Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits

  • Marcel Roberfroid (a1), Glenn R. Gibson (a2), Lesley Hoyles (a2), Anne L. McCartney (a2), Robert Rastall (a2), Ian Rowland (a2), Danielle Wolvers (a3), Bernhard Watzl (a4), Hania Szajewska (a5), Bernd Stahl (a6), Francisco Guarner (a7), Frederique Respondek (a8), Kevin Whelan (a9), Veronique Coxam (a10), Marie-Jeanne Davicco (a10), Laurent Léotoing (a10), Yohann Wittrant (a10), Nathalie M. Delzenne (a11), Patrice D. Cani (a11), Audrey M. Neyrinck (a11) and Agnes Meheust (a12)...

The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, ‘normobiosis’ characterises a composition of the gut ‘ecosystem’ in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to ‘dysbiosis’, in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in ‘prebiotic effects’), defined as: ‘The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.’ Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where a prebiotic effect has tentatively been investigated for potential health benefits. The prebiotic effect has been shown to associate with modulation of biomarkers and activity(ies) of the immune system. Confirming the studies in adults, it has been demonstrated that, in infant nutrition, the prebiotic effect includes a significant change of gut microbiota composition, especially an increase of faecal concentrations of bifidobacteria. This concomitantly improves stool quality (pH, SCFA, frequency and consistency), reduces the risk of gastroenteritis and infections, improves general well-being and reduces the incidence of allergic symptoms such as atopic eczema. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Promising beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some preliminary studies, including changes in gut microbiota composition (especially increase in bifidobacteria concentration). Often associated with toxic load and/or miscellaneous risk factors, colon cancer is another pathology for which a possible role of gut microbiota composition has been hypothesised. Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits
      Available formats
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Correspondence: ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l. - Avenue E. Mounier 83, Box 6 - 1200 Brussels - Belgium Email: - Fax: +32 2 762 00 44
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1K Yazawa , K Imai & Z Tamura (1978) Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides specifically utilizable by bifidobacteria. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 26, 33063311.

2T Mitsuoka , H Hidaka & T Eida (1987) Effect of fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal microflora. Nahrung 31, 427436.

7HJ Harmsen , AC Wildeboer-Veloo , J Grijpstra , (2000) Development of 16S rRNA-based probes for the Coriobacterium group and the Atopobium cluster and their application for enumeration of Coriobacteriaceae in human feces from volunteers of different age groups. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 45234527.

8HJ Harmsen , GC Raangs , T He , (2002) Extensive set of 16S rRNA-based probes for detection of bacteria in human feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 29822990.

11EG Zoetendal , A von Wright , T Vilpponen-Salmela , (2002) Mucosa-associated bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract are uniformly distributed along the colon and differ from the community recovered from feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 34013407.

12X Wang , SP Heazlewood , DO Krause , (2003) Molecular characterization of the microbial species that colonize human ileal and colonic mucosa by using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. J Appl Microbiol 95, 508520.

13M Wang , S Ahrne , B Jeppsson , (2005) Comparison of bacterial diversity along the human intestinal tract by direct cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 54, 219231.

14PB Eckburg , EM Bik , CN Bernstein , (2005) Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science 308, 16351638.

15H Hayashi , R Takahashi , T Nishi , (2005) Molecular analysis of jejunal, ileal, caecal and recto-sigmoidal human colonic microbiota using 16S rRNA gene libraries and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Med Microbiol 54, 10931101.

16GL Green , J Brostoff , B Hudspith , (2006) Molecular characterization of the bacteria adherent to human colorectal mucosa. J Appl Microbiol 100, 460469.

20GR Gibson & M Roberfroid (2008) Handbook of Prebiotics. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

21JH Cummings , JM Antoine , F Azpiroz , (2004) PASSCLAIM – gut health and immunity. Eur J Nutr 43, Suppl. 2, II118II173.

27GA O'May , N Reynolds & GT Macfarlane (2005) Effect of pH on an in vitro model of gastric microbiota in enteral nutrition patients. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 47774783.

28GT Macfarlane , S Macfarlane & GR Gibson (1998) Validation of a three-stage compound continuous culture system for investigating the effect of retention time on the ecology and metabolism of bacteria in the human colon. Microb Ecol 35, 180187.

29SH Duncan , RI Aminov , KP Scott , (2006) Proposal of Roseburia faecis sp. nov., Roseburia hominis sp. nov. and Roseburia inulinivorans sp. nov., based on isolates from human faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56, 24372441.

30M Derrien , EE Vaughan , CM Plugge , (2004) Akkermansia muciniphila gen. nov., sp. nov., a human intestinal mucin-degrading bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54, 14691476.

31AW Walker , SH Duncan , EC William Leitch , (2005) pH and peptide supply can radically alter bacterial populations and short-chain fatty acid ratios within microbial communities from the human colon. Appl Environ Microbiol 71, 36923700.

33C Manichanh , L Rigottier-Gois , E Bonnaud , (2006) Reduced diversity of faecal microbiota in Crohn's disease revealed by a metagenomic approach. Gut 55, 205211.

34JA Stewart , VS Chadwick & A Murray (2005) Investigations into the influence of host genetics on the predominant eubacteria in the faecal microflora of children. J Med Microbiol 54, 12391242.

36HJ Flint , EA Bayer , MT Rincon , (2008) Polysaccharide utilization by gut bacteria: potential for new insights from genomic analysis. Nat Rev Microbiol 6, 121131.

37JH Cummings & GT Macfarlane (1991) The control and consequences of bacterial fermentation in the human colon. J Appl Bacteriol 70, 443459.

38IR Rowland , AK Mallett & A Wise (1985) The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities. Crit Rev Toxicol 16, 31103.

41GT Macfarlane , GR Gibson & JH Cummings (1992) Comparison of fermentation reactions in different regions of the human colon. J Appl Bacteriol 72, 5764.

42SA Bingham , S Pett & KC Day (1990) NSP intake of a representative sample of British adults. J Hum Nutr Diet 3, 339344.

44HN Englyst & GT Macfarlane (1986) Breakdown of resistant and readily digestible starch by human gut bacteria. J Sci Food Agric 37, 699706.

49JH Cummings (1981) Short chain fatty acids in the human colon. Gut 22, 763779.

54NB Dass , AK John , AK Bassil , (2007) The relationship between the effects of short-chain fatty acids on intestinal motility in vitro and GPR43 receptor activation. Neurogastroenterol Motil 19, 6674.

60W Scheppach (1996) Treatment of distal ulcerative colitis with short-chain fatty acid enemas. A placebo-controlled trial. German-Austrian SCFA Study Group. Dig Dis Sci 41, 22542259.

61Z Tamura (1983) Nutriology of bifidobacteria. Bifidobact Microfl 2, 316.

62SA Hughes , PR Shewry , L Li , (2007) In vitro fermentation by human fecal microflora of wheat arabinoxylans. J Agric Food Chem 55, 45894595.

63X Wang & GR Gibson (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. J Appl Bacteriol 75, 373380.

64CE Rycroft , MR Jones , GR Gibson , (2001) A comparative in vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties of prebiotic oligosaccharides. J Appl Microbiol 91, 878887.

65K Hayakawa , J Mizutani , K Wada , (1990) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on human faecal flora. Microbial Ecol Health Dis 3, 293303.

66A Sghir , JM Chow & RI Mackie (1998) Continuous culture selection of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from human faecal samples using fructooligosaccharide as selective substrate. J Appl Microbiol 85, 769777.

67GR Gibson & X Wang (1994) Enrichment of bifidobacteria from human gut contents by oligofructose using continuous culture. FEMS Microbiol Lett 118, 121127.

68GR Gibson & X Wang (1994) Regulatory effects of bifidobacteria on the growth of other colonic bacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 77, 412420.

70AJ McBain & GT Macfarlane (2001) Modulation of genotoxic enzyme activities by non-digestible oligosaccharide metabolism in in-vitro human gut bacterial ecosystems. J Med Microbiol 50, 833842.

72RJ Palframan , GR Gibson & RA Rastall (2002) Effect of pH and dose on the growth of gut bacteria on prebiotic carbohydrates in vitro. Anaerobe 8, 287292.

74T van de Wiele , N Boon , S Possemiers , (2004) Prebiotic effects of chicory inulin in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 51, 143153.

75T van de Wiele , N Boon , S Possemiers , (2007) Inulin-type fructans of longer degree of polymerization exert more pronounced in vitro prebiotic effects. J Appl Microbiol 102, 452460.

76M Minekus , M Smeets-Peeters , A Bernalier , (1999) A computer-controlled system to simulate conditions of the large intestine with peristaltic mixing, water absorption and absorption of fermentation products. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53, 108114.

77K Venema , MHMC van Nuenen , EG van den Heuvel , (2003) The effect of lactulose on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid production in human volunteers and a computercontrolled model of the proximal large intestine. Microb Ecol Health Dis 15, 94105.

81RD Wagner (2008) Effects of microbiota on GI health: gnotobiotic research. Gi Microb Regul Immune Sys 635, 4156.

82D Kelly , T King & R Aminov (2007) Importance of microbial colonization of the gut in early life to the development of immunity. Mutat Res 622, 5869.

83JL Round & SK Mazmanian (2009) The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol 9, 313323.

84V Gaboriau-Routhiau , S Rakotobe , E Lecuyer , (2009) The key role of segmented filamentous bacteria in the coordinated maturation of gut helper T cell responses. Immunity 31, 677689.

85M Rescigno , M Urbano , B Valzasina , (2001) Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol 2, 361367.

87D Artis (2008) Epithelial-cell recognition of commensal bacteria and maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut. Nat Rev Immunol 8, 411420.

88R Medzhitov (2007) Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. Nature 449, 819826.

89RE Vance , RR Isberg & DA Portnoy (2009) Patterns of pathogenesis: discrimination of pathogenic and nonpathogenic microbes by the innate immune system. Cell Host Microbe 6, 1021.

90S Rakoff-Nahoum , J Paglino , F Eslami-Varzaneh , (2004) Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis. Cell 118, 229241.

91NE Nilsson , K Kotarsky , C Owman , (2003) Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303, 10471052.

92E Le Poul , C Loison , S Struyf , (2003) Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. J Biol Chem 278, 2548125489.

93S Karaki , H Tazoe , H Hayashi , (2008) Expression of the short-chain fatty acid receptor, GPR43, in the human colon. J Mol Histol 39, 135142.

94H Tazoe , Y Otomo , S Karaki , (2009) Expression of short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR41 in the human colon. Biomed Res 30, 149156.

95CR Cavaglieri , A Nishiyama , LC Fernandes , (2003) Differential effects of short-chain fatty acids on proliferation and production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by cultured lymphocytes. Life Sci 73, 16831690.

96KM Maslowski , AT Vieira , A Ng , (2009) Regulation of inflammatory responses by gut microbiota and chemoattractant receptor GPR43. Nature 461, 12821286.

101S Seifert & B Watzl (2008) Prebiotics and the immune system: review of experimental and human data. In Handbook of Prebiotics, pp. 143162 [GR Gibson and M Roberfroid , editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

102D Bunout , S Hirsch , DLM Pia , (2002) Effects of prebiotics on the immune response to vaccination in the elderly. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 26, 372376.

103D Bunout , G Barrera , S Hirsch , (2004) Effects of a nutritional supplement on the immune response and cytokine production in free-living Chilean elderly. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 28, 348354.

105E van Hoffen , B Ruiter , J Faber , (2009) A specific mixture of short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides induces a beneficial immunoglobulin profile in infants at high risk for allergy. Allergy 64, 484487.

106AM Bakker-Zierikzee , EA Tol , H Kroes , (2006) Faecal SIgA secretion in infants fed on pre- or probiotic infant formula. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17, 134140.

108Y Guigoz , F Rochat , G Perruisseau-Carrier , (2002) Effects of oligosaccharide on the faecal flora and non-specific immune system in elderly people. Nutr Res 22, 1325.

111J Lindsay , K Whelan , A Stagg , (2006) Clinical, microbiological, and immunological effects of fructo-oligosaccharide in patients with Crohn's disease. Gut 55, 348355.

112F Hoentjen , GW Welling , HJ Harmsen , (2005) Reduction of colitis by prebiotics in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is associated with microflora changes and immunomodulation. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11, 977985.

113G Moro , S Arslanoglu , B Stahl , (2006) A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age. Arch Dis Child 91, 814819.

114T Fukasawa , K Murashima , I Matsumoto , (2007) Identification of marker genes for intestinal immunomodulating effect of a fructooligosaccharide by DNA microarray analysis. J Agric Food Chem 55, 31743179.

118C Agostoni , I Axelsson , O Goulet , (2004) Prebiotic oligosaccharides in dietetic products for infants: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39, 465473.

120WKW Yap , S Mohamed , JM Husni , (2008) Changes in infants faecal characteristics and microbiota by inulin supplementation. J Clin Nutr Biochem 43, 159166.

122XM Ben , J Li , ZT Feng , (2008) Low level of galacto-oligosaccharide in infant formula stimulates growth of intestinal Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. World J Gastroenterol 14, 65646568.

123S Fanaro , B Marten , R Bagna , (2009) Galacto-oligosaccharides are bifidogenic and safe at weaning: a double-blind randomized multicenter study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48, 8288.

124F Magne , W Hachelaf , A Suau , (2008) Effects on faecal microbiota of dietary and acidic oligosaccharides in children during partial formula feeding. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 46, 580588.

127PA Scholtens , MS Alles , JG Bindels , (2006) Bifidogenic effects of solid weaning foods with added prebiotic oligosaccharides: a randomised controlled clinical trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42, 553559.

129E Bruzzese , M Volpicelli , V Squeglia , (2009) A formula containing galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides prevents intestinal and extra-intestinal infections: an observational study. Clin Nutr 28, 156161.

131JH Hoekstra , H Szajewska , MA Zikri , (2004) Oral rehydration solution containing a mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates in the treatment of acute diarrhea: a multicenter randomized placebo controlled study on behalf of the ESPGHAN working group on intestinal infections. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39, 239245.

132CM Surawicz (2003) Probiotics, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in humans. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17, 775783.

133AL D'Souza , C Rajkumar , J Cooke , (2002) Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ 324, 1361.

134F Cremonini , CS Di , EC Nista , (2002) Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16, 14611467.

135H Szajewska & J Mrukowicz (2005) Meta-analysis: non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 22, 365372.

136JA Hawrelak , DL Whitten & SP Myers (2005) Is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effective in preventing the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea: a systematic review. Digestion 72, 5156.

137H Szajewska , M Ruszczynski & A Radzikowski (2006) Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Pediatr 149, 367372.

138O Brunser , M Gotteland , S Cruchet , (2006) Effect of a milk formula with prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota of infants after an antibiotic treatment. Pediatr Res 59, 451456.

139M Kalliomaki , P Kirjavainen , E Eerola , (2001) Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107, 129134.

142JH Cummings , S Christie & TJ Cole (2001) A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15, 11391145.

143S Lewis , S Burmeister , S Cohen , (2005) Failure of dietary oligofructose to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21, 469477.

144S Lewis , S Burmeister & J Brazier (2005) Effect of the prebiotic oligofructose on relapse of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a randomized, controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3, 442448.

145R Spiller , Q Aziz , F Creed , (2007) Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanism and practical management. Gut 56, 17701798.

146GF Longstreth , WG Thompson , WD Chey , (2006) Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology 130, 14801491.

147J Serra , B Salvioli , F Azpiroz , (2002) Lipid-induced intestinal gas retention in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 123, 700706.

148R Spiller (2008) Review Article: probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 28, 385396.

150JM Si , YC Yu , YF Fan , (2004) Intestinal microecology and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome patients. World J Gastroenterol 10, 18021805.

151EM Malinen , T Rinttilä , K Kajander , (2005) Analysis of the fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy controls with real-time PCR. Am J Gastroenterol 100, 373382.

153A Kassinen , L Krogius , H Mäkivuokko , (2007) The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects. Gastroenterology 133, 2433.

154APM Kerckhoffs , M Samsom , ME van der Rest , (2009) Lower bifidobacteria counts in both duodenal mucose-associated and faecal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome patients. World J Gastroenterol 15, 28872892.

155J Maukonen , R Satokari , J Mattö , (2006) Prevalence and temporal stability of selected clostridal groups in irritable bowel syndrome in relation to predominant faecal bacteria. J Med Microbiol 55, 625633.

156M Nyman (2002) Fermentation and bulking capacity of indigestible carbohydrates: the case of inulin and oligofructose. Br J Nutr 87, S163S168.

157V de Preter , T Vanhoutte , G Huys , (2008) Baseline microbiota activity and initial bifidobacteria counts influence responses to prebiotic dosing in healthy subjects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 27, 504513.

158E Furrie , S Macfarlane , A Kennedy , (2005) Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut 54, 1346.

159F Casellas , N Borruel , A Torrejon , (2007) Oral oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation in acute ulcerative colitis is well tolerated and associated with lowered faecal calprotectin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 25, 10611067.

160KF Cook , L Rabeneck , CJ Campbell , (1999) Evaluation of a multidimensional measure of dyspepsia-related health for use in a randomized clinical trial. J Clin Epidemiol 52, 381392.

166DBA Silk , A Davis , J Vulevic , (2009) Clinical trial: the effects of a trans-galactooligosaccharide prebiotic on faecal microbiota and symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 29, 508518.

167EV Loftus Jr (2004) Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences. Gastroenterology 126, 15041517.

168SP Travis , EF Stange , M Lemann , (2006) European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: current management. Gut 55, 1635.

169AJ Lucendo & LC De Rezende (2009) Importance of nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol 15, 20812088.

171M Schwartz & R Cohen (2008) Optimizing conventional therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 10, 585590.

172MJ Carter , AJ Lobo & SP Travis (2004) Guidelines for the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut 53, Suppl. 5, V1V16.

174K Teahon , M Pearson , AJ Levi , (1995) Practical aspects of enteral nutrition in the management of Crohn's disease. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 19, 365368.

175MG Neuman (2007) Immune dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease. Transl Res 149, 173186.

176JO Lindsay & HJ Hodgson (2001) The immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-10 – a therapy for Crohn's disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15, 16.

177SJ Brown & L Mayer (2007) The immune response in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 102, 20582069.

179R Fasoli , MG Kettlewell , N Mortensen , (1990) Response to faecal challenge in defunctioned colonic Crohn's disease: prediction of long-term course. Br J Surg 77, 616617.

180M Chichlowski & LP Hale (2008) Bacterial-mucosal interactions in inflammatory bowel disease: an alliance gone bad. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295, G1139G1149.

181JP Hugot , M Chamaillard , H Zouali , (2001) Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411, 599603.

182H Zhang , D Massey , M Tremelling , (2008) Genetics of inflammatory bowel disease: clues to pathogenesis. Br Med Bull 87, 1730.

183E Miyauchi , H Morita & S Tanabe (2009) Lactobacillus rhamnosus alleviates intestinal barrier dysfunction in part by increasing expression of zonula occludens-1 and myosin light-chain kinase in vivo. J Dairy Sci 92, 24002408.

184VE Garcia , M De Lourdes De Abreu Ferrari , TH Oswaldo Da Gama , (2008) Influence of Saccharomyces boulardii on the intestinal permeability of patients with Crohn's disease in remission. Scand J Gastroenterol 43, 842848.

185AL Hart , K Lammers , P Brigidi , (2004) Modulation of human dendritic cell phenotype and function by probiotic bacteria. Gut 53, 16021609.

187RB Sartor (2008) Microbial influences in inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology 134, 577594.

189P Seksik , L Rigottier-Gois , G Gramet , (2003) Alterations of the dominant faecal bacterial groups in patients with Crohn's disease of the colon. Gut 52, 237242.

190H Sokol , P Seksik , JP Furet , (2009) Low counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in colitis microbiota. Inflamm Bowel Dis 15, 11831189.

191S Macfarlane , E Furrie , JH Cummings , (2004) Chemotaxonomic analysis of bacterial populations colonizing the rectal mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis. Clin Infect Dis 38, 16901699.

192M Mylonaki , NB Rayment , DS Rampton , (2005) Molecular characterization of rectal mucosa-associated bacterial flora in inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11, 481487.

193A Swidsinski , A Ladhoff , A Pernthaler , (2002) Mucosal flora in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 122, 4454.

194DN Frank , AL St Amand , RA Feldman , (2007) Molecular-phylogenetic characterization of microbial community imbalances in human inflammatory bowel diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 1378013785.

195H Sokol , P Lepage , P Seksik , (2006) Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis of fecal 16S rRNA reveals active Escherichia coli in the microbiota of patients with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Microbiol 44, 31723177.

196M Martinez-Medina , X Aldeguer , F Gonzalez-Huix , (2006) Abnormal microbiota composition in the ileocolonic mucosa of Crohn's disease patients as revealed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 12, 11361145.

197H Sokol , B Pigneur , L Watterlot , (2008) Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium identified by gut microbiota analysis of Crohn disease patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 1673116736.

199SJ Langlands , MJ Hopkins , N Coleman , (2004) Prebiotic carbohydrates modify the mucosa associated microflora of the human large bowel. Gut 53, 16101616.

201PN Burger-van , A Vincent , PJ Puiman , (2009) The regulation of intestinal mucin MUC2 expression by short-chain fatty acids: implications for epithelial protection. Biochem J 420, 211219.

202RD Pullan , GA Thomas , M Rhodes , (1994) Thickness of adherent mucus gel on colonic mucosa in humans and its relevance to colitis. Gut 35, 353359.

205G Friedman & J George (2000) Treatment of refractory ‘pouchitis’ with prebiotic and probiotic therapy. Gastroenterology 118, A778.

206CF Welters , E Heineman , FB Thunnissen , (2002) Effect of dietary inulin supplementation on inflammation of pouch mucosa in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 45, 621627.

209S Fujimori , K Gudis , K Mitsui , (2009) A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of synbiotic versus probiotic or prebiotic treatment to improve the quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis. Nutrition 25, 520525.

211JL Benjamin , CRH Hedin , A Koutsoumpas , (2010) No clinical benefit of prebiotics in the treatment of active Crohn's disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Gut, 59: S1-OC-003-A1.

212I Chermesh , A Tamir , R Reshef , (2007) Failure of Synbiotic 2000 to prevent postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 52, 385389.

213C Su , JD Lewis , B Goldberg , (2007) A meta-analysis of the placebo rates of remission and response in clinical trials of active ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 132, 516526.

214C Su , GR Lichtenstein , K Krok , (2004) A meta-analysis of the placebo rates of remission and response in clinical trials of active Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 126, 12571269.

216I Rowland (2009) The role of the gastrointestinal microflora in colorectal cancer. Curr Pharmaceut Design 15, 15241527.

219Y Saito , T Takano & I Rowland (1992) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on the human gut microflora in in vitro culture. Microb Ecol Health Dis 5, 105110.

221IR Rowland , CJ Rumney , JT Coutts , (1998) Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 19, 281285.

222H Hidaka , T Eida , T Takizawa , (1986) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on intestinal flora and human health. Bifidobact Microfl 5, 3750.

223IR Rowland & R Tanaka (1993) The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with a human faecal microflora. J Appl Bacteriol 74, 667674.

224R Tanaka , H Takayama , M Morotomi , (1983) Effects of administration of TOS and Bifidobacterium breve 4006 on the human fecal flora. Bifidobact Microfl 2, 1724.

226TP Pretlow , MA O'Riordan , GA Somich , (1992) Aberrant crypts correlate with tumor incidence in F344 rats treated with azoxymethane and phytate. Carcinogenesis 13, 15091512.

227CV Rao , D Chou , B Simi , (1998) Prevention of colonic aberrant crypt foci and modulation of large bowel microbial activity by dietary coffee fiber, inulin and pectin. Carcinogenesis 19, 18151819.

230BS Reddy , R Hamid & CV Rao (1997) Effect of dietary oligofructose and inulin on colonic preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci inhibition. Carcinogenesis 18, 13711374.

232M Poulsen , AM Molck & BL Jacobsen (2002) Different effects of short- and long-chained fructans on large intestinal physiology and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Nutr Cancer 42, 194205.

233H Jacobsen , M Poulsen , LO Dragsted , (2006) Carbohydrate digestibility predicts colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated rats. Nutr Cancer 55, 163170.

235A Challa , DR Rao , CB Chawan , (1997) Bifidobacterium longum and lactulose suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 18, 517521.

237MV Wijnands , HC Schoterman , JB Bruijntjes , (2001) Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats. Carcinogenesis 22, 127132.

238S Nakanishi , K Kataoka , T Kuwahara , (2003) Effects of high amylose maize starch and Clostridium butyricum on metabolism in colonic microbiota and formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. Microbiol Immunol 47, 951958.

239MV Wijnands , MJ Appel , VM Hollanders , (1999) A comparison of the effects of dietary cellulose and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharide, in a rat model of colorectal carcinogenesis: fermentable fibre confers greater protection than non-fermentable fibre in both high and low fat backgrounds. Carcinogenesis 20, 651656.

240AP Femia , C Luceri , P Dolara , (2002) Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23, 19531960.

242M Mutanen , AM Pajari & SI Oikarinen (2000) Beef induces and rye bran prevents the formation of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) mice: relation to beta-catenin and PKC isozymes. Carcinogenesis 21, 11671173.

243AM Pajari , J Rajakangas , E Paivarinta , (2003) Promotion of intestinal tumor formation by inulin is associated with an accumulation of cytosolic beta-catenin in Min mice. Int J Cancer 106, 653660.

249IR Rowland , CA Bearne , R Fischer , (1996) The effect of lactulose on DNA damage induced by DMH in the colon of human flora-associated rats. Nutr Cancer 26, 3747.

250A Klinder , A Forster , G Caderni , (2004) Fecal water genotoxicity is predictive of tumor-preventive activities by inulin-like oligofructoses, probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis), and their synbiotic combination. Nutr Cancer 49, 144155.

251P Perrin , F Pierre , Y Patry , (2001) Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats. Gut 48, 5361.

252R Hughes & IR Rowland (2001) Stimulation of apoptosis by two prebiotic chicory fructans in the rat colon. Carcinogenesis 22, 4347.

253DM Commane , CT Shortt , S Silvi , (2005) Effects of fermentation products of pro- and prebiotics on trans-epithelial electrical resistance in an in vitro model of the colon. Nutr Cancer 51, 102109.

254M Roberfroid (1993) Dietary fibers, inulin, and oligofructose: a review comparing their physiological effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 33, 103148.

258HW Lopez , C Coudray , MA Levrat-Verny , (2000) Fructooligosaccharides enhance mineral apparent absorption and counteract the deleterious effects of phytic acid on mineral homeostasis in rats. J Nutr Biochem 11, 500508.

259T Lutz & E Scharrer (1991) Effect of short-chain fatty acids on calcium absorption by the rat colon. Exp Physiol 76, 615618.

261M Takasaki , H Inaba , A Ohta , (2000) Dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides increase calbindin-D9k levels only in the large intestine in rats independent of dietary calcium deficiency or serum 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70, 206213.

262L Raschka & H Daniel (2005) Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats. Bone 37, 728735.

263KE Scholz-Ahrens & J Schrezenmeir (2002) Inulin, oligofructose and mineral metabolism – experimental data and mechanism. Br J Nutr 87, Suppl. 2, S179S186.

265AC Beynen , JC Baas , PE Hoekemeijer , (2002) Faecal bacterial profile, nitrogen excretion and mineral absorption in healthy dogs fed supplemental oligofructose. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 86, 298305.

267S Leonhard-Marek , G Gabel & H Martens (1998) Effects of short chain fatty acids and carbon dioxide on magnesium transport across sheep rumen epithelium. Exp Physiol 83, 155164.

268N Delzenne , J Aertssens , H Verplaetse , (1995) Effect of fermentable fructo-oligosaccharides on mineral, nitrogen and energy digestive balance in the rat. Life Sci 57, 15791587.

269KW Yap , S Mohamed , AM Yazid , (2005) Dose-response effects of inulin on the faecal fatty acids content and mineral absorption of formula-fed infants. Nutr Food Sci 35, 208219.

272IJ Griffin , PD Hicks , RP Heaney , (2003) Enriched chicory inulin increases calcium absorption mainly in girls with lower calcium absorption. Nutr Res 23, 901909.

273EG van den Heuvel , T Muijs , F Brouns , (2009) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake. Nutr Res 29, 229237.

275KDA Cashman (2006) A prebiotic substance persistently enhances intestinal calcium absorption and increases bone mineralization in young adolescents. Nutr Rev 64, 189196.

277C Coudray , J Bellanger , C Castiglia-Delavaud , (1997) Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibres supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in healthy young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 375380.

279U Teuri , M Karkkainen , C Lamberg-Allardt , (1999) Addition of inulin to breakfast does not acutely affect serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. Ann Nutr Metab 43, 356364.

282V Ducros , J Arnaud , M Tahiri , (2005) Influence of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (sc-FOS) on absorption of Cu, Zn, and Se in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 3037.

283M Tahiri , JC Tressol , J Arnaud , (2001) Five-week intake of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides increases intestinal absorption and status of magnesium in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 16, 21522160.

285EG van den Heuvel , T Muijs , W van Dokkum , (1999) Lactulose stimulates calcium absorption in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 14, 12111216.

287B Adolphi , KE Scholz-Ahrens , M de Vrese , (2009) Short-term effect of bedtime consumption of fermented milk supplemented with calcium, inulin-type fructans and caseinphosphopeptides on bone metabolism in healthy, postmenopausal women. Eur J Nutr 48, 4553.

290WJ Dahl , SJ Whiting , TM Isaac , (2005) Effects of thickened beverages fortified with inulin on beverage acceptance, gastrointestinal function, and bone resorption in institutionalized adults. Nutrition 21, 308311.

293L Ellegard , H Andersson & I Bosaeus (1997) Inulin and oligofructose do not influence the absorption of cholesterol, or the excretion of cholesterol, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, or bile acids but increases energy excretion in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 15.

298C Coudray , JC Tressol , E Gueux , (2003) Effects of inulin-type fructans of different chain length and type of branching on intestinal absorption and balance of calcium and magnesium in rats. Eur J Nutr 42, 9198.

303J Mathey , C Puel , S Kati-Coulibaly , (2004) Fructooligosaccharides maximize bone-sparing effects of soy isoflavone-enriched diet in the ovariectomized rat. Calcif Tissue Int 75, 169179.

304L Devareddy , DA Khalil , K Korlagunta , (2006) The effects of fructo-oligosaccharides in combination with soy protein on bone in osteopenic ovariectomized rats. Menopause 13, 692699.

305TA Zafar , CM Weaver , K Jones , (2004) Inulin effects on bioavailability of soy isoflavones and their calcium absorption enhancing ability. J Agric Food Chem 52, 28272831.

307A Ohta , S Baba , T Takizawa , (1994) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on the absorption of magnesium in the magnesium-deficient rat model. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 40, 171180.

308A Ohta , M Ohtsuki , S Baba , (1995) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on the absorption of iron, calcium and magnesium in iron-deficient anemic rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 41, 281291.

310PD Cani & NM Delzenne (2009) The role of the gut microbiota in energy metabolism and metabolic disease. Curr Pharm Des 15, 15461558.

312PD Cani , S Possemiers , WT van de , (2009) Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2-driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut 58, 10911103.

313OB Chaudhri , V Salem , KG Murphy , (2008) Gastrointestinal satiety signals. Annu Rev Physiol 70, 239255.

314MR Druce , CJ Small & SR Bloom (2004) Minireview: gut peptides regulating satiety. Endocrinology 145, 26602665.

315K Wynne , S Stanley , B McGowan , (2005) Appetite control. J Endocrinol 184, 291318.

316C Knauf , PD Cani , C Perrin , (2005) Brain glucagon-like peptide-1 increases insulin secretion and muscle insulin resistance to favor hepatic glycogen storage. J Clin Invest 115, 35543563.

320PD Cani , C Knauf , MA Iglesias , (2006) Improvement of glucose tolerance and hepatic insulin sensitivity by oligofructose requires a functional glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor. Diabetes 55, 14841490.

321RA Reimer & JC Russell (2008) Glucose tolerance, lipids, and GLP-1 secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats fed a high protein fiber diet. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 4046.

322AD Maurer , Q Chen , C McPherson , (2009) Changes in satiety hormones and expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in rats weaned onto diets high in fibre or protein reflect susceptibility to increased fat mass in adulthood. J Physiol 587, 679691.

324PD Cani , E Joly , Y Horsmans , (2006) Oligofructose promotes satiety in healthy human: a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 567572.

326T Piche , SB des Varannes , S Sacher-Huvelin , (2003) Colonic fermentation influences lower esophageal sphincter function in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology 124, 894902.

327PD Cani , E Lecourt , EM Dewulf , (2009) Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 12361243.

328SA Abrams , IJ Griffin , KM Hawthorne , (2007) Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index. J Pediatr 151, 293298.

329S Genta , W Cabrera , N Habib , (2009) Yacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humans. Clin Nutr 28, 182187.

330JA Parnell & RA Reimer (2009) Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 17511759.

331HP Peters , HM Boers , E Haddeman , (2009) No effect of added beta-glucan or of fructooligosaccharide on appetite or energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 5863.

333NN Kok , HS Taper & NM Delzenne (1998) Oligofructose modulates lipid metabolism alterations induced by a fat-rich diet in rats. J Appl Toxicol 18, 4753.

334PD Cani , AM Neyrinck , N Maton , (2005) Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1. Obes Res 13, 10001007.

335E Delmee , PD Cani , G Gual , (2006) Relation between colonic proglucagon expression and metabolic response to oligofructose in high fat diet-fed mice. Life Sci 79, 10071013.

336PD Cani , CA Daubioul , B Reusens , (2005) Involvement of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide on glycaemia-lowering effect of oligofructose in streptozotocin-treated rats. J Endocrinol 185, 457465.

341R Giacco , G Clemente , D Luongo , (2004) Effects of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on glucose and lipid metabolism in mild hypercholesterolaemic individuals. Clin Nutr 23, 331340.

342NM Delzenne & PD Cani (2008) Gut microflora is a key player in host energy homeostasis. Med Sci (Paris) 24, 505510.

343NM Delzenne & CM Williams (2002) Prebiotics and lipid metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 6167.

346NM Delzenne , C Daubioul , A Neyrinck , (2002) Inulin and oligofructose modulate lipid metabolism in animals: review of biochemical events and future prospects. Br J Nutr 87, S255S259.

347S Sakakibara , T Yamauchi , Y Oshima , (2006) Acetic acid activates hepatic AMPK and reduces hyperglycemia in diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344, 597604.

349M Fiordaliso , N Kok , JP Desager , (1995) Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats. Lipids 30, 163167.

352EA Trautwein , K Forgbert , D Rieckhoff , (1999) Impact of beta-cyclodextrin and resistant starch on bile acid metabolism and fecal steroid excretion in regard to their hypolipidemic action in hamsters. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 1437, 112.

354H van Meer , G Boehm , F Stellaard , (2008) Prebiotic oligosaccharides and the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294, G540G547.

356F Diraison , P Moulin & M Beylot (2003) Contribution of hepatic de novo lipogenesis and reesterification of plasma non esterified fatty acids to plasma triglyceride synthesis during non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Diabet Metab 29, 478485.

357CA Daubioul , Y Horsmans , P Lambert , (2005) Effects of oligofructose on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 723726.

358PD Cani & NM Delzenne (2009) Interplay between obesity and associated metabolic disorders: new insights into the gut microbiota. Curr Opin Pharmacol 9, 737743.

359PD Cani , J Amar , MA Iglesias , (2007) Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes 56, 17611772.

360PJ Turnbaugh , F Backhed , L Fulton , (2008) Diet-induced obesity is linked to marked but reversible alterations in the mouse distal gut microbiome. Cell Host Microbe 3, 213223.

361PD Cani , AM Neyrinck , F Fava , (2007) Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia 50, 23742383.

362PD Cani , R Bibiloni , C Knauf , (2008) Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes 57, 14701481.

363A Waldram , E Holmes , Y Wang , (2009) Top-down systems biology modeling of host metabotype-microbiome associations in obese rodents. J Proteome Res 8, 23612375.

364Z Wang , G Xiao , Y Yao , (2006) The role of bifidobacteria in gut barrier function after thermal injury in rats. J Trauma 61, 650657.

365EA Griffiths , LC Duffy , FL Schanbacher , (2004) In vivo effects of bifidobacteria and lactoferrin on gut endotoxin concentration and mucosal immunity in Balb/c mice. Dig Dis Sci 49, 579589.

366ZT Wang , YM Yao , GX Xiao , (2004) Risk factors of development of gut-derived bacterial translocation in thermally injured rats. World J Gastroenterol 10, 16191624.

367X Ruan , H Shi , G Xia , (2007) Encapsulated bifidobacteria reduced bacterial translocation in rats following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Nutrition 23, 754761.

368MJ Keenan , J Zhou , KL McCutcheon , (2006) Effects of resistant starch, a non-digestible fermentable fiber, on reducing body fat. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, 15231534.

369J Zhou , RJ Martin , RT Tulley , (2008) Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E1160E1166.

371TC Adam & MS Westerterp-Plantenga (2005) Nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release in normal-weight men and women. Horm Metab Res 37, 111117.

373Z Gao , J Yin , J Zhang , (2009) Butyrate improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in mice. Diabetes 58, 15091517.

375AC Lundell , I Adlerberth , E Lindberg , (2007) Increased levels of circulating soluble CD14 but not CD83 in infants are associated with early intestinal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Exp Allergy 37, 6271.

376MM Gronlund , M Gueimonde , K Laitinen , (2007) Maternal breast-milk and intestinal bifidobacteria guide the compositional development of the Bifidobacterium microbiota in infants at risk of allergic disease. Clin Exp Allergy 37, 17641772.

378S Salminen , GR Gibson , AL McCartney , (2004) Influence of mode of delivery on gut microbiota composition in seven year old children. Gut 53, 13881389.

379S Salminen & E Isolauri (2008) Opportunities for improving the health and nutrition of the human infant by probiotics. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 62, 223233.

380S Salminen , MC Collado , E Isolauri , (2009) Microbial-host interactions: selecting the right probiotics and prebiotics for infants. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 64, 201213.

382J Walter , GW Tannock , A Tilsala-Timisjarvi , (2000) Detection and identification of gastrointestinal Lactobacillus species by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and species-specific PCR primers. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 297303.

383RM Satokari , EE Vaughan , AD Akkermans , (2001) Bifidobacterial diversity in human feces detected by genus-specific PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Appl Environ Microbiol 67, 504513.

384HG Heilig , EG Zoetendal , EE Vaughan , (2002) Molecular diversity of Lactobacillus spp. and other lactic acid bacteria in the human intestine as determined by specific amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 68, 114123.

385J Shen , B Zhang , G Wei , (2006) Molecular profiling of the Clostridium leptum subgroup in human fecal microflora by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 52325238.

386T Vanhoutte , V de Preter , E De Brandt , (2006) Molecular monitoring of the fecal microbiota of healthy human subjects during administration of lactulose and Saccharomyces boulardii. Appl Environ Microbiol 72, 59905997.

389GR Gibson , ER Beatty , X Wang , (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975982.

394U Teuri , R Korpela , M Saxelin , (1998) Increased fecal frequency and gastrointestinal symptoms following ingestion of galacto-oligosaccharide-containing yogurt. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 44, 465471.

395G Moro , I Minoli , M Mosca , (2002) Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34, 291295.

397Y Bouhnik , L Achour , D Paineau , (2007) Four-week short chain fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion leads to increasing fecal bifidobacteria and cholesterol excretion in healthy elderly volunteers. Nutrition 6, 4246.

399KM Tuohy , RK Finlay , AG Wynne , (2001) A human volunteer study on the prebiotic effects of HP-inulin – Faecal bacteria enumerated using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Anaerobe 7, 113118.

400CH Williams , SA Witherly & RK Buddington (1994) Influence of dietary neosugar on selected bacterial groups of the human fecal microbiota. Microbial Ecol Health Dis 7, 9197.

403J Mattö , L Maunuksela , K Kajander , (2005) Composition and temporal stability of gastrointestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome – a longitudinal study in IBS and control subjects. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 43, 213222.

405M Roberfroid (1997) Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease. New York: Plenum Press.

408SJ Fairweather-Tait & IT Johnson (1999) Bioavailability of minerals. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 233244 [GR Gibson and MB Roberfroid , editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

409IG Carabin & WG Flamm (1999) Evaluation of safety of inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 30, 268282.

412M Roberfroid (2002) Functional foods: concepts and application to inulin and oligofructose. Br J Nutr 87, S139S143.

413KD Cashman (2002) Calcium intake, calcium bioavailability and bone health. Br J Nutr 87, Suppl. 2, S169S177.

414N Kaur & AK Gupta (2002) Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. J Biosci 27, 703714.

416A Bongers & EGHM van den Heuvel (2003) Prebiotics and the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements. Food Rev Int 19, 397422.

422A Franck (2006) Oligofructose-enriched inulin stimulates calcium absorption and bone mineralisation. Nutr Bull 31, 341345.

423D Bosscher , JV Loo & A Franck (2006) Inulin and oligofructose as functional ingredients to improve bone mineralization. Int Dairy J 10921097.

427H Alexiou & A Franck (2008) Prebiotic inulin-type fructans: nutritional benefits beyond dietary fibre source. Beneo-Orafti Nutr Bull 33, 227233.

428GR Gibson & NM Delzenne (2008) Inulin and oligofructose. Nutr Today 43, 5459.

434O Chonan , K Matsumoto & M Watanuki (1995) Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59, 236239.

439R Mitamura & H Hara (2006) Ingestion of difructose anhydride III partially restores calcium absorption impaired by vitamin D and estrogen deficiency in rats. Eur J Nutr 45, 242249.

440A Nzeusseu , D Dienst , V Haufroid , (2006) Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides differ in their ability to enhance the density of cancellous and cortical bone in the axial and peripheral skeleton of growing rats. Bone 38, 394399.

441AR Lobo , C Colli & TMCC Filisetti (2006) Fructooligosaccharides improve bone mass and biomechanical properties in rats. Nutr Res 26, 413420.

443C Demigne , H Jacobs , C Moundras , (2008) Comparison of native or reformulated chicory fructans, or non-purified chicory, on rat cecal fermentation and mineral metabolism. Eur J Nutr 47, 366374.

444AR Lobo , JM Filho , EP Alvares , (2009) Effects of dietary lipid composition and inulin-type fructans on mineral bioavailability in growing rats. Nutrition 25, 216225.

446O Chonan & M Watanuki (1995) Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 41, 95104.

447S Yanahira , M Morita , S Aoe , (1997) Effects of lactitol-oligosaccharides on calcium and magnesium absorption in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 43, 123132.

451P Asvarujanon , S Ishizuka & H Hara (2005) Promotive effects of non-digestible disaccharides on rat mineral absorption depend on the type of saccharide. Nutrition 21, 10251035.

452C Coudray , C Feillet-Coudray , JC Tressol , (2005) Stimulatory effect of inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats is modulated by dietary calcium intakes short- and long-term balance studies. Eur J Nutr 44, 293302.

453C Coudray , M Rambeau , C Feillet-Coudray , (2005) Dietary inulin intake and age can significantly affect intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats: a stable isotope approach. Nutr J 4, 29.

454K Shiga , M Nishimukai , F Tomita , (2006) Ingestion of difructose anhydride III, a non-digestible disaccharide, prevents gastrectomy-induced iron malabsorption and anemia in rats. Nutrition 22, 786793.

456M Azorin-Ortuno , C Urban , JJ Ceron , (2009) Effect of low inulin doses with different polymerisation degree on lipid metabolism, mineral absorption, and intestinal microbiota in rats with fat-supplemented diet. Food Chem 113, 10581065.

458Y Wang , T Zeng , SE Wang , (2010) Fructo-oligosaccharides enhance the mineral absorption and counteract the adverse effects of phytic acid in mice. Nutrition 26, 305311.

461J Juskiewicz , J Jankowski , Z Zdunczyk , (2006) Performance and gastrointestinal tract metabolism of turkeys fed diets with different contents of fructooligosaccharides. Poult Sci 85, 886.

462Z Zdunczyk , J Juskiewicz & I Estrella (2006) Cecal parameters of rats fed diets containing grapefruit polyphenols and inulin as single supplements or in a combination. Nutrition 22, 898.

463J Sugatani , T Wada , M Osabe , (2006) Dietary inulin alleviates hepatic steatosis and xenobiotics-induced liver injury in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet: association with the suppression of hepatic cytochrome P450 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha expression. Drug Metab Dispos 34, 16771687.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score