This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
3G Young & J Conquer (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Reprod Nutr Dev 45, 1–28.
4MP Freeman , JR Hibbeln , KL Wisner , (2006) Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry 67, 1954–1967.
22KM Silvers , CC Woolley , FC Hamilton , (2005) Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in the treatment of depression. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 72, 211–218.
7BF Grenyer , T Crowe , B Meyer , (2007) Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31, 1393–1396.
9KM Appleton , PJ Rogers & AR Ness (2010) Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 757–770.
10CC Chiu , SY Huang , CC Chen , (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids are more beneficial in the depressive phase than in the manic phase in patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 66, 1613–1614.
12M Lucas , G Asselin , C Merette , (2009) Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 641–651.
13M Rondanelli , A Giacosa , A Opizzi , (2010) Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on depressive symptoms and on health-related quality of life in the treatment of elderly women with depression: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 55–64.
14BL Gracious , MC Chirieac , S Costescu , (2010) Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of flax oil in pediatric bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 12, 142–154.
15H Nemets , B Nemets , A Apter , (2006) Omega-3 treatment of childhood depression: a controlled, double-blind pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 163, 1098–1100.
16S Jazayeri , M Tehrani-Doost , SA Keshavarz , (2008) Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 42, 192–198.
17LB Marangell , JM Martinez , HA Zboyan , (2003) A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 160, 996–998.
18D Mischoulon , C Best-Popescu , M Laposata , (2008) A double-blind dose-finding pilot study of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depressive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 18, 639–645.
19D Mischoulon , GI Papakostas , CM Dording , (2009) A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate for major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 70, 1636–1644.
20B Nemets , Z Stahl & RH Belmaker (2002) Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 159, 477–479.
21M Peet & DF Horrobin (2002) A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59, 913–919.
23KP Su , SY Huang , CC Chiu , (2003) Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13, 267–271.
24S Frangou , M Lewis & P McCrone (2006) Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry 188, 46–50.
25PE Keck Jr, J Mintz , SL McElroy , (2006) Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of ethyl-eicosapentanoate in the treatment of bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry 60, 1020–1022.
26AL Stoll , WE Severus , MP Freeman , (1999) Omega 3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56, 407–412.
28M Bot , F Pouwer , J Assies , (2010) Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord 126, 282–286.
29RM Carney , KE Freedland , EH Rubin , (2009) Omega-3 augmentation of sertraline in treatment of depression in patients with coronary heart disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 302, 1651–1657.
30TM da Silva , RP Munhoz , C Alvarez , (2008) Depression in Parkinson's disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of omega-3 fatty-acid supplementation. J Affect Disord 111, 351–359.
31Y Freund-Levi , H Basun , T Cederholm , (2008) Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 23, 161–169.
32N Antypa , AJ Van der Does , AH Smelt , (2009) Omega-3 fatty acids (fish-oil) and depression-related cognition in healthy volunteers. J Psychopharmacol 23, 831–840.
33AM Rees , MP Austin & GB Parker (2008) Omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for perinatal depression: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 42, 199–205.
34M Makrides , RA Gibson , AJ McPhee , (2010) Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304, 1675–1683.
35KP Su , SY Huang , TH Chiu , (2008) Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry 69, 644–651.
36AM Llorente , CL Jensen , RG Voigt , (2003) Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on postpartum depression and information processing. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188, 1348–1353.
37B Doornbos , SA van Goor , DA Dijck-Brouwer , (2009) Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33, 49–52.
38MP Freeman , M Davis , P Sinha , (2008) Omega-3 fatty acids and supportive psychotherapy for perinatal depression: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Affect Disord 110, 142–148.
40N Sinn & J Bryan (2007) Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. J Dev Behav Pediatr 28, 82–91.
8R Raz , RL Carasso & S Yehuda (2009) The influence of short-chain essential fatty acids on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 19, 167–177.
42RG Voigt , AM Llorente , CL Jensen , (2001) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr 139, 189–196.
43PA Gustafsson , U Birberg-Thornberg , K Duchen , (2010) EPA supplementation improves teacher-rated behaviour and oppositional symptoms in children with ADHD. Acta Paediatr 99, 1540–1549.
44M Johnson , S Ostlund , G Fransson , (2009) Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents. J Atten Disord 12, 394–401.
45S Hirayama , T Hamazaki & K Terasawa (2004) Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 467–473.
46AJ Richardson & BK Puri (2002) A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 26, 233–239.
47M Olfson , S Shea , A Feder , (2000) Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders in an urban general medicine practice. Arch Fam Med 9, 876–883.
49PY Lin & KP Su (2007) A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J Clin Psychiatry 68, 1056–1061.
50F Pouwer , G Nijpels , AT Beekman , (2005) Fat food for a bad mood. Could we treat and prevent depression in Type 2 diabetes by means of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids? A review of the evidence. Diabet Med 22, 1465–1475.
51JG Martins (2009) EPA but not DHA appears to be responsible for the efficacy of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in depression: evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Nutr 28, 525–542.
52BD Hegarty & GB Parker (2011) Marine omega-3 fatty acids and mood disorders - linking the sea and the soul: 'Food for Thought' I. Acta Psychiatr Scand 124, 42–51.
53PJ Lustman & RE Clouse (2002) Treatment of depression in diabetes: impact on mood and medical outcome. J Psychosom Res 53, 917–924.
54J Nuyen , FG Schellevis , WA Satariano , (2006) Comorbidity was associated with neurologic and psychiatric diseases: a general practice-based controlled study. J Clin Epidemiol 59, 1274–1284.
55HM Wichowicz , J Slawek , M Derejko , (2006) Factors associated with depression in Parkinson's disease: a cross-sectional study in a Polish population. Eur Psychiatry 21, 516–520.
56FJ Vajda & C Solinas (2005) Current approaches to management of depression in Parkinson's Disease. J Clin Neurosci 12, 739–743.
57I McKeith & J Cummings (2005) Behavioural changes and psychological symptoms in dementia disorders. Lancet Neurol 4, 735–742.
60BT Walsh , SN Seidman , R Sysko , (2002) Placebo response in studies of major depression: variable, substantial, and growing. JAMA 287, 1840–1847.
61I Colquhoun & S Bunday (1981) A lack of essential fatty acids as a possible cause of hyperactivity in children. Med Hypotheses 7, 673–679.
62L Stevens , W Zhang , L Peck , (2003) EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids 38, 1007–1021.
63EA Mitchell , MG Aman , SH Turbott , (1987) Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 26, 406–411.
64LE Arnold , D Kleykamp , NA Votolato , (1989) Gamma-linolenic acid for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled comparison to D-amphetamine. Biol Psychiatry 25, 222–228.
66JR Chen , SF Hsu , CD Hsu , (2004) Dietary patterns and blood fatty acid composition in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan. J Nutr Biochem 15, 467–472.
67R Raz & L Gabis (2009) Essential fatty acids and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Dev Med Child Neurol 51, 580–592.
68MC Zanarini & FR Frankenburg (2003) Omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 160, 167–169.
69M Fux , J Benjamin & B Nemets (2004) A placebo-controlled cross-over trial of adjunctive EPA in OCD. J Psychiatr Res 38, 323–325.
70AJ Richardson & P Montgomery (2005) The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics 115, 1360–1366.