This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1AD Lopez & CC Murray (1998) The global burden of disease, 1990–2020. Nat Med 4, 1241–1243.
2FJ He , CA Nowson , M Lucas , (2007) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 21, 717–728.
4KJ Joshipura , FB Hu , JE Manson , (2001) The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 134, 1106–1114.
5S Liu , IM Lee , U Ajani , (2001) Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: The Physicians' Health Study. Int J Epidemiol 30, 130–135.
6FJ He , CA Nowson & GA MacGregor (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lancet 367, 320–326.
7MW Gillman , LA Cupples , D Gagnon , (1995) Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on development of stroke in men. JAMA 273, 1113–1117.
8KJ Joshipura , A Ascherio , JE Manson , (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 282, 1233–1239.
10JM Gaziano , JE Manson , LG Branch , (1995) A prospective study of consumption of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables and decreased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol 5, 255–260.
12CE Cross , B Halliwell , ET Borish , (1987) Oxygen radicals and human disease. Ann Intern Med 107, 526–545.
13G Finking & H Hanke (1997) Nikolaj Nikolajewitsch Anitschkow (1885–1964) established the cholesterol-fed rabbit as a model for atherosclerosis research. Atherosclerosis 135, 1–7.
15JA Berliner & JW Heinecke (1996) The role of oxidized lipoproteins in atherogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med 20, 707–727.
17MD Stringer , PG Gorog , A Freeman , (1989) Lipid peroxides and atherosclerosis. BMJ 298, 281–284.
18J Regnstrom , J Nilsson , P Tornvall , (1992) Susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein oxidation and coronary atherosclerosis in man. Lancet 339, 1183–1186.
19MT Quinn , S Parthasarthy , LG Fong , (1987) Oxidatively modified low density lipoproteins: a potential role in recruitment and retention of monocyte/macrophages during atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84, 2995–2998.
20MT Quinn , S Parthasarthy & D Steinberg (1985) Endothelial cell derived chemotactic activity for mouse peritoneal macrophages and the effects of modified forms of low density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82, 5949–5953.
22DW Morel , PE DiCorleto & GM Chisolm (1984) Endothelial and smooth muscle cells alter low density lipoprotein in vitro by free radical oxidation. Arteriosclerosis 4, 357–364.
24H Cai & DG Harrison (2000) Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: the role of oxidant stress. Circ Res 87, 840–844.
25JH Chin , S Azhar & BB Hoffman (1992) Inactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor by oxidized lipoproteins. J Clin Invest 89, 10–18.
26J Galle , A Mulsch , R Busse , (1991) Effects of native and oxidized low density lipoproteins on formation and inactivation of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Arterioscler Thromb 11, 198–203.
28UP Steinbrecher , S Parthasarathy , DS Leake , (1984) Modification of low density lipoprotein by endothelial cells involves lipid peroxidation and degradation of low density lipoprotein phospholipids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81, 3883–3887.
29S Taddei , A Virdis , L Ghiadoni , (1997) Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Circulation 97, 2222–2229.
30RS Crawford , EA Kirk , ME Rosenfeld , (1998) Dietary antioxidants inhibit development of fatty streak lesions in the LDL receptor-deficient mouse. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18, 1506–1513.
31J Fruebis , TE Carew & W Palinski (1995) Effect of vitamin E on atherogenesis in LDL receptor-deficient rabbits. Atherosclerosis 117, 217–224.
33TL Smith & FA Kummerow (1989) Effect of dietary vitamin E on plasma lipids and atherogenesis in restricted ovulator chickens. Atherosclerosis 75, 105–109.
34A Mezzetti , G Zuliani , F Romano , (2001) Vitamin E and lipid peroxide plasma levels predict the risk of cardiovascular events in a group of healthy very old people. J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 533–537.
36HC Chiu , JR Jeng & SM Shieh (1994) Increased oxidizability of plasma low density lipoprotein from patients with coronary artery disease. Biochim Biophys Acta 1225, 200–208.
37PV Luoma , S Nayha , K Sikkila , (1995) High serum α-tocopherol, albumin, selenium and cholesterol, and low mortality from coronary heart disease in northern Finland. J Intern Med 237, 49–54.
39KF Gey , HB Stahelin & M Eichholzer (1993) Poor plasma status of carotene and vitamin C is associated with higher mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke: Basel Prospective Study. Clin Investig 71, 3–6.
42W Jessup , SM Rankin , CV De Whalley , (1990) α-Tocopherol consumption during low-density-lipoprotein oxidation. Biochem J 265, 399–405.
43GW Burton , A Joyce & KU Ingold (1983) Is vitamin E the only lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant in human blood plasma and erythrocyte membranes? Arch Biochem Biophys 221, 281–290.
44MG Traber (2007) Vitamin E regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Nutr 27, 347–362.
45HM Princen , G van Poppel , C Vogelezang , (1992) Supplementation with vitamin E but not β-carotene in vivo protects low density lipoprotein from lipid peroxidation in vitro. Effect of cigarette smoking. Arterioscler Thromb 12, 554–562.
48KN Islam , S Devaraj & I Jialal (1998) α-Tocopherol enrichment of monocytes decreases agonist-induced adhesion to human endothelial cells. Circulation 98, 2255–2261.
49S Devaraj , D Li & I Jialal (1996) The effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function. Decreased lipid oxidation, interleukin 1 β secretion, and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. J Clin Invest 98, 756–763.
50R Faruqi , C de la Motte & PE DiCorleto (1994) α-Tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 94, 592–600.
51D Zapolska-Downar , A Zapolski-Downar , M Markiewski , (2000) Selective inhibition by α-tocopherol of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274, 609–615.
52D Wu , T Koga , KR Martin , (1999) Effect of vitamin E on human aortic endothelial cell production of chemokines and adhesion to monocytes. Atherosclerosis 147, 297–307.
53S Devaraj & I Jialal (1999) α-Tocopherol decreases interleukin-1 β release from activated human monocytes by inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 1125–1133.
54A Munteanu , M Taddei , I Tamburini , (2006) Antagonistic effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein and α-tocopherol on CD36 scavenger receptor expression in monocytes: involvement of protein kinase b and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. J Biol Chem 281, 6489–6497.
57NK Ozer , P Palozza , D Boscoboinik , (1993) d-α-Tocopherol inhibits low density lipoprotein induced proliferation and protein kinase C activity in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett 322, 307–310.
58JE Freedman , JH Farhat , J Loscalzo , (1996) α-Tocopherol inhibits aggregation of human platelets by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism. Circulation 94, 2434–2440.
59M Steiner (1991) Influence of vitamin E on platelet function in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 10, 466–473.
60JF Keaney Jr, JM Gaziano , A Xu , (1993) Dietary antioxidants preserve endothelium-dependent vessel relaxation in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90, 11880–11884.
61T Murohara , H Ikeda , A Katoh , (2002) Vitamin E inhibits lysophosphatidylcholine-induced endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. Antioxid Redox Signal 4, 791–798.
63S Sugiyama , K Kugiyama , N Ogata , (1998) Biphasic regulation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB activity in human endothelial cells by lysophosphatidylcholine through protein kinase C-mediated pathway. ArteriosclerThromb Vasc Biol 18, 568–576.
64D Li , T Saldeen & JL Mehta (2000) Effects of α-tocopherol on ox-LDL-mediated degradation of IκB and apoptosis in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 36, 297–301.
65K Goya , S Sumitani , M Otsuki , (2006) The thiazolidinedione drug troglitazone up-regulates nitric oxide synthase expression in vascular endothelial cells. J Diab Complicat 20, 336–342.
66JF Keaney Jr, Y Guo , D Cunningham , (1996) Vascular incorporation of α-tocopherol prevents endothelial dysfunction due to oxidized LDL by inhibiting protein kinase C stimulation. J Clin Invest 98, 386–394.
67G Ulrich-Merzenich , C Metzner , B Schiermeyer , (2002) Vitamin C and vitamin E antagonistically modulate human vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation. Eur J Nutr 41, 27–34.
69M Uemura , H Manabe , N Yoshida , (2002) α-Tocopherol prevents apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells via a mechanism exceeding that of mere antioxidation. Eur J Pharmacol 456, 29–37.
70D Li , T Saldeen , F Romeo , (2000) Oxidized LDL up-regulates angiotensin II type receptor expression in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells: the potential role of transcription factor NF-κB. Circulation 102, 1970–1976.
71A Azzi , E Aratri , D Boscoboinik , (1998) Molecular basis of α-tocopherol control of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Biofactors 7, 3–14.
72J Haendeler , AM Zeiher & S Dimmeler (1996) Vitamin C and E prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells by modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax. Eur J Pharmacol 317, 407–411.
73T Koga , P Kwan , L Zubik , (2004) Vitamin E supplementation suppresses macrophage accumulation and endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules in the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Atherosclerosis 176, 265–272.
74Y Terasawa , Z Ladha , SW Leonard , (2000) Increased atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice deficient in α-tocopherol transfer protein and vitamin E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 13830–13834.
76I Jialal & SM Grundy (1991) Preservation of the endogenous antioxidants in low density lipoprotein by ascorbate but not probucol during oxidative modification. J Clin Invest 87, 597–601.
78L Rossig , J Hoffmann , B Hugel , (2001) Vitamin C inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis in congestive heart failure. Circulation 104, 2182–2187.
79G Ulrich-Merzenich , H Zeitler , D Panek , (2007) Vitamin C promotes human endothelial cell growth via the ERK-signalling pathway. Eur J Nutr 46, 87–94.
80H Tomoda , M Yoshitake , K Morimoto , (1996) Possible prevention of postangioplasty restenosis by ascorbic acid. Am J Cardiol 78, 1284–1286.
81SJ Rayment , J Shaw , KJ Woollard , (2003) Vitamin C supplementation in normal subjects reduces constitutive ICAM-1 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 308, 339–345.
82R Heller , F Munscher-Paulig , R Grabner , (1999) l-Ascorbic acid potentiates nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 274, 8254–8260.
83N Gokce , JF Keaney Jr, B Frei , (1999) Long term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 99, 3234–3240.
84RC Siow , JP Richards , KC Pedley , (1999) Vitamin C protects human vascular smooth muscle cells against apoptosis induced by moderately oxidized LDL containing high levels of lipid hydroperoxides. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 2387–2394.
85PD Reaven , A Khouw , WF Beltz , (1993) Effect of dietary antioxidant combinations in humans. Protection of LDL by vitamin E but not by β-carotene. Arterioscler Thromb 13, 590–600.
86H Tsuchihashi , M Kigoshi , M Iwatsuki , (1995) Action of β-carotene as an antioxidant against lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 323, 137–147.
87I Jialal , EP Norkus , L Cristol , (1991) β-Carotene inhibits the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1086, 134–138.
88M Rautalahti , D Albanes , J Virtamo , (1997) β-Carotene did not work: aftermath of the ATBC study. Cancer Lett 114, 235–236.
89P Palozza , G Calviello & GM Bartoli (1995) Prooxidant activity of β-carotene under 100 % oxygen pressure in rat liver microsomes. Free Radic Biol Med 19, 887–892.
90A Hozawa , DR Jacobs Jr, MW Steffes , (2007) Relationships of circulating carotenoid concentrations with several markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)/Young Adult Longitudinal Trends in Antioxidants (YALTA) study. Clin Chem 53, 447–455.
91A D'Odorico , D Martines , S Kiechl , (2000) High plasma levels of α- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study. Atherosclerosis 153, 231–239.
92Y Ito , M Kurata , K Suzuki , (2006) Cardiovascular disease mortality and serum carotenoid levels: a Japanese population-based follow-up study. J Epidemiol 16, 154–160.
94LH Kushi , AR Folsom , RJ Prineas , (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 334, 1156–1162.
96EB Rimm , MJ Stampfer , A Ascherio , (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med 328, 1450–1456.
97MJ Stampfer , CH Hennekens , JE Manson , (1993) Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. N Engl J Med 328, 1444–1449.
98SK Osganian , MJ Stampfer , E Rimm , (2003) Vitamin C and risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 42, 246–252.
99JE Enstrom , LE Kanim & MA Klein (1992) Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiology 3, 194–202.
105H Kappus & AT Diplock (1992) Tolerance and safety of vitamin E: a toxicological position report. Free Radic Biol Med 13, 55–74.
107S Hercberg , P Galan , P Preziosi , (2004) The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 164, 2335–2342.
108IM Lee , NR Cook , JM Gaziano , (2005) Vitamin E in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer: the Women's Health Study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 294, 56–65.
109RM Salonen , K Nyyssonen , J Kaikkonen , (2003) Six-year effect of combined vitamin C and E supplementation on atherosclerotic progression: the Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) Study. Circulation 107, 947–953.
110HN Hodis , WJ Mack , L LaBree , (2002) α-Tocopherol supplementation in healthy individuals reduces low-density lipoprotein oxidation but not atherosclerosis: the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS). Circulation 106, 1453–1459.
111WG Christen , JM Gaziano , (2000) Design of Physicians' Health Study II – a randomized trial of β-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann Epidemiol 10, 125–134.
112JT Salonen , K Nyyssonen , R Salonen , (2000) Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: a randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med 248, 377–386.
113CH Hennekens , JE Buring , JE Manson , (1996) Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with β-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 1145–1149.
114GS Omenn , GE Goodman , MD Thornquist , (1996) Effects of a combination of β-carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 1150–1155.
115Anonymous (1994) The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 330, 1029–1035.
116WJ Blot , JY Li , PR Taylor , (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 1483–1492.
117NR Cook , CM Albert , JM Gaziano , (2007) A randomized factorial trial of vitamins C and vitamin E and β-carotene in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in women: results from the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study. Arch Intern Med 167, 1610–1618.
118DD Waters , EL Alderman , J Hsia , (2002) Effects of hormone replacement therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplements on coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288, 2432–2440.
119Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group (2002) MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20 536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 360, 23–33.
120BG Brown , XQ Zhao , A Chait , (2001) Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 345, 1583–1592.
121D Steinberg (1995) Clinical trials of antioxidants in atherosclerosis: are we doing the right thing? Lancet 346, 36–38.
124Anonymous (1999) Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto miocardico. Lancet 354, 447–455.
126I Jialal , CJ Fuller & BA Huet (1995) The effect of α-tocopherol supplementation on LDL oxidation. A dose–response study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15, 190–198.
127LA Simons , M Von Konigsmark & S Balasubramaniam (1996) What dose of vitamin E is required to reduce susceptibility of LDL to oxidation? Aust N Z J Med 26, 496–503.
129ID Podmore , HR Griffiths , KE Herbert , (1998) Vitamin C exhibits pro-oxidant properties. Nature 392, 559.
130JF Keaney Jr, JM Gaziano , A Xu , (1994) Low-dose α-tocopherol improves and high-dose α-tocopherol worsens endothelial vasodilator function in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Clin Invest 93, 844–851.
131MC Cheung , XQ Zhao , A Chait , (2001) Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 1320–1326.
132JJ Corrigan Jr (1982) The effect of vitamin E on warfarin-induced vitamin K deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 393, 361–368.
133JC Fang , S Kinlay , J Beltrame , (2002) Effect of vitamins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: a randomised trial. Lancet 359, 1108–1113.
134M Boaz , S Smetana , T Weinstein , (2000) Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease in endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 356, 1213–1218.
135NG Stephens , A Parsons , PM Schofield , (1996) Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347, 781–786.
136JE Manson , JM Gaziano , A Spelsberg , (1995) A secondary prevention trial of antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease in women. Rationale, design, and methods. The WACS Research Group. Ann Epidemiol 5, 261–269.
137PP Hoppe & G Krennrich (2000) Bioavailability and potency of natural-source and all-racemic α-tocopherol in the human: a dispute. Eur J Nutr 39, 183–193.
139S Vega-Lopez , N Kaul , S Devaraj , (2004) Supplementation with ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and all-rac α-tocopherol alone and in combination failed to exert an anti-inflammatory effect in human volunteers. Metabolism 53, 236–240.
140JE Upritchard , WH Sutherland & JI Mann (2000) Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C on LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 23, 733–738.
143Q Jiang , I Elson-Schwab , C Courtemanche , (2000) γ-Tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to α-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 11494–11499.
146P Di Mascio , S Kaiser & H Sies (1989) Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 274, 532–538.
148BM McQuillan , J Hung , JP Beilby , (2001) Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis. The Perth Carotid Ultrasound Disease Assessment study (CUDAS). J Am Coll Cardiol 38, 1788–1794.
151R Stocker , VW Bowry & B Frei (1991) Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxidation than does α-tocopherol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88, 1646–1650.
152J Neuzil , SR Thomas & R Stocker (1997) Requirement for, promotion, or inhibition by α-tocopherol of radical-induced initiation of plasma lipoprotein lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med 22, 57–71.
153GR Buettner (1993) The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation, α-tocopherol, and ascorbate. Arch Biochem Biophys 300, 535–543.
154JE Packer , TF Slater & RL Willson (1979) Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature 278, 737–738.
155R Hirano , K Kondo , T Iwamoto , (1997) Effects of antioxidants on the oxidative susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 43, 435–444.
156K Sato , E Niki & H Shimasaki (1990) Free radical-mediated chain oxidation of low density lipoprotein and its synergistic inhibition by vitamin E and vitamin C. Arch Biochem Biophys 279, 402–405.
157VA Rifici & AK Khachadurian (1993) Dietary supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits in vitro oxidation of lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutr 12, 631–637.
158P Palozza & NI Krinsky (1992) β-Carotene and α-tocopherol are synergistic antioxidants. Arch Biochem Biophys 297, 184–187.
159I Jialal & SM Grundy (1993) Effect of combined supplementation with α-tocopherol, ascorbate, and β-carotene on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Circulation 88, 2780–2786.
160CJ Fuller , MA May & KJ Martin (2000) The effect of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation on LDL oxidizability and neutrophil respiratory burst in young smokers. J Am Coll Nutr 19, 361–369.
161RB Singh , MA Niaz , SS Rastogi , (1996) Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3). Am J Cardiol 77, 232–236.
162AJ Yang & GM Lowe (2001) Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of carotenoids. Arch Biochem Biophys 385, 20–27.
163Y Arad , LA Spadaro , M Roth , (2005) Treatment of asymptomatic adults with elevated coronary calcium scores with atorvastatin, vitamin C, and vitamin E: the St. Francis Heart Study randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 46, 166–172.
164S Kiokias & MH Gordon (2003) Dietary supplementation with a natural carotenoid mixture decreases oxidative stress. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 1135–1140.
165W Stahl , A Junghans , B de Boer , (1998) Carotenoid mixtures protect multilamellar liposomes against oxidative damage: synergistic effects of lycopene and lutein. FEBS Lett 427, 305–308.
167C Qiao , K Zhang & J Xia (2007) Influence of oxidized low density lipoprotein on the proliferation of human artery smooth muscle cells in vitro. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 27, 20–23.
168W Siess , KJ Zangl , M Essler , (1999) Lysophosphatidic acid mediates the rapid activation of platelets and endothelial cells by mildly oxidized low density lipoprotein and accumulates in human atherosclerotic lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 6931–6936.
169M Anselmi , U Garbin , P Agostoni , (2006) Plasma levels of oxidized-low-density lipoproteins are higher in patients with unstable angina and correlated with angiographic coronary complex plaques. Atherosclerosis 185, 114–120.
171J Jandak , M Steiner & PD Richardson (1998) Reduction of platelet adhesiveness by vitamin E supplementation in humans. Thromb Res 49, 393–404.
172D Steinberg & JL Witztum (2002) Is the oxidative modification hypothesis relevant to human atherosclerosis? Do the antioxidant trials conducted to date refute the hypothesis? Circulation 105, 2107–2111.
174JM Rapola , J Virtamo , S Ripatti , (1997) Randomised trial of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplements on incidence of major coronary events in men with previous myocardial infarction. Lancet 349, 1715–1720.
175ER Miller III, R Pastor-Barriuso , D Dalal , (2005) Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 142, 37–46.
176J Virtamo , JM Rapola , S Ripatti , (1998) Effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of primary nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 158, 668–675.
177KM Hayden , KA Welsh-Bohmer , HJ Wengreen , (2007) Risk of mortality with vitamin E supplements: the Cache County study. Am J Med 120, 180–184.
178JZ Sun , XL Tang , SW Park , (1996) Evidence for an essential role of reactive oxygen species in the genesis of late preconditioning against myocardial stunning in conscious pigs. J Clin Invest 97, 562–576.
179VW Bowry & R Stocker (1993) The prooxidant effect of vitamin E on the radical-initiated oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein. J Am Chen Soc 115, 6029–6044.
180I Jialal , DA Freeman & SM Grundy (1991) Varying susceptibility of different low density lipoproteins to oxidative modification. Arterioscler Thromb 11, 482–488.
181H Esterbauer , H Puhl , M Dieber-Rotheneder , (1991) Effect of antioxidants on oxidative modification of LDL. Ann Med 23, 573–581.
182B Halliwell (2000) The antioxidant paradox. Lancet 355, 1179–1180.
184EA Meagher , OP Barry , JA Lawson , (2001) Effects of vitamin E on lipid peroxidation in healthy persons. JAMA 285, 1178–1182.
185P Patrignani , MR Panara , S Tacconelli , (2000) Effects of vitamin E supplementation on F(2)-isoprostane and thromboxane biosynthesis in healthy cigarette smokers. Circulation 102, 539–545.
186M Brown (1999) Do vitamin E and fish oil protect against ischaemic heart disease? Lancet 354, 441–442.
187E Meagher & DJ Rader (2001) Antioxidant therapy and atherosclerosis: animal and human studies. Trends Cardiovasc Med 11, 162–165.
188G Block , M Dietrich , EP Norkus , (2002) Factors associated with oxidative stress in human populations. Am J Epidemiol 156, 274–285.
189JA Panza , PR Casino , CM Kilcoyne , (1993) Role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation of patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 87, 1468–1474.
191T Heitzer , H Just & T Munzel (1996) Antioxidant vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic smokers. Circulation 94, 6–9.
192T Neunteufl , K Kostner , R Katzenschlager , (1998) Additional benefit of vitamin E supplementation to simvastatin therapy on vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Coll Cardiol 32, 711–716.
193Y Plantinga , L Ghiadoni , A Magagna , (2007) Supplementation with vitamins C and E improves arterial stiffness and endothelial function in essential hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 20, 392–397.
194RA Skyrme-Jones , RC O'Brien , KL Berry , (2000) Vitamin E supplementation improves endothelial function in type I diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol 36, 94–102.
195P Poredos , M Orehek & E Tratnik (1999) Smoking is associated with dose-related increase of intima-media thickness and endothelial dysfunction. Angiology 50, 201–208.
196SA Glantz & WW Parmley (1991) Passive smoking and heart disease. Epidemiology, physiology, and biochemistry. Circulation 83, 1–12.
197D Harats , M Ben-Naim , Y Dabach , (1989) Cigarette smoking renders LDL susceptible to peroxidative modification and enhanced metabolism by macrophages. Atherosclerosis 79, 245–252.
198CS Liu , CK Lii , CC Ou , (2000) Autoantibody against oxidized low-density lipoproteins may be enhanced by cigarette smoking. Chem Biol Interact 127, 125–137.
199JD Morrow , B Frei , AW Longmire , (1995) Increase in circulating products of lipid peroxidation (F2-isoprostanes) in smokers. Smoking as a cause of oxidative damage. N Engl J Med 332, 1198–1203.
200A Mezzetti , D Lapenna , SD Pierdomenico , (1995) Vitamins E, C and lipid peroxidation in plasma and arterial tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Atherosclerosis 112, 91–99.
202H Faure , P Preziosi , AM Roussel , (2006) Factors influencing blood concentration of retinol, α-tocopherol, vitamin C, and β-carotene in the French participants of the SU.VI.MAX trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 706–717.
203M Ayaori , T Hisada , M Suzukawa , (2000) Plasma levels and redox status of ascorbic acid and levels of lipid peroxidation products in active and passive smokers. Environ Health Perspect 108, 105–108.
204B Frei , TM Forte , BN Ames , (1991) Gas phase oxidants of cigarette smoke induce lipid peroxidation and changes in lipoprotein properties in human blood plasma. Protective effects of ascorbic acid. Biochem J 277, 133–138.
209CJ Fuller , SM Grundy , EP Norkus , (1996) Effect of ascorbate supplementation on low density lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. Atherosclerosis 119, 139–150.
211HS Kim & BM Lee (2001) Protective effects of antioxidant supplementation on plasma lipid peroxidation in smokers. J Toxicol Environ Health A 63, 583–598.
212TG Truscott (1996) β-Carotene and disease: a suggested pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant mechanism and speculations concerning its role in cigarette smoking. J Photochem Photobiol B 35, 233–235.
213RS Strauss (1999) Comparison of serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in a cross-sectional sample of obese and non-obese children (NHANES III). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Pediatr 134, 160–165.
214T Decsi , D Molnar & B Koletzko (1997) Reduced plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in obese boys. J Pediatr 130, 653–655.
216JL Ble-Castillo , G Cleva-Villanueva , JC Diaz-Zagova , (2007) Effects of α-tocopherol on oxidative status and metabolic profile in overweight women. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4, 260–267.
217WH Sutherland , PJ Manning , RJ Walker , (2007) Vitamin E supplementation and plasma 8-isoprostane and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Obestity (Silver Spring) 15, 386–391.
218G Davi , P Alessandrini , A Mezzetti , (1997) In vivo formation of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 α is increased in hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 3230–3235.
221A Lavy , GJ Brook , G Dankner , (1991) Enhanced in vitro oxidation of plasma lipoproteins derived from hypercholesterolemic patients. Metabolism 40, 794–799.
222RA Parker , T Sabrah , M Cap , (1995) Relation of vascular oxidative stress, α-tocopherol, and hypercholesterolemia to early atherosclerosis in hamsters. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 15, 349–358.
224JA Simon & ES Hudes (1998) Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum lipids and lipoproteins in US adults. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 250–255.
226U Singh , J Otvos , A Dasgupta , (2007) High-dose α-tocopherol therapy does not affect HDL subfractions in patients with coronary artery disease on statin therapy. Clin Chem 53, 525–528.
227SW Leonard , JD Joss , DJ Mustacich , (2007) Effects of vitamin E on cholesterol levels of hypercholersterolemic patients receiving statins. Am J Health Syst Pharm 64, 2257–2266.
228A Jula , J Marniemi , R Huupponen , (2002) Effects of diet and simvastatin on serum lipids, insulin, and antioxidants in hypercholersterolemic men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 287, 598–605.
229R Cangemi , L Loffredo , R Carnevale , (2008) Early decrease of oxidative stress by atorvastatin in hypercholesterolaemic patients: effect on circulating vitamin E. Eur Heart J 29, 54–62.
230S Blum , U Milman , C Shapira , (2008) Dual therapy with statins and antioxidants is superior to statins alone in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, e18–e20.
231U Landmesser & DG Harrison (2001) Oxidative stress and vascular damage in hypertension. Coron Artery Dis 12, 455–461.
232C Russo , O Olivieri , D Girelli , (1998) Anti-oxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 16, 1267–1271.
233LJ Appel , TJ Moore , E Obarzanek , (1997) A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 336, 1117–1124.
234J Chen , J He , L Hamm , V Batuman , (2002) Serum antioxidant vitamins and blood pressure in the United States population. Hypertension 40, 810–816.
236YK On , CH Kim , DW Sohn , (2002) Improvement of endothelial function by amlodipine and vitamin C in essential hypertension. Korean J Intern Med 17, 131–137.
238R Rodrigo , H Prat , W Passalacqua , (2007) Decrease of oxidative stress through vitamins C and E supplementation associates with blood pressure reduction in essential hypertensives. Clin Sci (Lond) 114, 625–634.
239MD Fotherby , JC Williams , LA Forster , (2000) Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons. J Hypertens 18, 411–415.
240AR Ness , KT Khaw , S Bingham , (1996) Vitamin C status and blood pressure. J Hypertens 14, 503–508.
241CJ Bates , CM Walmsley , A Prentice , (1998) Does vitamin C reduce blood pressure? Results of a large study of people aged 65 or older. J Hypertens 16, 925–932.
243ER Miller III, LJ Appel , OA Levander , (1997) The effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. J Cardiovasc Risk 4, 19–24.
244MK Kim , S Sasaki , S Sasazuki , (2002) Lack of long-term effect of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure. Hypertension 40, 797–803.
245NK Gopaul , EE Anggard , AI Mallet , (1995) Plasma 8-epi-PGF2 α levels are elevated in individuals with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. FEBS Lett 368, 225–229.
246G Sobal , J Menzel & H Sinzinger (2000) Why is glycated LDL more sensitive to oxidation than native LDL? A comparative study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63, 177–186.
247JW Anderson , MS Gowri , J Turner , (1999) Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 451–461.
248MI Uusitupa , LK Niskanen , O Siitonen , (1993) Ten-year cardiovascular mortality in relation to risk factors and abnormalities in lipoprotein composition in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Diabetologia 36, 1175–1184.
250PD Reaven , DA Herold , J Barnett , (1995) Effects of vitamin E on susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein subfractions to oxidation and on protein glycation in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 18, 807–816.
251HH Ting , FK Timimi , KS Boles , (1996) Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 97, 22–28.
252T Costacou , JC Zgibor , RW Evans , (2006) Antioxidants and coronary artery disease among individuals with type 1 diabetes: findings from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. J Diabetes Complications 20, 387–394.
253SE Bursell , AC Clermont , LP Aiello , (1999) High-dose vitamin E supplementation normalizes retinal blood flow and creatinine clearance in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 1245–1251.
254U Milman , S Blum , C Shapira , (2008) Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type-2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, 341–347.
256E Lonn , S Yusuf , B Hoogwerf , (2002) Effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in high-risk patients with diabetes: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Diabetes Care 25, 1919–1927.
257P Jha , M Flather , E Lonn , (1995) The antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease. A critical review of epidemiologic and clinical trial data. Ann Intern Med 123, 860–872.
258GJ Handelman , MF Walter , R Adhikarla , (2001) Elevated plasma F2-isoprostanes in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Kidney Int 59, 1960–1966.
259A Dasgupta , S Hussain & S Ahmad (1992) Increased lipid peroxidation in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Nephron 60, 56–59.
260PA Mullins , NR Cary , L Sharples , (1992) Coronary occlusive disease and late graft failure after cardiac transplantation. Br Heart J 68, 260–265.
262I Pechan , K Danova , I Olejarova , (2003) Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense systems in patients after heart transplantation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 115, 648–651.
264DP Slakey , AM Roza , GM Pieper , (1993) Delayed cardiac allograft rejection due to combined cyclosporine and antioxidant therapy. Transplantation 56, 1305–1309.
265R Marchioli , G Levantesi , A Macchia , (2006) Vitamin E increases the risk of developing heart failure after myocardial infarction: results from the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 7, 347–350.
267SB Kritchevsky , T Shimakawa , GS Tell , (1995) Dietary antioxidants and carotid artery wall thickness. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 92, 2142–2150.
268RA Riemersma , DA Wood , CC Macintyre , (1991) Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotene. Lancet 337, 1–5.
270JT Salonen , K Nyyssonen , R Salonen , (1997) Lipoprotein oxidation and progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Circulation 95, 840–845.
271P Jousilahti , E Vartiainen , J Tuomilehto , (1999) Sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, and coronary heart disease: a prospective follow-up study of 14 786 middle-aged men and women in Finland. Circulation 99, 1165–1172.
274A Reinert , S Rohrmann , N Becker , (2007) Lifestyle and diet in people using dietary supplements: a German cohort study. Eur J Nutr 46, 165–173.
275MA Pereira , E O'Reilly , K Augustsson , (2004) Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med 164, 370–376.
276S Liu , JE Buring , HD Sesso , (2002) A prospective study of dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women. J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 49–56.
277A Wolk , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer , (1999) Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 281, 1998–2004.
278P Pietinen , EB Rimm , P Korhonen , (1996) Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation 94, 2720–2727.
279EB Rimm , A Ascherio , E Giovannucci , (1996) Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA 275, 447–451.
281MG Hertog , EJ Feskens , PC Hollman , (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 1007–1111.
282J Lin , KM Rexrode , F Hu , (2007) Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Epidemiol 165, 1305–1313.
284T Hirvonen , P Pietinen , M Virtanen , (2001) Intake of flavonols and risk of coronary heart disease in male smokers. Epidemiology 12, 62–67.
285P Knekt , R Jarvinen , A Reunanen , (1996) Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 312, 478–481.
286EB Rimm , MB Katan , A Ascherio , (1996) Relation between intake of flavonoids and risk for coronary heart disease in male health professionals. Ann Intern Med 125, 384–389.
287Y Kokubo , H Iso , J Ishihara , (2007) Association of dietary intake of soy, beans, and isoflavones with risk of cerebral and myocardial infarctions in Japanese populations: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study cohort I. Circulation 116, 2553–2562.
289EB Rimm , WC Willett , FB Hu , (1998) Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 279, 359–364.
290LA Bazzano , K Reynolds , KN Holder , (2006) Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 296, 22720–22726.
291R Stocker & JF Keaney Jr (2005) New insights on oxidative stress in the artery wall. J Thromb Haemost 3, 1825–1834.
292R Clarke & J Armitage (2002) Antioxidant vitamins and risk of cardiovascular disease. Review of large-scale randomised trials. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 16, 411–415.
293D Behrendt , J Beltrame , H Hikiti , (2006) Impact of coronary endothelial function on the progression of cardiac transplant-associated arteriosclerosis: effect of anti-oxidant vitamins C and E. J Heart Lung Transplant 25, 426–433.