Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 22
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hollis, J. L. Crozier, S. R. Inskip, H. M. Cooper, C. Godfrey, K. M. and Robinson, S. M. 2016. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 116, Issue. 04, p. 743.


    Thet, May Me Khaing, Ei Ei Diamond-Smith, Nadia Sudhinaraset, May Oo, Sandar and Aung, Tin 2016. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding in the Ayeyarwaddy Region in Myanmar: Qualitative findings from mothers, grandmothers, and husbands. Appetite, Vol. 96, p. 62.


    Günther, Anke L. B. Schulze, Matthias B. Kroke, Anja Diethelm, Katharina Joslowski, Gesa Krupp, Danika Wudy, Stefan and Buyken, Anette E. 2015. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 67, Issue. 6, p. 877.


    Robinson, S. M. 2015. Infant nutrition and lifelong health: current perspectives and future challenges. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Vol. 6, Issue. 05, p. 384.


    Agne-Djigo, Anta Kwadjode, Komlan M. Idohou-Dossou, Nicole Diouf, Adama Guiro, Amadou T. and Wade, Salimata 2013. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 110, Issue. 10, p. 1849.


    Nielsen, Susan B. Wells, Jonathan C. K. Fewtrell, Mary S. Eaton, Simon Grinham, James and Reilly, John J. 2013. Validation of energy requirement references for exclusively breast-fed infants. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 109, Issue. 11, p. 2036.


    2013. Nutrition and Development.


    Hetherington, Marion M. Cecil, Joanne E. Jackson, Diane M. and Schwartz, Camille 2011. Feeding infants and young children. From guidelines to practice. Appetite, Vol. 57, Issue. 3, p. 791.


    Schwartz, Camille Scholtens, Petra A.M.J. Lalanne, Amandine Weenen, Hugo and Nicklaus, Sophie 2011. Development of healthy eating habits early in life. Review of recent evidence and selected guidelines. Appetite, Vol. 57, Issue. 3, p. 796.


    Al-Sahab, Ban Lanes, Andrea Feldman, Mark and Tamim, Hala 2010. Prevalence and predictors of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding among Canadian women: a national survey. BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,


    Dwyer, Johanna T. Butte, Nancy F. Deming, Denise M. Siega-Riz, Anna Maria and Reidy, Kathleen C. 2010. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008: Progress, Continuing Concerns, and Implications. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 110, Issue. 12, p. S60.


    Kim, Mi-Jung 2010. Nutrition in Breastfeeding: Infants and Nursing Mothers. Hanyang Medical Reviews, Vol. 30, Issue. 1, p. 31.


    Lomangino, Kevin 2010. Complementary Foods for Infants. Clinical Nutrition INSIGHT, Vol. 36, Issue. 6, p. 1.


    Arden, Madelynne A. 2009. Conflicting influences on UK mothers' decisions to introduce solid foods to their infants. Maternal & Child Nutrition,


    El Taguri, Adel Betilmal, Ibrahim Mahmud, Salah Murad Monem Ahmed, Abdel Goulet, Olivier Galan, Pilar and Hercberg, Serge 2009. Risk factors for stunting among under-fives in Libya. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 12, Issue. 08, p. 1141.


    Hetzner, Nina M. Philipsen Razza, Rachel A. Malone, Lizabeth M. and Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne 2009. Associations Among Feeding Behaviors During Infancy and Child Illness at Two Years. Maternal and Child Health Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 6, p. 795.


    King, Caroline 2009. An evidence based guide to weaning preterm infants. Paediatrics and Child Health, Vol. 19, Issue. 9, p. 405.


    Schoen, Stefanie Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang and Kersting, Mathilde 2009. Validation of energy requirement equations for estimation of breast milk consumption in infants. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 12, Issue. 12, p. 2309.


    Scott, Jane A Binns, Colin W Graham, Kathleen I and Oddy, Wendy H 2009. Predictors of the early introduction of solid foods in infants: results of a cohort study. BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,


    2009. Scientific Opinion on the appropriate age for introduction of complementary feeding of infants. EFSA Journal, Vol. 7, Issue. 12, p. 1423.


    ×

Duration of exclusive breast-feeding: introduction of complementary feeding may be necessary before 6 months of age

  • John J. Reilly (a1) and Jonathan C. K. Wells (a2)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN20051601
  • Published online: 01 March 2007
Abstract

The WHO recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first 6 months of life. At present, <2 % of mothers who breast-feed in the UK do so exclusively for 6 months. We propose the testable hypothesis that this is because many mothers do not provide sufficient breast milk to feed a 6-month-old baby adequately. We review recent evidence on energy requirements during infancy, and energy transfer from mother to baby, and consider the adequacy of exclusive breast-feeding to age 6 months for mothers and babies in the developed world. Evidence from our recent systematic review suggests that mean metabolisable energy intake in exclusively breast-fed infants at 6 months is 2·2–2·4 MJ/d (525–574 kcal/d), and mean energy requirement approximately 2·6–2·7 MJ/d (632–649 kcal/d), leading to a gap between the energy provided by milk and energy needs by 6 months for many babies. Our hypothesis is consistent with other evidence, and with evolutionary considerations, and we briefly review this other evidence. The hypothesis would be testable in a longitudinal study of infant energy balance using stable-isotope techniques, which are both practical and valid.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Duration of exclusive breast-feeding: introduction of complementary feeding may be necessary before 6 months of age
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Duration of exclusive breast-feeding: introduction of complementary feeding may be necessary before 6 months of age
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Duration of exclusive breast-feeding: introduction of complementary feeding may be necessary before 6 months of age
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr John J. Reilly, fax +44 141 201 9275, email jjr2y@clinmed.gla.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L Aiello & K Key (2002) The energetic consequences of being a Homo erectus female. Am J Hum Biol 14, 551565.

MF Fewtrell , A Lucas & JB Morgan (2003) Factors associated with weaning in full-term and pre-term infants. Arch Dis Child 88, F296F301.

JV Freeman , TJ Cole , TJ Chinn , PR Jones , EM White & MA Preece (1995) Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73, 1724.

JA Lanigan , JA Bishop , AC Kimber & J Morgan (2001) Systematic review concerning the age of introduction of complementary foods to the healthy full-term infant. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 309320.

A Lucas , G Ewing , SB Roberts & WA Coward (1987) How much energy does the breast-fed infant consume and expend? BMJ 295, 7577.

A Singhal , M Fewtrell , TJ Cole & A Lucas (2003) Low nutrient intake and early growth for later insulin resistance in adolescents born pre-term. Lancet 361, 10891097.

N Stettler , BS Zemel , S Kumanyika & VA Stallings (2002) Infant weight gain and childhood overweight status in a multicenter cohort study. Pediatrics 109, 194199.

RL Trivers (1974) Parent–offspring conflict. Am Zool 14, 249264.

JCK Wells (2003) Parent-offspring conflict theory, costly begging behaviour, signalling of nutritional need, and differential weight gain in early life. Q Rev Biol 78, 169202.

JCK Wells & PSW Davies (1998) Estimation of the energy cost of physical activity in infancy. Arch Dis Child 78, 131136.

AC Wilson , JS Forsyth , SA Greene , L Irvine , C Hau & PW Howie (1998) Relation of infant diet to childhood health: seven year follow up of cohort of children in Dundee infant feeding study. BMJ 316, 2125.

CM Wright (2005) Growth charts for babies. BMJ 330, 13991400.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: