1 Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Cooper C & Thornburg KL (2008) Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359, 1, 61–73.
2 McMillen IC & Robinson JS (2005) Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming. Physiol Rev 85, 2, 571–633.
3 Labayen I, Moreno LA, Blay MG, Blay VA, Mesana MI, Gonzalez-Gross M, et al. (2006) Early programming of body composition and fat distribution in adolescents. J Nutr 136, 1, 147–152.
4 Labayen I, Ruiz JR, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Turck D, Rodriguez G, Meirhaeghe A, et al. (2009) Early life programming of abdominal adiposity in adolescents: The HELENA Study. Diabetes Care 32, 11, 2120–2122.
5 Moreno LA & Rodriguez G (2007) Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10, 3, 336–341.
6 Gaillard D, Negrel R, Lagarde M & Ailhaud G (1989) Requirement and role of arachidonic acid in the differentiation of pre-adipose cells. Biochem J 257, 2, 389–397.
7 Simmer K, Patole SK & Rao SC (2008) Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1, CD000376.
8 Schulzke SM, Patole SK & Simmer K (2011) Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2, CD000375.
9 Makrides M, Gibson RA, Udell T & Ried K (2005) Supplementation of infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids does not influence the growth of term infants. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 5, 1094–1101.
10 Vollhardt C (2010) The effect of lowering the ω-6/ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the diet of pregnant and lactating women on fatty acid levels and body composition of the women and their newborns. Technischen Universität München: München.
11 Amri EZ, Ailhaud G & Grimaldi PA (1994) Fatty acids as signal transducing molecules: involvement in the differentiation of preadipose to adipose cells. J Lipid Res 35, 5, 930–937.
12 Makrides M, Collins CT & Gibson RA (2011) Impact of fatty acid status on growth and neurobehavioural development in humans. Matern Child Nutr, Apr 7 (Suppl 2), 80–88.
13 Ailhaud G & Guesnet P (2004) Fatty acid composition of fats is an early determinant of childhood obesity: a short review and an opinion. Obes Rev 5, 1, 21–26.
14 Higgins JP & Green S (2008)
15 Asserhoj M, Nehammer S, Matthiessen J, Michaelsen KF & Lauritzen L (2008) Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation may adversely affect long-term blood pressure, energy intake, and physical activity of 7-year-old boys. J Nutr 139, 2, 298–304.
16 Birch EE, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG & Prestidge C (1998) Visual acuity and the essentiality of docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in the diet of term infants. Pediatr Res 44, 2, 201–209.
17 de Jong C, Boehm G, Kikkert HK & Hadders-Algra M (2011) The Groningen LCPUFA Study: No Effect of Short Term Postnatal Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Term Infants on Cardiovascular and Anthropometric Development at 9 Years. Pediatr Res 70, 4, 411–416.
18 Donahue SM, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gold DR, Jouni ZE, Gillman MW & Oken E (2011) Prenatal fatty acid status and child adiposity at age 3 y: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 4, 780–788.
19 Groh-Wargo S, Jacobs J, Auestad N, O'Connor DL, Moore JJ & Lerner E (2005) Body composition in preterm infants who are fed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatr Res 57 (5 Pt 1), 712–718.
20 Helland IB, Smith L, Blomen B, Saarem K, Saugstad OD & Drevon CA (2008) Effect of supplementing pregnant and lactating mothers with n-3 very-long-chain fatty acids on children's iq and body mass index at 7 years of age. Pediatrics 122, 2, e472–e4e9.
21 Innis SM, Adamkin DH, Hall RT, Kalhan SC, Lair C, Lim M, et al. (2002) Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid enhance growth with no adverse effects in preterm infants fed formula. J Pediatr 140, 5, 547–554.
22 Kennedy K, Ross S, Isaacs EB, Weaver LT, Singhal A, Lucas A, et al. (2010) The 10-year follow-up of a randomised trial of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants: effects on growth and blood pressure. Arch Dis Child 95, 8, 588–595.
23 Lauritzen L, Hoppe C, Straarup EM & Michaelsen KF (2005) Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation and growth during the first 2·5 years of life. Pediatric Research 58, 2, 235–242.
24 Lucia Bergmann R, Bergmann KE, Haschke-Becher E, Richter R, Dudenhausen JW, Barclay D, et al. (2007) Does maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation lower BMI in late infancy? J Perinat Med 35, 4, 295–300.
25 Ryan AS, Montalto MB, Groh-Wargo S, Mimouni F, Sentipal-Walerius J, Doyle J, et al. (1999) Effect of DHA-containing formula on growth of preterm infants to 59 weeks postmenstrual age. Am J Hum Biol 11, 4, 457–467.
26 Scholtens S, Wijga AH, Smit HA, Brunekreef B, de Jongste JC, Gerritsen J, et al. (2009) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk and early weight gain in breast-fed infants. Br J Nutr 101, 1, 116–121.
27 Hauner H, Much D, Vollhardt C, Brunner S, Schmid D, Sedlmeier EM, et al. (2011) Effect of reducing the n-6:n-3 long-chain PUFA ratio during pregnancy and lactation on infant adipose tissue growth within the first year of life: an open-label randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 2, 383–394.