This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
PJ Aggett (2004) Functional effects of food: what do we know in children? Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 2, S223–S226.
J Bigaard , A Tjønneland , BL Thomsen , K Overvad , BL Heitmann & TIA Sørensen (2003) Waist circumference, BMI, smoking, and mortality in middle-aged men and women. Obes Res 11, 895–903.
F Bellisle (2004) Effects of diet on behaviour and cognition in children. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 2, S227–S232.
J Lambert , C Agostoni , I Elmadfa , KFAM Hulshof , E Krause , B Livingstone , P Socha , D Pannemans , S Samartín (2004) Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe. ILSI Europe Nutritional Needs of Children Task Force – Expert Group 2. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 2, S147–S211.
MBE Livingstone , PJ Robson & JMW Wallace (2004) Issues in dietary intake assessment of children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 92, Suppl. 2, S213–S222.
F Manz , A Wentz , W Sichert-Hellert (2002) The most essential nutrient: defining the adequate intake of water. J Pediatr 141, 587–592.
D Chan , G Watts , P Barrett & V Burke (2003) Waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as predictors of adipose tissue compartments in men. Q J Med 96, 441–447.
A Prentice , F Branca , T Decsi , Michaelsen K Fleischer , RJ Fletcher , P Guesry , F Manz , M Vidailhet , D Pannemans , S Samartín (2004) Energy and nutrient dietary reference values for children in Europe: methodological approaches and current nutritional recommendations. ILSI Europe Nutritional Needs of Children Task Force – Expert Group 1. Br J Nutr 92 Suppl. 2, S83–S145.
JM Chan , EB Rimm , GA Colditz , MJ Stampfer & WC Willett (1994) Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 17, 961–969.
J Dallongeville , N Marecaux , P Ducimetiere , J Ferrieres , D Arveiler , A Bingham , JB Ruidavets , C Simon & P Amouyel (1998) Influence of alcohol consumption and various beverages on waist girth and waist-to-hip ratio in a sample of French men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 1178–1183.
K Delvaux , R Lysens , R Philippaerts , M Thomis , B Vanreusel , AL Claessens , B Vanden Eynde , G Beunen , J Lefevre (1999) Associations between physical activity, nutritional practices and health-related anthropometry in Flemish males: a 5-year follow-up study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 1233–1241.
CJ Dobbelsteyn , MR Joffres , DR MacLean & G Flowerdew (2001) A comparative evaluation of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 652–661.
DC Greenwood , JE Cade , A Draper , JH Barrett , C Calvert & A Greenhalgh (2000) Seven unique food consumption patterns identified among women in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 314–320.
JA Grinker , K Tucker , PS Vokonas & D Rush (1995) Body habitus changes among adult males from the normative aging study: relations to aging, smoking history and alcohol intake. Obes Res 3, 435–446.
TS Han , FC Bijnen , ME Lean & JC Seidell (1998) Separate associations of waist and hip circumference with lifestyle factors. Int J Epidemiol 27, 422–430.
A Haveman-Nies , KL Tucker , LC de Groot , PW Wilson , WA van Staveren (2001) Evaluation of dietary quality in relationship to nutritional and lifestyle factors in elderly people of the US Framingham Heart Study and the European SENECA study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 870–880.
BL Heitmann & L Lissner (1995) Dietary underreporting by obese individuals – is it specific or nonspecific?. Br Med J 311, 986–989.
BL Heitmann , L Lissner & M Osler (2000) Do we eat less fat, or just report so?. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 435–442.
BK Jacobsen & DS Thelle (1987) The Tromso Heart Study: the relationship between food habits and the body mass index. J Chronic Dis 40, 795–800.
D Johansen , PK Andersen , K Overvad , G Jensen , P Schnohr , TIA Sørensen , M Grønbæk (2003) Energy adjustment methods applied to alcohol analyses. Alcohol 31, 11–17.
HS Kahn , LM Tatham , C Rodriguez , EE Calle , MJ Thun , CW Heath Jr (1997) Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. Am J Public Health 87, 747–754.
HM Lakka , TA Lakka , J Tuomilehto & JT Salonen (2002) Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events in men. Eur Heart J 23, 706–713.
L Lapidus , C Bengtsson , T Hallstrom & P Bjorntorp (1989) Obesity, adipose tissue distribution and health in women – results from a population study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Appetite 13, 25–35.
A Laws , RB Terry , E Barrett-Connor (1990) Behavioral covariates of waist-to-hip ratio in Rancho Bernardo. Am J Public Health 80, 1358–1362.
ME Lean , TS Han & CE Morrison (1995) Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. Br Med J 311, 158–161.
S Lemieux (1997) Genetic susceptibility to visceral obesity and related clinical implications. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, 831–838.
M Liebman , S Pelican , SA Moore , B Holmes , MK Wardlaw , LM Melcher , AC Liddil , LC Paul , T Dunnagan & GW Haynes (2003) Dietary intake, eating behavior, and physical activity-related determinants of high body mass index in rural communities in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 684–692.
L Lissner , C Bjorkelund , BL Heitmann , JC Seidell & C Bengtsson (2001) Larger hip circumference independently predicts health and longevity in a Swedish female cohort. Obes Res 9, 644–646.
DS Ludwig , MA Pereira , CH Kroenke , JE Hilner , L Van Horn , ML Slattery , DR Jacobs Jr (1999) Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. J Am Med Assoc 282, 1539–1546.
MP Merkus , LMH Mathus-Vliegen , C Broeckhoff & AMP Heijnen (1995) Extreme obesity: sociodemographic, familial and behavioural correlates in the Nederlands. J Epidemiol Commun Health 49, 22–27.
KL Morris & MB Zemel (1999) Glycemic index, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Nutr Rev 57, 273–276.
TL Nelson , NL Pedersen & TP Miles (1999) Genetic and environmental influences on waist-to-hip ratio in an older Swedish twin population. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 449–455.
M Osler & BL Heitmann (1996) The validity of a short food frequency questionnaire and its ability to measure changes in food intake: a longitudinal study. Int J Epidemiol 25, 1023–1029.
M Osler , AA Helms , B Heitmann , S Hoidrup , U Gerdes , JL Morch & M Schroll (2002) Food intake patterns and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study examining the use of traditional scoring techniques. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 568–574.
KM Rexrode , JE Buring & JE Manson (2001) Abdominal and total adiposity and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1047–1056.
KM Rexrode , VJ Carey , CH Hennekens , EE Walters , GA Colditz , MJ Stampfer , WC Willett & JE Manson (1998) Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. J Assoc Med Assoc 280, 1843–1848.
Y Sakurai , T Umeda , K Shinchi , S Honjo , K Wakabayashi , I Todoroki , H Nishikawa , S Ogawa & M Katsurada (1997) Relation of total and beverage-specific alcohol intake to body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: a study of self-defense officials in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 13, 893–898.
RB Singh , V Rastogi , SS Rastogi , MA Niaz & R Beegom (1996) Effect of diet and moderate exercise on central obesity and associated disturbances, myocardial infarction and mortality in patients with and without coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Nutr 15, 592–601.
M Toeller , AE Buyken , G Heitkamp , G Cathelineau , B Ferriss & G Michel , The EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group (2001) Nutrient intakes as predictors of body weight in European people with type 1 diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1815–1822.
P Togo , M Osler , TIA Sørensen & BL Heitmann (2004) A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 583–593.
ES Vadstrup , L Petersen , TIA Sørensen & M Gronbaek (2003) Waist circumference in relation to history of amount and type of alcohol: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 238–246.
RE Van Pelt , EM Evans , KB Schechtman , AA Ehsani & WM Kohrt (2002) Contributions of total and regional fat mass to risk for cardiovascular disease in older women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, E1023–E1028.
SP Walker , EB Rimm , A Ascherio , I Kawachi , MJ Stampfer & WC Willett (1996) Body size and fat distribution as predictors of stroke among US men. Am J Epidemiol 144, 1143–1150.
WC Willett (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology 2nd ed Oxford: Oxford University Press Inc.
DF Williamson , MR Forman , NJ Binkin , EM Gentry , PL Remington & FL Trowbridge (1987) Alcohol and body weight in United States adults. Am J Public Health 77, 1324–1330.
AK Wirfalt & RW Jeffery (1997) Using cluster analysis to examine dietary patterns: nutrient intakes, gender, and weight status differ across food pattern clusters. J Am Diet Assoc 97, 272–279.
E Wirfalt , B Hedblad , B Gullberg , I Mattisson , C Andren , U Rosander , L Janzon & G Berglund (2001) Food patterns and components of the metabolic syndrome in men and women: a cross-sectional study within the Malmo diet and cancer cohort. Am J Epidemiol 154, 1150–1159.