1 Scholl, TO (2008) Maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 61, 79–89.
2 Kramer, MS, Seguin, L, Lydon, J, et al. (2000) Socio-economic disparities in pregnancy outcome: why do the poor fare so poorly? Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 14, 194–210.
3 Doyle, W & Rees, G (2001) Maternal malnutrition in the UK and low birthweight. Nutr Health 15, 213–218.
4 Rees, G, Brooke, Z, Doyle, W, et al. (2005) The nutritional status of women in the first trimester of pregnancy attending an inner-city antenatal department in the UK. J R Soc Health 125, 232–238.
5 Rees, GA, Doyle, W, Srivastava, A, et al. (2005) The nutrient intakes of mothers of low birth weight babies – a comparison of ethnic groups in East London, UK. Matern Child Nutr 1, 91–99.
7 Scholl, TO, Hediger, ML, Bendich, A, et al. (1997) Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 146, 134–141.
8 Hininger, I, Favier, M, Arnaud, J, et al. (2004) Effects of a combined micronutrient supplementation on maternal biological status and newborn anthropometrics measurements: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in apparently healthy pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 52–59.
9 Brough, L, Rees, GA, Crawford, MA, et al. (2009) Social and ethnic differences in folic acid use preconception and during early pregnancy in the UK: effect on maternal folate status. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 100–107.
10 World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund & United Nations University (2001) Iron Deficiency Anaemia Assessment, Prevention, and Control. A Guide for Programme Managers. Geneva: WHO.
11 Sauberlich, HE, Dowdy, RP & Skala, JH (1973) Laboratory tests for the assessment of nutritional status. CRC Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 4, 215–340.
12 Malabanan, A, Veronikis, IE & Holick, MF (1998) Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet 351, 805–806.
13 Doyle, W, Crawford, MA, Srivastava, A, et al. (1999) Interpregnancy nutrition intervention with mothers of low-birthweight babies living in an inner city area: a feasibility study. J Hum Nutr Diet 12, 517–527.
14 Scholl, TO (2005) Iron status during pregnancy: setting the stage for mother and infant. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 1218S–1222S.
15 Kaufer, M & Casaneuva, E (1990) Relation of pregnancy serum ferritin levels to hemoglobin levels throughout pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr 44, 709–715.
16 Cogswell, ME, Parvanta, I, Ickes, L, et al. (2003) Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 773–781.
17 Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report on Health and Social Subjects . London: H.M. Stationery Office.
18 Beard, JL (2000) Effectiveness and strategies of iron supplementation during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1288S–1294S.
19 Makrides, M, Crowther, CA, Gibson, RA, et al. (2003) Efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iron supplements during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 145–153.
20 Zhou, SJ, Gibson, RA, Crowther, CA, et al. (2009) Should we lower the dose of iron when treating anaemia in pregnancy? A randomized dose–response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 183–190.
21 Ruston, D, Hoare, J, Henderson, L, et al. (2004) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Volume 4: Nutritional Status (Anthropometry and Blood Analytes), Blood Pressure and Physical Activity. London: The Stationery Office.
22 Department of Health (2000) Folic Acid and the Prevention of Disease. Report on Health and Social Subjects . London: The Stationery Office.
23 Institute of Medicine (2006) Dietary Reference Intakes: the Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
24 Department of Health (1998) Nutrition and Bone Health: With Particular Reference to Vitamin D. Report on Health and Social Subjects . London: H.M. Stationery Office.
25 Holmes, VA, Barnes, MS, Alexander, HD, et al. (2009) Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study. Br J Nutr 102, 876–881.
26 Matsuoka, LY, Wortsman, J, Haddad, JG, et al. (1991) Racial pigmentation and the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Arch Dermatol 127, 536–538.
27 Hollis, BW & Wagner, CL (2004) Assessment of dietary vitamin D requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 717–726.
28 Hollis, BW & Wagner, CL (2004) Vitamin D requirements during lactation: high-dose maternal supplementation as therapy to prevent hypovitaminosis D for both the mother and the nursing infant. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1752S–1758S.
29 Mannion, CA, Gray-Donald, K & Koski, KG (2006) Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. CMAJ 174, 1273–1277.
30 National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (2008) Antenatal Care: Routine Care for the Healthy Pregnant Woman: CG62. London: RCOG Press.
31 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2008) Guidance for Midwives, Health Visitors, Pharmacists and Other Primary Care Services to Improve the Nutrition of Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mothers and Children in Low Income Households. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
32 Sharma, S, Khan, N, Khadri, A, et al. (2009) Vitamin D in pregnancy – time for action: a paediatric audit. BJOG 116, 1678–1682.