1Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401–1412.
2Hamilton-Miller, JM (2004) Probiotics and prebiotics in the elderly. Postgrad Med J 80, 447–451.
3Schley, PD & Field, CJ (2002) The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. Br J Nutr 87, Suppl. 2, S221–S230.
4Watzl, B, Girrbach, S & Roller, M (2005) Inulin, oligofructose and immunomodulation. Br J Nutr 93, Suppl. 1, S49–S55.
5Seifert, S & Watzl, B (2007) Inulin and oligofructose: review of experimental data on immune modulation. J Nutr 137, Suppl. 11, 2563S–2567S.
6Leenen, CH & Dieleman, LA (2007) Inulin and oligofructose in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. J Nutr 137, Suppl. 11, 2572S–2575S.
7Guarner, F (2007) Studies with inulin-type fructans on intestinal infections, permeability, and inflammation. J Nutr 137, Suppl. 11, 2568S–2571S.
8Gibson, GR, Probert, HM, Van Loo, J, Rastall, RA & Roberfroid, MB (2004) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev 17, 259–275.
9Waterhouse, A & Chatterton, N (1993) . In Science and Technology of Fructans, pp. 2–7 [Suzuki, M and Chatterton, N, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
10Roberfroid, MB (2005) Introducing inulin-type fructans. Br J Nutr 93, Suppl. 1, S13–S25.
11van Loo, J, Coussement, P, de, LL, Hoebregs, H & Smits, G (1995) On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35, 525–552.
12Lopez-Molina, D, Navarro-Martinez, MD, Rojas, MF, Hiner, AN, Chazarra, S & Rodriguez-Lopez, JN (2005) Molecular properties and prebiotic effect of inulin obtained from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Phytochemistry 66, 1476–1484.
13Newburg, DS (2000) Oligosaccharides in human milk and bacterial colonization. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30, Suppl. 2, S8–S17.
14Newburg, DS, Ruiz-Palacios, GML, Altaye, M et al. (2004) Innate protection conferred by fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk against diarrhea in breastfed infants. Glycobiology 14, 253–263.
15Long, KZ, Wood, JW, Vasquez, GE et al. (1994) Proportional hazards analysis of diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and breast feeding in a cohort of urban Mexican children. Am J Epidemiol 139, 193–205.
16Obihara, CC, Marais, BJ, Gie, RP et al. (2005) The association of prolonged breastfeeding and allergic disease in poor urban children. Eur Respir J 25, 970–977.
17Oku, T, Tokunaga, T & Hosoya, N (1984) Nondigestibility of a new sweetener, ‘Neosugar,’ in the rat. J Nutr 114, 1574–1581.
18Bach Knudsen, KE & Hessov, I (1995) Recovery of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in the small intestine of man. Br J Nutr 74, 101–113.
19Molis, C, Flourie, B, Ouarne, F, et al. (1996) Digestion, excretion, and energy value of fructooligosaccharides in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 324–328.
20Roberfroid, MB, Van Loo, JA & Gibson, GR (1998) The bifidogenic nature of chicory inulin and its hydrolysis products. J Nutr 128, 11–19.
21Hoentjen, F, Welling, GW, Harmsen, HJ, et al. (2005) Reduction of colitis by prebiotics in HLA-B27 transgenic rats is associated with microflora changes and immunomodulation. Inflamm Bowel Dis 11, 977–985.
22Butel, MJ, Waligora-Dupriet, AJ & Szylit, O (2002) Oligofructose and experimental model of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis. Br J Nutr 87, Suppl. 2, S213–S219.
23Vos, AP, Haarman, M, Buco, A, et al. (2006) A specific prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture stimulates delayed-type hypersensitivity in a murine influenza vaccination model. Int Immunopharmacol 6, 1277–1286.
24Guigoz, Y, Rochat, F, Perruisseau-Carrier, G, Rochat, I & Schiffrin, E (2002) Effects of oligosaccharide on the faecal flora and non-specific immune system in elderly people. Nutr Res 22, 13–25.
25Videla, S, Vilaseca, J, Antolin, M, et al. (2001) Dietary inulin improves distal colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in the rat. Am J Gastroenterol 96, 1486–1493.
26Osman, N, Adawi, D, Molin, G, Ahrne, S, Berggren, A & Jeppsson, B (2006) Bifidobacterium infantis strains with and without a combination of oligofructose and inulin (OFI) attenuate inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats. BMC Gastroenterol 6, 31.
27Gibson, GR, Beatty, ER, Wang, X & Cummings, JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975–982.
28Kaplan, H & Hutkins, RW (2000) Fermentation of fructooligosaccharides by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 66, 2682–2684.
29Berg, RD (1985) Indigenous intestinal microflora and the host immune response. EOS J Immunol Immunopharmacol 4, 161–168.
30De, Simone C, Vesely, R, Negri, R, et al. (1987) Enhancement of immune response of murine Peyer's patches by a diet supplemented with yogurt. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 9, 87–100.
31Gibson, GR & Wang, X (1994) Enrichment of bifidobacteria from human gut contents by oligofructose using continuous culture. FEMS Microbiol Lett 118, 121–127.
32Blaut, M (2002) Relationship of prebiotics and food to intestinal microflora. Eur J Nutr 41, Suppl. 1, I11–I16.
33Barcelo, A, Claustre, J, Moro, F, Chayvialle, JA, Cuber, JC & Plaisancie, P (2000) Mucin secretion is modulated by luminal factors in the isolated vascularly perfused rat colon. Gut 46, 218–224.
34Brown, AJ, Goldsworthy, SM, Barnes, AA, et al. (2003) The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. J Biol Chem 278, 11312–11319.
35Le, Poul E, Loison, C & Struyf, S (2003) Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. J Biol Chem 278, 25481–25489.
36Nilsson, NE, Kotarsky, K, Owman, C & Olde, B (2003) Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leukocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303, 1047–1052.
37Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW & Vuksan, V (1999) Inulin, oligofructose and intestinal function. J Nutr 129, Suppl. 7, 1431S–1433S.
38Sanderson, IR (2007) Dietary modulation of GALT. J Nutr 137, Suppl. 11, 2557S–2562S.
39Brown, GD & Gordon, S (2001) Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans. Nature 413, Suppl. 6851, 36–37.
40Herre, J, Gordon, S & Brown, GD (2004) Dectin-1 and its role in the recognition of beta-glucans by macrophages. Mol Immunol 40, 869–876.
41Taylor, ME, Conary, JT, Lennartz, MR, Stahl, PD & Drickamer, K (1990) Primary structure of the mannose receptor contains multiple motifs resembling carbohydrate-recognition domains. J Biol Chem 265, 12156–12162.
42Speert, DP, Eftekhar, F & Puterman, ML (1984) Nonopsonic phagocytosis of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients. Infect Immun 43, 1006–1011.
43Ouwehand, AC, Derrien, M, de, VW, Tiihonen, K & Rautonen, N (2005) Prebiotics and other microbial substrates for gut functionality. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16, 212–217.
44Gaskins, H, Mackie, R, May, T & Garleb, K (1996) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharide modulates large intestinal inflammatory responses to Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-compromosed mice. Microbial Ecol Health Dis 9, 157–166.
45Trushina, EN, Martynova, EA, Nikitiuk, DB, Mustafina, OK & Baigarin, EK (2005) The influence of dietary inulin and oligofructose on the cell-mediated and humoral immunity in rats. Vopr Pitan 74, 22–27.
46Kelly-Quagliana, K, Nelson, P & Buddington, R (2003) Dietary oligofructose and inulin modulate immune functions in mice. Nutr Res 23, 257–267.
47Benyacoub, J, Rochat, F, Saudan, KY et al. (2008) Feeding a diet containing a fructooligosaccharide mix can enhance Salmonella vaccine efficacy in mice. J Nutr 138, 123–129.
48Field, CJ, McBurney, MI, Massimino, S, Hayek, MG & Sunvold, GD (1999) The fermentable fiber content of the diet alters the function and composition of canine gut associated lymphoid tissue. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 72, 325–341.
49Roller, M, Rechkemmer, G & Watzl, B (2004) Prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis modulates intestinal immune functions in rats. J Nutr 134, 153–156.
50Manhart, N, Spittler, A, Bergmeister, H, Mittlbock, M & Roth, E (2003) Influence of fructooligosaccharides on Peyer's patch lymphocyte numbers in healthy and endotoxemic mice. Nutrition 19, 657–660.
51Hosono, A, Ozawa, A, Kato, R, et al. (2003) Dietary fructooligosaccharides induce immunoregulation of intestinal IgA secretion by murine Peyer's patch cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67, 758–764.
52Nakamura, Y, Nosaka, S, Suzuki, M, et al. (2004) Dietary fructooligosaccharides up-regulate immunoglobulin A response and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor expression in intestines of infant mice. Clin Exp Immunol 137, 52–58.
53Swanson, KS, Grieshop, CM, Flickinger, EA, et al. (2002) Supplemental fructooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides influence immune function, ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities, microbial populations and concentrations of protein catabolites in the large bowel of dogs. J Nutr 132, 980–989.
54Swanson, KS, Grieshop, CM, Flickinger, EA, et al. (2002) Effects of supplemental fructooligosaccharides plus mannanoligosaccharides on immune function and ileal and fecal microbial populations in adult dogs. Arch Tierernahr 56, 309–318.
55Verlindin, A, Hesta, M, Hermans, J & Janssens, G (2006) The effects of inulin supplementation of diets with or without protein sources on digestibility, faecal characterisitcs, haematology and immunoglobulins in dogs. Br J Nutr 96, 936–944.
56Letellier, A, Messier, S, Lessard, L, Chenier, S & Quessy, S (2001) Host response to various treatments to reduce Salmonella infections in swine. Can J Vet Res 65, 168–172.
57Roller, M, Pietro, FA, Caderni, G, Rechkemmer, G & Watzl, B (2004) Intestinal immunity of rats with colon cancer is modulated by oligofructose-enriched inulin combined with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis. Br J Nutr 92, 931–938.
58Grieshop, CM, Flickinger, EA, Bruce, KJ, Patil, AR, Czarnecki-Maulden, GL & Fahey, GC Jr (2004) Gastrointestinal and immunological responses of senior dogs to chicory and mannan-oligosaccharides. Arch Anim Nutr 58, 483–493.
59Firmansyah, A, Pramita, G, Carrie-Fassler, A, Haschke, F & Link Amster, H (2001) Improved humoral immune response to measles vaccine in infants recieving infant cereal with fructooligosaccharides. J Paediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 31, A521.
60Bunout, D, Hirsch, S, Pia De la, MM, et al. (2002) Effects of prebiotics on the immune response to vaccination in the elderly. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 26, 372–376.
61Duggan, C, Penny, ME, Hibberd, P et al. (2003) Oligofructose-supplemented infant cereal: 2 randomized, blinded, community-based trials in Peruvian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 937–942.
62Langkamp-Henken, B, Bender, BS & Gardner, EM (2004) Nutritional formula enhanced immune function and reduced days of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in seniors. J Am Geriatr Soc 52, 3–12.
63Langkamp-Henken, B, Wood, SM, Herlinger-Garcia, KA, et al. (2006) Nutritional formula improved immune profiles of seniors living in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 54, 1861–1870.
64Seidel, C, Boehm, V, Vogelsang, H, et al. (2007) Influence of prebiotics and antioxidants in bread on the immune system, antioxidative status and antioxidative capacity in male smokers and non-smokers. Br J Nutr 97, 349–356.
65Bakker-Zierikzee, AM, Tol, EA, Kroes, H, Alles, MS, Kok, FJ & Bindels, JG (2006) Faecal SIgA secretion in infants fed on pre- or probiotic infant formula. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 17, 134–140.
66Shadid, R, Haarman, M, Knol, J et al. (2007) Effects of galactooligosaccharide and long-chain fructooligosaccharide supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal microbiota and immunity – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1426–1437.
67Bunout, D, Barrera, G, Hirsch, S, et al. (2004) Effects of a nutritional supplement on the immune response and cytokine production in free-living Chilean elderly. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 28, 348–354.
68Rafter, J, Bennett, M, Caderni, G, et al. (2007) Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 488–496.
69Roller, M, Clune, Y, Collins, K, Rechkemmer, G & Watzl, B (2007) Consumption of prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis has minor effects on selected immune parameters in polypectomised and colon cancer patients. Br J Nutr 97, 676–684.
70Albers, R, Antoine, JM, Bourdet-Sicard, R, et al. (2005) Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. Br J Nutr 94, 452–481.
71Sindermann, J, Kruse, A, Frercks, HJ, Schutz, RM & Kirchner, H (1993) Investigations of the lymphokine system in elderly individuals. Mech Ageing Dev 70, 149–159.
72Petkevicius, S, Knudsen, KE, Nansen, P, Roepstorff, A, Skjoth, F & Jensen, K (1997) The impact of diets varying in carbohydrates resistant to endogenous enzymes and lignin on populations of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum in pigs. Parasitology 114, Pt555–568.
73Petkevicius, S, Knudsen, KE, Nansen, P & Murrell, KD (2001) The effect of dietary carbohydrates with different digestibility on the populations of Oesophagostomum dentatum in the intestinal tract of pigs. Parasitology 123, 315–324.
74Petkevicius, S, Bach Knudsen, KE & Murrell, KD (2003) Effects of Oesophagostomum dentatum and dietary carbohydrates on morphology of the large intestine of pigs. Vet Parasitol 116, 125–138.
75Petkevicius, S, Bach Knudsen, KE, Murrell, KD & Wachmann, H (2003) The effect of inulin and sugar beet fibre on Oesophagostomum dentatum infection in pigs. Parasitology 127, 61–68.
76Petkevicius, S, Thomsen, LE, Bach Knudsen, KE, Murrell, KD, Roepstorff, A & Boes, J (2007) The effect of inulin on new and on patent infections of Trichuris suis in growing pigs. Parasitology 134, Suppl. 1, 121–127.
77Thomsen, LE, Petkevicius, S, Bach Knudsen, KE & Roepstorff, A (2005) The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs. Parasitology 131, 857–865.
78Apanavicius, CJ, Powell, KL, Vester, BM et al. (2007) Fructan supplementation and infection affect food intake, fever, and epithelial sloughing from Salmonella challenge in weanling puppies. J Nutr 137, 1923–1930.
79Wolf, B, Meulbroek, J, Jarvis, K, Wheeler, K & Garleb, K (1997) Dietary supplementation with fruoctooligosaccharides increase survival time in a hamster model of Clostridium difficile-colitis. Biosci Microflora 16, 59–64.
80Buddington, KK, Donahoo, JB & Buddington, RK (2002) Dietary oligofructose and inulin protect mice from enteric and systemic pathogens and tumor inducers. J Nutr 132, 472–477.
81Letellier, A, Messier, S, Lessard, L & Quessy, S (2000) Assessment of various treatments to reduce carriage of Salmonella in swine. Can J Vet Res 64, 27–31.
82Correa-Matos, NJ, Donovan, SM, Isaacson, RE, Gaskins, HR, White, BA & Tappenden, KA (2003) Fermentable fiber reduces recovery time and improves intestinal function in piglets following Salmonella typhimurium infection. J Nutr 133, 1845–1852.
83Bunce, T, Howard, MD, Kerley, MS, Allee, GL & Pace, LW (1995) Protective effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in prevention of mortality and morbidity from infectious E. coli. J Anim Sci 71, Suppl. 1, 69.
84ten Bruggencate, SJ, Bovee-Oudenhoven, IM, Lettink-Wissink, ML & van der, Meer R (2003) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides dose-dependently increase translocation of salmonella in rats. J Nutr 133, 2313–2318.
85Bovee-Oudenhoven, IM, ten Bruggencate, SJ, Lettink-Wissink, ML & van der, Meer R (2003) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides and lactulose inhibit intestinal colonisation but stimulate translocation of salmonella in rats. Gut 52, 1572–1578.
86ten Bruggencate, SJ, Bovee-Oudenhoven, IM, Lettink-Wissink, ML, Katan, MB & van der, Meer R (2004) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin decrease resistance of rats to salmonella: protective role of calcium. Gut 53, 530–535.
87ten Bruggencate, SJ, Bovee-Oudenhoven, IM, Lettink-Wissink, ML & van der, Meer R (2005) Dietary fructooligosaccharides increase intestinal permeability in rats. J Nutr 135, 837–842.
88Qiao, H, Duffy, LC, Griffiths, E et al. (2002) Immune responses in rhesus rotavirus-challenged BALB/c mice treated with bifidobacteria and prebiotic supplements. Pediatr Res 51, 750–755.
89Saavedra, J, Tschernia, A, Moore, N et al. (1999) Gastrointestinal function in infants consuming a weaing food supplemented with oligofructose, a prebiotic. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29, A95.
90Tschernia, A, Moore, N, Abi-Hanna, A, et al. (1999) Effects of long-term supplementation of a weaning food supplemented with oligofructose, a prebiotic, on general infant health status. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 29, A58.
91Waligora-Dupriet, AJ, Campeotto, F, Nicolis, I, et al. (2007) Effect of oligofructose supplementation on gut microflora and well-being in young children attending a day care centre. Int J Food Microbiol 113, 108–113.
92Juffrie, M (2002) Fructooligosaccharide and diarrhea. Biosci Microflora 21, 31–34.
93Bruzzese, E, Volpicelli, M, Salvini, F, et al. (2006) Early administration of GOS/FOS prevents intestinal and respiratory infections in infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42, Suppl. 5, E95.
94Francavilla, R, Castellaneta, S, Masciale, A, et al. (2006) Intestinal permeability and faecal flora of infants fed with a prebiotic supplemented formula: a double blind placebo controlled study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42, Suppl. 5, E96.
95Hoekstra, JH, Szajewska, H & Zikri, MA (2004) Oral rehydration solution containing a mixture of non-digestible carbohydrates in the treatment of acute diarrhea: a multicenter randomized placebo controlled study on behalf of the ESPGHAN working group on intestinal infections. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 39, 239–245.
96Puccio, G, Cajozzo, C, Meli, F, Rochat, F, Grathwohl, D & Steenhout, P (2007) Clinical evaluation of a new starter formula for infants containing live Bifidobacterium longum BL999 and prebiotics. Nutrition 23, 1–8.
97Gotteland, M, Poliak, L, Cruchet, S & Brunser, O (2005) Effect of regular ingestion of Saccharomyces boulardii plus inulin or Lactobacillus acidophilus LB in children colonized by Helicobacter pylori. Acta Paediatr 94, 1747–1751.
98Lewis, S, Burmeister, S & Brazier, J (2005) Effect of the prebiotic oligofructose on relapse of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a randomized, controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 3, 442–448.
99Lewis, S, Burmeister, S, Cohen, S, Brazier, J & Awasthi, A (2005) Failure of dietary oligofructose to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21, 469–477.
100Cummings, JH, Christie, S & Cole, TJ (2001) A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15, 1139–1145.
101Olguin, F, Araya, M, Hirsch, S, et al. (2005) Prebiotic ingestion does not improve gastrointestinal barrier function in burn patients. Burns 31, 482–488.
102Scholtens, PA, Alles, MS, Willemsen, LE, et al. (2006) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides in healthy adults do not negatively affect faecal cytotoxicity: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Br J Nutr 95, 1143–1149.
103ten Bruggencate, SJ, Bovee-Oudenhoven, IM, Lettink-Wissink, ML, Katan, MB & van der, MR (2006) Dietary fructooligosaccharides affect intestinal barrier function in healthy men. J Nutr 136, 70–74.
104Sobotka, L, Bratova, M, Slemrova, M, Manak, J, Vizd'a, J & Zadak, Z (1997) Inulin as the soluble fiber in liquid enteral nutrition. Nutrition 13, 21–25.
105Jain, PK, McNaught, CE, Anderson, AD, MacFie, J & Mitchell, CJ (2004) Influence of synbiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb 12, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and oligofructose on gut barrier function and sepsis in critically ill patients: a randomised controlled trial. Clin Nutr 23, 467–475.
106Kotzampassi, K, Giamarellos-Bourboulis, EJ, Voudouris, A, Kazamias, P & Eleftheriadis, E (2006) Benefits of a synbiotic formula (Synbiotic 2000Forte) in critically ill trauma patients: early results of a randomized controlled trial. World J Surg 30, 1848–1855.
107Reddy, BS, MacFie, J, Gatt, M, Larsen, CN, Jensen, SS & Leser, TD (2007) Randomized clinical trial of effect of synbiotics, neomycin and mechanical bowel preparation on intestinal barrier function in patients undergoing colectomy. Br J Surg 94, 546–554.
108Rayes, N, Seehofer, D, Theruvath, T, et al. (2007) Effect of enteral nutrition and synbiotics on bacterial infection rates after pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy: a randomized, double-blind trial. Ann Surg 246, 36–41.
109Rayes, N, Seehofer, D, Theruvath, T, et al. (2005) Supply of pre- and probiotics reduces bacterial infection rates after liver transplantation – a randomized, double-blind trial. Am J Transplant 5, 125–130.
110Anderson, AD, McNaught, CE, Jain, PK & MacFie, J (2004) Randomised clinical trial of synbiotic therapy in elective surgical patients. Gut 53, 241–245.
111Cherbut, C, Michel, C & Lecannu, G (2003) The prebiotic characteristics of fructooligosaccharides are necessary for reduction of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. J Nutr 133, 21–27.
112Winkler, J, Butler, R & Symonds, E (2007) Fructo-oligosaccharide reduces inflammation in a dextran sodium sulphate mouse model of colitis. Dig Dis Sci 52, 52–58.
113Moreau, NM, Martin, LJ, Toquet, CS et al. (2003) Restoration of the integrity of rat caeco-colonic mucosa by resistant starch, but not by fructo-oligosaccharides, in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis. Br J Nutr 90, 75–85.
114Schultz, M, Munro, K, Tannock, GW et al. (2004) Effects of feeding a probiotic preparation (SIM) containing inulin on the severity of colitis and on the composition of the intestinal microflora in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11, 581–587.
115Neu, J (2005) Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: an update. Acta Paediatr Suppl 94, Suppl. 449, 100–105.
116Butel, MJ, Catala, I & Waligora-Dupriet, AJ (2001) Protective effect of dietary oligofructose against cecitis induced by clostridia in gnotobiotic quails. Microbial Ecol Health Dis 13, 166–172.
117Sonoyama, K, Watanabe, H, Watanabe, J, et al. (2005) Allergic airway eosinophilia is suppressed in ovalbumin-sensitized Brown Norway rats fed raffinose and alpha-linked galactooligosaccharide. J Nutr 135, 538–543.
118Casellas, F, Borruel, N, Torrejon, A, et al. (2007) Oral oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation in acute ulcerative colitis is well tolerated and associated with lowered faecal calprotectin. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 25, 1061–1067.
119Welters, CF, Heineman, E, Thunnissen, FB, van den Bogaard, AE, Soeters, PB & Baeten, CG (2002) Effect of dietary inulin supplementation on inflammation of pouch mucosa in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 45, 621–627.
120Lindsay, JO, Whelan, K & Stagg, AJ (2006) Clinical, microbiological, and immunological effects of fructo-oligosaccharide in patients with Crohn's disease. Gut 55, 348–355.
121Hunter, JO, Tuffnell, Q & Lee, AJ (1999) Controlled trial of oligofructose in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. J Nutr 129, Suppl. 7, 1451S–1453S.
122Olesen, M & Gudmand-Hoyer, E (2000) Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fructooligosaccharides in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1570–1575.
123Astengiano, M, Pellicano, R, Terzi, E, Simondi, D & Rizzetto, M (2006) Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control experience. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 52, 359–363.
124Moro, G, Arslanoglu, S, Stahl, B, Jelinek, J, Wahn, U & Boehm, G (2006) A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age. Arch Dis Child 91, 814–819.
125Furrie, E, Macfarlane, S, Kennedy, A, et al. (2005) Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut 54, 242–249.
126Chermesh, I, Tamir, A, Reshef, R, et al. (2007) Failure of Synbiotic 2000 to prevent postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 52, 385–389.
127Olah, A, Belagyi, T, Issekutz, A & Olgyai, G (2005) Combination of early nasojejunal feeding with modern synbiotic therapy in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (prospective, randomized, double-blind study). Magy Seb 58, 173–178.
128Pierre, F, Perrin, P, Champ, M, Bornet, F, Meflah, K & Menanteau, J (1997) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduce the occurrence of colon tumors and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice. Cancer Res 57, 225–228.
129Herich, R, Revajova, V, Levkut, M, et al. (2002) The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei and Raftilose P95 upon the non-specific immune response of piglets. Food Agric Immunol 14, 171–179.
130Stillie, RM, Bell, RC & Field, CJ (2005) Diabetes-prone BioBreeding rats do not have a normal immune response when weaned to a diet containing fermentable fibre. Br J Nutr 93, 645–653.
131Adogony, V, Respondek, F, Biourge, V, et al. (2007) Effects of dietary scFOS on immunoglobulins in colostrums and milk of bitches. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 91, 169–174.
132Agustina, R, Lukito, W, Firmansyah, A, Suhardjo, HN, Murniati, D & Bindels, J (2007) The effect of early nutritional supplementation with a mixture of probiotic, prebiotic, fiber and micronutrients in infants with acute diarrhea in Indonesia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16, 435–442.
133Fujitani, S, Ueno, K, Kamiya, T, et al. (2007) Increased number of CCR4-positive cells in the duodenum of ovalbumin-induced food allergy model Nc/jic mice and antiallergic activity of fructooligosaccharides. Allergol Int 56, 131–138.
134Paineau, D, Payen, F, Panserieu, S, et al. (2008) The effects of regular consumption of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on digestive comfort of subjects with minor functional bowel disorders. Br J Nutr 99, 311–318.