of meals rich in thermally stressed olive and safflower oils on postprandial serum paraoxonase activity in patients with diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 951–958.
81WH Sutherland , SA de Jong , RJ Walker , (2002) Effect of meals rich in heated olive and safflower oils on oxidation of postprandial serum in healthy men. Atherosclerosis 160, 195–203.
82WH Sutherland , SA de Jong , PA Hessian , (2010) Ingestion of native and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated fats acutely increases circulating numbers of endothelial microparticles. Metabolism 59, 446–453.
83JM Wallace , AJ McCabe , PJ Robson , (2000) Bioavailability of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in foods enriched with microencapsulated fish oil. Ann Nutr Metab 44, 157–162.
84JP Suomela , M Ahotupa & H Kallio (2005) Triacylglycerol oxidation in pig lipoproteins after a diet rich in oxidized sunflower seed oil. Lipids 40, 437–444.
85JP Suomela , M Ahotupa , O Sjovall , (2004) Diet and lipoprotein oxidation: analysis of oxidized triacylglycerols in pig lipoproteins. Lipids 39, 639–647.