1Widenhorn-Muller, K, Hille, K, Klenk, J, et al. (2008) Influence of having breakfast on cognitive performance and mood in 13-to-20-year-old high school students: results of a crossover trial. Pediatrics 122, 279–284.
2Benton, D & Jarvis, M (2007) The role of breakfast and a mid-morning snack on the ability of children to concentrate at school. Physiol Behav 90, 382–385.
3Lopez-Sobaler, AM, Ortega, RM, Quintas, ME, et al. (2003) Relationship between habitual breakfast and intellectual performance in well nourished school children in Madrid. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 49–53.
4Benton, D, Ruffin, MP, Lassel, T, et al. (2003) The delivery rate of dietary carbohydrates affects cognitive performance in both rats and humans. Psychopharmacol 66, 86–90.
5Wesnes, KA, Pincock, C, Richardson, D, et al. (2003) Breakfast reduces declines in attention and memory over the morning in schoolchildren. Appetite 41, 329–331.
6Smith, AP, Clark, K & Gallagher, J (1999) Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood and cardiovascular function. Physiol Behav 67, 9–17.
7Benton, D & Parker, PY (1998) Breakfast, blood glucose and cognition. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 772S–778S.
8Hoyland, A, Lawton, CL & Dye, L (2008) Acute effects of macronutrient manipulations on cognitive test performance in healthy young adults: a systematic research review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32, 72–85.
9Ingwersen, J, Defeyter, MA, Kennedy, DO, et al. (2007) A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning. Appetite 49, 240–244.
10Mahoney, CR, Taylor, HA, Kanarek, RB, et al. (2005) Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children. Physiol Behav 85, 635–645.
11Micha, R, Rogers, PJ & Nelson, M (2011) Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 106, 1552–1561.
12Lina, BA, Jonker, D & Kozianowski, G (2002) Isomaltulose (Palatinose): a review of biological and toxicological studies. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 1375–1381.
13Cho, MH, Park, SE, Lim, JK, et al. (2007) Conversion of sucrose into isomaltulose by Enterobacter sp. FMB1, an isomaltulose-producing microorganism isolated from traditional Korean food. Biotechnol Lett 29, 453–458.
14Dye, L, Gilsenan, MB, Quadt, F, et al. (2010) Manipulation of glycaemic response with isomaltulose in a milk-based drink does not affect cognitive performance in healthy adults. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 506–515.
15Holub, I, Gostner, A, Theis, S, et al. (2010) Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™). Br J Nutr 103, 1730–1737.
16Kashimura, J, Nagai, Y & Ebashi, T (2003) The effect of palatinose on mental concentration in humans. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 49, 214–216.
17Taib, MNM, Shariff, ZM, Wesnes, KA, et al. (2012) The effect of high lactose–isomaltulose on cognitive performance of young children. A double blind cross-over design study. Appetite 58, 81–87.
18Claessens, M, Calame, W, Siemensma, AD, et al. (2009) The effect of different hydrolysate/carbohydrate mixtures on postprandial glucagon and insulin responses in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 48–56.
19World Health Organization. (WHO) (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards. Geneva: WHO Press.
20Kleinbaum, DG, Kupper, LL, Muller, KE, et al. (1998) Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods, 3rd ed.California: Duxbury Press.
21Chen, CLH, Willis, BA, Mooney, L, et al. (2010) Cortisol response to individualized graded insulin infusions: a reproducible biomarker for CNS compounds inhibiting HPA activation. Br J Clin Pharmacol 70, 886–894.
22Chapotot, F, Gronfier, C, Jouny, C, et al. (1998) Cortisol secretion is related to electroencephalographic alertness in human subjects during daytime wakefulness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 4263–4268.
23Vgontzas, AN, Pejovic, S, Zoumakis, E, et al. (2007) Daytime napping after a night of sleep loss decreases sleepiness, improves performance, and causes beneficial changes in cortisol and interleukin-6 secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292, E253–E261.
24Shemesh, E, Rudich, A, Harman-Boehm, I, et al. (2012) Effect of intranasal insulin on cognitive function – a systematic review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97, 366–376.
25Plum, L, Belgardt, BF & Brüning, JC (2006) Central insulin action in energy and glucose homeostasis. J Clin Invest 116, 1761–1766.
26Gannon, MC, Nuttall, FQ, Saeed, A, et al. (2003) An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 734–741.
27Osendarp, SJ, Baghurst, KI, Bryan, J, et al. (2007) Effect of a 12-mo micronutrient intervention on learning and memory in well-nourished and marginally nourished school-aged children: 2 parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled studies in Australia and Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1082–1093.
28Foster-Powel, K, Holt, SHA & Brand-Miller, JC (2002) International table of glycaemic index and glycaemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 5–56.