Low serum concentrations of several vitamins have been linked to increased risk of diseases including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fish is a good source of several vitamins, and the prevalence of T2D is low in populations with high fish intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high intake of cod or salmon on a comprehensive panel of vitamins in serum from adults with overweight/obesity in autumn in South-Western Norway at 60º north latitude. In this randomised clinical trial, sixty-three healthy participants with overweight/obesity consumed 750 g/week of either cod (N=22) or salmon (N=22) as 5 weekly dinners, or were instructed to continue their normal eating habits but avoid fish intake (Control group, N=19) for 8 weeks. The estimated vitamin D intake was significantly increased in the Salmon group when compared to the Cod group (P=6.3x10-4) and to the Control group (P=3.5x10-6), while for vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, C and E, no differences in estimated intake were found between groups. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was decreased in all groups after 8 weeks, however, the reduction in Salmon group was significantly smaller compared to both the Cod group (P=0.013) and the Control group (P=0.0060). Cod and salmon intake did not affect serum concentrations of the other measured vitamins. The findings suggest that 750 g/week of salmon was not sufficient to prevent a decrease in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in autumn in South-Western Norway in adults with overweight/obese.
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