Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

  • Laura Benedito-Palos (a1), Josep A. Calduch-Giner (a1), Gabriel F. Ballester-Lozano (a1) and Jaume Pérez-Sánchez (a1)

The effect of ration size on muscle fatty acid (FA) composition and mRNA expression levels of key regulatory enzymes of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism have been addressed in juveniles of gilthead sea bream fed a practical diet over the course of an 11-week trial. The experimental setup included three feeding levels: (i) full ration until visual satiety, (ii) 70 % of satiation and (iii) 70 % of satiation with the last 2 weeks at the maintenance ration. Feed restriction reduced lipid content of whole body by 30 % and that of fillet by 50 %. In this scenario, the FA composition of fillet TAG was not altered by ration size, whereas that of phospholipids was largely modified with a higher retention of arachidonic acid and DHA. The mRNA transcript levels of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and FA desaturase 2 were not regulated by ration size in the present experimental model. In contrast, mRNA levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturases were markedly down-regulated by feed restriction. An opposite trend was found for a muscle-specific lipoprotein lipase, which is exclusive of fish lineage. Several upstream regulatory transcriptions were also assessed, although nutritionally mediated changes in mRNA transcripts were almost reduced to PPARα and β, which might act in a counter-regulatory way on lipolysis and lipogenic pathways. This gene expression pattern contributes to the construction of a panel of biomarkers to direct marine fish production towards muscle lean phenotypes with increased retentions of long-chain PUFA.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of ration size on fillet fatty acid composition, phospholipid allostasis and mRNA expression patterns of lipid regulatory genes in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor J. Pérez-Sánchez, fax +34 964319509, E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 R Subasinghe , D Soto & J Jia (2009) Global aquaculture and its role in sustainable development. Rev Aquacult 1, 29.

3 BE Torstensen , L Froyland , R Ørnsrud , et al. (2004) Tailoring of a cardioprotective muscle fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed vegetable oils. Food Chem 87, 567580.

4 T Thanuthong , DS Francis , SD Senadheera , et al. (2011) Fish oil replacement in rainbow trout diets and total dietary PUFA content: I) effects on feed efficiency, fat deposition and the efficiency of a finishing strategy. Aquaculture 320, 8290.

6 L Benedito-Palos , A Bermejo-Nogales , AI Karampatos , et al. (2011) Modelling the predictable effects of dietary lipid sources on the fillet fatty acid composition of one-year-old gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Food Chem 124, 538544.

7 GF Ballester-Lozano , L Benedito-Palos , JC Navarro , et al. (2011) Prediction of fillet fatty acid composition of market-size gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) using a regression modelling approach. Aquaculture 319, 8188.

8 M Velázquez , S Zamora & FJ Martínez (2006) Effect of different feeding strategies on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) demand-feeding behaviour and nutritional utilization of the diet. Aquac Nutr 12, 403409.

9 A Bonaldo , G Isani , R Fontanillas , et al. (2010) Growth and feed utilization of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) fed to satiation and restrictively at increasing dietary energy levels. Aquac Int 18, 909919.

10 MD Suárez , TF Martínez , MI Saez , et al. (2010) Effects of dietary restriction on post-mortem changes in white muscle of sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 307, 4955.

11 LMP Valente , J Cornet , C Donnay-Moreno , et al. (2011) Quality differences of gilthead sea bream from distinct production systems in Southern Europe: intensive, integrated, semi-intensive or extensive systems. Food Control 22, 708717.

12 A Kiessling , L Johansson & T Storebakken (1989) Effects of reduced feed ration levels on fat content and fatty acid composition in white and red muscle from rainbow trout. Aquaculture 79, 169175.

13 A Kiessling , T Åsgård , T Storebakken , et al. (1991) Changes in the structure and function of the epaxial muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in relation to ration and age: III. Chemical composition. Aquaculture 93, 373387.

14 A Kiessling , J Pickova , L Johansson , et al. (2001) Changes in fatty acid composition in muscle and adipose tissue of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in relation to ration and age. Food Chem 73, 271284.

15 A Kiessling , J Pickova , JG Eales , et al. (2005) Age, ration level, and exercise affect the fatty acid profile of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) muscle differently. Aquaculture 243, 345356.

16 JR Henderson & DR Tocher (1987) The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog Lipid Res 26, 281347.

17 DA Los & N Murata (2004) Membrane fluidity and its roles in the perception of environmental signals. Biochim Biophys Acta – Biomembr 1666, 142157.

18 A Ibarz , J Blasco , M Beltran , et al. (2005) Cold-induced alterations on proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of several tissues in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 249, 477486.

20 RE Olsen & RJ Henderson (1989) The rapid analysis of neutral and polar marine lipids using double-development HPTLC and scanning densitometry. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 129, 189197.

21 ME Fewster , BJ Burns & JF Mead (1969) Quantitative densitometric thin-layer chromatography of lipids using copper acetate reagent. J Chromatogr 43A 120126.

24 KJ Livak & TD Schmittgen (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2T − ΔΔCT method. Methods 25, 402408.

26 L Cruz-García , A Saera-Vila , I Navarro , et al. (2009) Targets for TNF alpha-induced lipolysis in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) adipocytes isolated from lean and fat juvenile fish. J Exp Biol 212, 22542260.

28 LFC Castro , JM Wilson , O Goncalves , et al. (2011) The evolutionary history of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene family in vertebrates. BMC Evol Biol 11, 14.

30 JD Wood , M Enser , AV Fisher , et al. (2008) Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: a review. Meat Sci 78, 343358.

31 C Kolditz , M Borthaire , N Richard , et al. (2008) Liver and muscle metabolic changes induced by dietary energy content and genetic selection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Am J Physio-Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294, R1154R1164.

32 CI Kolditz , G Paboeuf , M Borthaire , et al. (2008) Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver. BMC Genomics 9, 506.

33 JG Bell , J Pratoomyot , F Strachan , et al. (2010) Growth, flesh adiposity and fatty acid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) families with contrasting flesh adiposity: effects of replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils. Aquaculture 306, 225232.

35 L Benedito-Palos , JC Navarro , S Kaushik , et al. (2010) Tissue-specific robustness of fatty acid signatures in cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed practical diets with a combined high replacement of fish meal and fish oil. J Anim Sci 88, 17591770.

36 A Skalli & JH Robin (2004) Requirement of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles: growth and fatty acid composition. Aquaculture 240, 399415.

37 M Jobling , O Leknes , BS Sæther , et al. (2008) Lipid and fatty acid dynamics in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, tissues: influence of dietary lipid concentrations and feed oil sources. Aquaculture 281, 8794.

38 C Regost , J Arzel , M Cardinal , et al. (2003) Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in Turbot (Psetta maxima): 2. Flesh quality properties. Aquaculture 220, 737747.

39 M Jobling & EA Bendiksen (2003) Dietary lipids and temperature interact to influence tissue fatty acid compositions of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., parr. Aquac Res 34, 14231441.

40 J Trushenski , H Lewis & C Kohler (2008) Fatty acid profile of sunshine bass: II. profile change differs among fillet lipid classes. Lipids 43, 643653.

41 C Schulz , U Knaus , M Wirth , et al. (2005) Effects of varying dietary fatty acid profile on growth performance, fatty acid, body and tissue composition of juvenile pike perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquac Nutr 11, 403413.

42 A Pettersson , J Pickova & E Brännäs (2010) Swimming performance at different temperatures and fatty acid composition of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed palm and rapeseed oils. Aquaculture 300, 176181.

44 MA Kjaer , A Vegusdal , GM Berge , et al. (2009) Characterisation of lipid transport in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when fasted and fed high or low fat diets. Aquaculture 288, 325336.

45 Bendiksen & M Jobling (2003) Effects of temperature and feed composition on essential fatty acid (n-3 and n-6) retention in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr. Fish Physiol Biochem 29, 133140.

47 Hansen , GM Berge , M Hillestad , et al. (2008) Apparent digestion and apparent retention of lipid and fatty acids in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fed increasing dietary lipid levels. Aquaculture 284, 159166.

48 J Pratoomyot , Bendiksen , PJ Campbell , et al. (2011) Effects of different blends of alternative protein sources as alternatives to dietary fishmeal on growth performance and body lipid composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 316, 4452.

49 LH Storlien , AB Jenkins , DJ Chisholm , et al. (1991) Influence of dietary-fat composition on development of insulin resistance in rats – relationship to muscle triglyceride and omega-3-fatty-acids in muscle phospholipid. Diabetes 40, 280289.

50 M Borkman , LH Storlien , DA Pan , et al. (1993) The relation between insulin sensitivity and the fatty-acid composition of skeletal-muscle phospholipids. N Engl J Med 328, 238244.

52 YB Lombardo & AG Chicco (2006) Effects of dietary polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids on dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. A review. J Nutr Biochem 17, 113.

53 DA Pan , S Lillioja , MR Milner , et al. (1995) Skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition is related to adiposity and insulin action. J Clin Invest 96, 28022808.

54 SB Haugaard , S Madsbad , CE Hoy , et al. (2006) Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity. Clin Endocrinol 64, 169178.

55 SB Haugaard , A Vaag , HL Mu , et al. (2009) Skeletal muscle structural lipids improve during weight-maintenance after a very low calorie dietary intervention. Lipids Health Dis 8, 34.

56 J Pérez , S Zanuy & M Carrillo (1988) Effects of diet and feeding time on daily variations in plasma-insulin, hepatic camp and other metabolites in a teleost fish, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Fish Physiol Biochem 5, 191197.

59 DR Tocher (2003) Metabolism and functions of lipids and fatty acids in teleost fish. Rev Fish Sci 11, 107184.

60 DR Tocher , E Bendiksen , PJ Campbell , et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 2134.

61 D Hishikawa , H Shindou , S Kobayashi , et al. (2008) Discovery essential of a lysophospholipid acyltransferase family for membrane asymmetry and diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 28302835.

63 M Kazachkov , QL Chen , LP Wang , et al. (2008) Substrate preferences of a lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase highlight its role in phospholipid remodeling. Lipids 43, 895902.

64 G Pérez-Chacón , AM Astudillo , D Balgoma , et al. (2009) Control of free arachidonic acid levels by phospholipases A2 and lysophospholipid acyltransferases. Biochim Biophys Acta – Mol Cell Biol Lipids 1791, 11031113.

66 Z Cui & DE Vance (1996) Expression of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-2 is markedly enhanced in long term choline-deficient rats. J Biol Chem 271, 28392843.

67 JD Browning & JD Horton (2004) Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. J Clin Invest 114, 147152.

68 H Dong , J Wang , C Li , et al. (2007) The phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene V175M single nucleotide polymorphism confers the susceptibility to NASH in Japanese population. J Hepatol 46, 915920.

69 DR Tocher (1995) Glycerophospholipid metabolism. Biochem Mol Biol Fishes 4, 119157.

71 DR Tocher , X Zheng , C Schlechtriem , et al. (2006) Highly unsaturated fatty acid synthesis in marine fish: cloning, functional characterization, and nutritional regulation of fatty acyl Delta 6 desaturase of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Lipids 41, 10031016.

72 X Zheng , Z Ding , Y Xu , et al. (2009) Physiological roles of fatty acyl desaturases and elongases in marine fish: characterisation of cDNAs of fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase and elovl5 elongase of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture 290, 122131.

74 JM Ntambi , M Miyazaki , JP Stoehr , et al. (2002) Loss of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function protects mice against adiposity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 1148211486.

76 MW Hulver , JR Berggren , MJ Carper , et al. (2005) Elevated stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 expression in skeletal muscle contributes to abnormal fatty acid partitioning in obese humans. Cell Metab 2, 251261.

77 GQ Jiang , ZH Li , F Liu , et al. (2005) Prevention of obesity in mice by antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. J Clin Invest 115, 10301038.

78 H Sampath & JM Ntambi (2006) Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha: independent and interactive roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nut. Metab Care 9, 8488.

79 H Wong & MC Schotz (2002) The lipase gene family. J Lipid Res 43, 993999.

81 T Yasuda , KI Hirata , T Ishida , et al. (2007) Endothelial lipase is increased by inflammation and promotes LDL uptake in macrophages. J Atheroscler Thromb 14, 192201.

83 I Lladó , A Pons & A Palou (1999) Effects of fasting on lipoprotein lipase activity in different depots of white and brown adipose tissues in diet-induced overweight rats. J Nutr Biochem 10, 609614.

84 M Bergo , G Olivecrona & T Olivecrona (1996) Forms of lipoprotein lipase in rat tissues: in adipose tissue the proportion of inactive lipase increases on fasting. Biochem J 313, 893898.

85 MC Sugden , MJ Holness & RM Howard (1993) Changes in lipoprotein-lipase activities in adipose-tissue, heart and skeletal-muscle during continuous or interrupted feeding. Biochem J 292, 113119.

86 T Ruge , M Svensson , JW Eriksson , et al. (2005) Tissue-specific regulation of lipoprotein lipase in humans: effects of fasting. Eur J Clin Invest 35, 194200.

90 J Ventre , T Doebber , M Wu , et al. (1997) Targeted disruption of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene – metabolic consequences in obese and nonobese mice. Diabetes 46, 15261531.

91 M Bulló-Bonet , P García-Lorda , FJ López-Soriano , et al. (1999) Tumour necrosis factor, a key role in obesity? FEBS Lett 451, 215219.

92 A Albalat , P Gómez-Requeni , P Rojas , et al. (2005) Nutritional and hormonal control of lipolysis in isolated gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) adipocytes. A J Physiol-Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R259R265.

93 D Mauvoisin & C Mounier (2011) Hormonal and nutritional regulation of SCD1 gene expression. Biochimie 93, 7886.

94 M Miyazaki , MT Flowers , H Sampath , et al. (2007) Hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 deficiency protects mice from carbohydrate-induced adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Cell Metab 6, 484496.

95 Y Barak , D Liao , WM He , et al. (2002) Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta on placentation, adiposity, and colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 303308.

96 JM Peters , SST Lee , W Li , et al. (2000) Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta). Mol Cell Biol 20, 51195128.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 8
Total number of PDF views: 87 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 150 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 29th March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.