Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 20
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Pietrofesa, Ralph Velalopoulou, Anastasia Albelda, Steven and Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo 2016. Asbestos Induces Oxidative Stress and Activation of Nrf2 Signaling in Murine Macrophages: Chemopreventive Role of the Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 322.

    Ren, Guan-Yu Chen, Chun-Yang Chen, Guo-Chong Chen, Wei-Guo Pan, An Pan, Chen-Wei Zhang, Yong-Hong Qin, Li-Qiang and Chen, Li-Hua 2016. Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 136.

    Ursoniu, Sorin Sahebkar, Amirhossein Andrica, Florina Serban, Corina and Banach, Maciej 2016. Effects of flaxseed supplements on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 35, Issue. 3, p. 615.

    Edel, Andrea L. Pierce, Grant N. and Aliani, Michel 2015. Age-dependency in the metabolism of flaxseed lignans by healthy adults. Journal of Functional Foods, Vol. 17, p. 948.

    Edel, Andrea L. Aliani, Michel and Pierce, Grant N. 2015. Stability of bioactives in flaxseed and flaxseed-fortified foods. Food Research International, Vol. 77, p. 140.

    Eichholzer, Monika Richard, Aline Nicastro, Holly L. Platz, Elizabeth A. Linseisen, Jakob and Rohrmann, Sabine 2014. Urinary lignans and inflammatory markers in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004 and 2005–2008. Cancer Causes & Control, Vol. 25, Issue. 3, p. 395.

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur Michel, Deborah Muir, Alister D. Krol, Ed S. and Alcorn, Jane 2014. Permeability and Conjugative Metabolism of Flaxseed Lignans by Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cells. Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 77, Issue. 1, p. 29.

    Suliga, Edyta 2014. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity.

    Sun, Qi Wedick, Nicole M. Pan, An Townsend, Mary K. Cassidy, Aedin Franke, Adrian A. Rimm, Eric B. Hu, Frank B. and van Dam, Rob M. 2014. Gut Microbiota Metabolites of Dietary Lignans and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Investigation in Two Cohorts of U.S. Women. Diabetes Care, Vol. 37, Issue. 5, p. 1287.

    Ho, J.-N. Watson, R.R. and Lee, J. 2013. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Diabetes.

    Hutchins, Andrea M. Brown, Blakely D. Cunnane, Stephen C. Domitrovich, Stephanie G. Adams, Earle R. and Bobowiec, Courtney E. 2013. Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutrition Research, Vol. 33, Issue. 5, p. 367.

    Khalatbari Soltani, Saman Jamaluddin, Rosita Tabibi, Hadi Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Atabak, Shahnaz Loh, Su-Peng and Rahmani, Leila 2013. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities. Hemodialysis International, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 275.

    Lowcock, Elizabeth C. Cotterchio, Michelle and Boucher, Beatrice A. 2013. Consumption of flaxseed, a rich source of lignans, is associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes & Control, Vol. 24, Issue. 4, p. 813.

    Barre, D. E. Mizier-Barre, K. A. Stelmach, E. Hobson, J. Griscti, O. Rudiuk, A. and Muthuthevar, D. 2012. Flaxseed Lignan Complex Administration in Older Human Type 2 Diabetics Manages Central Obesity and Prothrombosis—An Invitation to Further Investigation into Polypharmacy Reduction. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 2012, p. 1.

    Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo Tyagi, Sonia Pietrofesa, Ralph Dukes, Floyd Arguiri, Evguenia Turowski, Jason Grieshaber, Philip A. Solomides, Charalambos C. and Cengel, Keith A. 2012. Radioprotective Role in Lung of the Flaxseed Lignan Complex Enriched in the Phenolic Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG). Radiation Research, Vol. 178, Issue. 6, p. 568.

    Fitzpatrick, Kelley C. 2011. Omega-3 Oils.

    Rhee, Yeong and Brunt, Ardith 2011. Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,

    Adolphe, Jennifer L. Whiting, Susan J. Juurlink, Bernhard H. J. Thorpe, Lilian U. and Alcorn, Jane 2010. Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 103, Issue. 07, p. 929.

    Muir, Alister D. 2010. Flax lignans: new opportunities for functional foods. Food Science & Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods, Vol. 6, Issue. 6, p. 61.

    Peterson, Julia Dwyer, Johanna Adlercreutz, Herman Scalbert, Augustin Jacques, Paul and McCullough, Marjorie L 2010. Dietary lignans: physiology and potential for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 68, Issue. 10, p. 571.


Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients

  • An Pan (a1), Wendy Demark-Wahnefried (a2), Xingwang Ye (a1), Zhijie Yu (a1), Huaixing Li (a1), Qibin Qi (a1), Jianqin Sun (a3), Yanqiu Chen (a3), Xiafei Chen (a3), Yong Liu (a1) and Xu Lin (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 08 September 2008

Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Phytoestrogens (including lignans and isoflavones) may enhance the management of diabetes and are hypothesized to act through inflammation pathways. The present study explored the effects of flaxseed-derived lignan on inflammatory factors and RBP4 concentrations in type 2 diabetics, who have higher levels of these biomarkers. Seventy community-dwelling diabetic patients (twenty-six men and forty-four post-menopausal women) with mild hypercholesterolaemia completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of supplementation with flaxseed-derived lignan capsules (360 mg/d) or placebo for 12 weeks, separated by an 8-week wash-out period. The participants maintained their habitual diets and levels of physical activity. Baseline to follow-up concentrations of CRP increased significantly within the placebo group (1·42 (sem 0·19) v. 1·96 (sem 0·22) mg/l, P < 0·001), but were comparatively unchanged in the lignan-supplemented group (1·67 (sem 0·19) v. 1·90 (sem 0·26) mg/l, P = 0·94); a significant difference was observed between treatments ( − 0·45 (95 % CI − 0·76, − 0·08) mg/l, P = 0·021). This effect was confined to women (P = 0·016), but not observed in men (P = 0·49). No between-treatment differences were found with regard to IL-6 or RBP4; though IL-6 concentrations increased significantly from baseline to follow-up in both groups (P = 0·004 and P < 0·001 following lignan and placebo treatments, respectively). The study suggests that lignan might modulate CRP levels in type 2 diabetics. These results need to be confirmed by further large clinical trials of longer duration.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Xu Lin, fax +86 21 54920249, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1J Plutzky (2004) Inflammation in atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 5, 255259.

2FB Hu , JB Meigs , TY Li , N Rifai & JE Manson (2004) Inflammatory markers and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes 53, 693700.

3BB Duncan , MI Schmidt , JS Pankow , CM Ballantyne , D Couper , A Vigo , R Hoogeveen , AR Folsom & G Heiss (2003) Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes 52, 17991805.

4KS Polonsky (2006) Retinol-binding protein 4, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 354, 25962598.

5Q Qi , Z Yu , X Ye , (2007) Elevated retinol-binding protein 4 levels are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese people. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 48274834.

6P Balagopal , TE Graham , BB Kahn , A Altomare , V Funanage & D George (2007) Reduction of elevated serum retinol binding protein in obese children by lifestyle intervention: association with subclinical inflammation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 19711974.

8LT Bloedon & PO Szapary (2004) Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Rev 62, 1827.

9H Si & D Liu (2007) Phytochemical genistein in the regulation of vascular function: new insights. Curr Med Chem 14, 25812589.

10MS Kurzer & X Xu (1997) Dietary phytoestrogens. Annu Rev Nutr 17, 353381.

11J Hallund , I Tetens , S Bugel , T Tholstrup & JM Bruun (2008) The effect of a lignan complex isolated from flaxseed on inflammation markers in healthy postmenopausal women. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18, 497502.

13E Nikander , M Metsa-Heikkila , A Tiitinen & O Ylikorkala (2003) Evidence of a lack of effect of a phytoestrogen regimen on the levels of C-reactive protein, E-selectin, and nitrate in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 51805185.

14R D'Anna , G Baviera , F Corrado , F Cancellieri , A Crisafulli & F Squadrito (2005) The effect of the phytoestrogen genistein and hormone replacement therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein level in postmenopausal women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 84, 474477.

17A Pan , J Sun , Y Chen , (2007) Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. PLoS ONE 2, e1148.

19J Faintuch , LM Horie , HV Barbeiro , DF Barbeiro , FG Soriano , RK Ishida & I Cecconello (2007) Systemic inflammation in morbidly obese subjects: response to oral supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. Obes Surg 17, 341347.

20L Azadbakht , S Atabak & A Esmaillzadeh (2008) Soy protein intake, cardiorenal indices, and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care 31, 648654.

21L Azadbakht , M Kimiagar , Y Mehrabi , A Esmaillzadeh , FB Hu & WC Willett (2007) Soy consumption, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function: a cross-over study in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 30, 967973.

22S Dodin , SC Cunnane , B Masse , (2008) Flaxseed on cardiovascular disease markers in healthy menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition 24, 2330.

23LT Bloedon , S Balikai , J Chittams , (2008) Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk factors: results from a double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 6574.

25DJ Jenkins , CW Kendall , PW Connelly , CJT Jackson , T Parker , D Faulkner & E Vidgen (2002) Effects of high- and low-isoflavone (phytoestrogen) soy foods on inflammatory biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism 51, 919924.

27TW Ng , GF Watts , PH Barrett , KA Rye & DC Chan (2007) Effect of weight loss on LDL and HDL kinetics in the metabolic syndrome: associations with changes in plasma retinol-binding protein-4 and adiponectin levels. Diabetes Care 30, 29452950.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *