Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis

  • Mercedes Gil-Campos (a1), Concepción María Aguilera (a2), Ramón Cañete (a1) and Angel Gil (a2)
Abstract

Regulation of energy homeostasis requires precise coordination between peripheral nutrient-sensing molecules and central regulatory networks. Ghrelin is a twenty-eight-amino acid orexigenic peptide acylated at the serine 3 position mainly with an n-octanoic acid, which is produced mainly in the stomach. It is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptors. Since plasma ghrelin levels are strictly dependent on recent food intake, this hormone plays an essential role in appetite and meal initiation. In addition, ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The ghrelin gene is composed of four exons and three introns and renders a diversity of orexigenic peptides as well as des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin, which exhibit anorexigenic properties. Ghrelin stimulates the synthesis of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus neurons of the hypothalamus and hindbrain, which in turn enhance food intake. Ghrelin-expressing neurons modulate the action of both orexigenic NPY/AgRP and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons. AMP-activated protein kinase is activated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus, which contributes to lower intracellular long-chain fatty acids, and this appears to be the molecular signal for the expression of NPY and AgRP. Recent data suggest that ghrelin has an important role in the regulation of leptin and insulin secretion and vice versa. The present paper updates the effects of ghrelin on the control of energy homeostasis and reviews the molecular mechanisms of ghrelin synthesis, as well as interaction with GHS receptors and signalling. Relationships with leptin and insulin in the regulation of energy homeostasis are addressed.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Ghrelin: a hormone regulating food intake and energy homeostasis
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Angel Gil, fax +34 958 248960, email agil@ugr.es
References
Hide All
Ahima RS & Osei SY Molecular regulation of eating behavior:new insights and prospects for therapeutic strategies. Trends Mol Med (2001) 7, 205213.
Al Awar R, Obeid O, Hwalla N & Azar S Postprandial acylated ghrelin status following fat and protein manipulation of meals in healthy young women. Clin Sci (2005) 109, 405411.
Andersson U, Filipsson K, Abbott CR, Woods A, Smith K, Bloom SR, Carling D & Small CJ AMP-activated protein kinase plays a role in the control of food intake. J Biol Chem (2004) 279, 1200512008.
Ariyasu H, Takaya K, Hosoda H et al. Delayed short-term secretory regulation of ghrelin in obese animals: evidenced by a specific RIA for the active form of ghrelin. Endocrinology (2002) 143, 33413350.
Ariyasu H, Takaya K, Iwakura H, Hosoda H, Akamizu T, Arai Y, Kangawa K & Nakao K Transgenic mice overexpressing des-acyl ghrelin show small phenotype. Endocrinology (2005) 146, 355364.
Arvat E, Di Vito L, Broglio F, Papotti M, Muccioli G, Dieguez C, Casanueva FF, Deghenghi R, Camanni F & Ghigo E Preliminary evidence that ghrelin, the natural GH secretagogue (GHS)-receptor ligand, strongly stimulates GH secretion in humans. J Endocrinol Invest (2000) 23, 493495.
Asakawa A, Inui A, Fujimiya M, Sakamaki R, Shinfuku N, Ueta Y, Meguid MM & Kasuga M Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Gut (2005) 54, 1824.
Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T, Katsuura G, Fujimiya M, Fujino MA & Kasuga M Antagonism of ghrelin receptor reduces food intake and body weight gain in mice. Gut (2003) 52, 947952.
Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T et al. Ghrelin is an appetitestimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin. Gastroenterology (2001) 120, 337345.
Atrens DM, Sinden JD, Penicaud L, Devos M & Le Magnen J Hypothalamic modulation of energy expenditure. Physiol Behav (1985) 35, 1520.
Bacha F & Arslanian SA Ghrelin suppression in overweight children: a manifestation of insulin resistance? J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005) 90, 27252730.
Bagnasco M, Dube MG, Kalra PS & Kalra SP Evidence for the existence of distinct central appetite, energy expenditure, and ghrelin stimulation pathways as revealed by hypothalamic sitespecific leptin gene therapy. Endocrinology (2002) 143, 44094421.
Bagnasco M, Tulipano G, Melis MR, Argiolas A, Cocchi D & Muller EE Endogenous ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide acting in the arcuate nucleus in response to fasting. Regul Pept (2003) 111, 161167.
Baile CA, Della-Fera MA & Martin RJ Regulation of metabolism and body fat mass by leptin. Annu Rev Nutr (2000) 20, 105127.
Baldanzi G, Filigheddu N, Cutrupi S et al. Ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin inhibit cell death in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells through ERK1/2 and PI 3-kinase/AKT. J Cell Biol (2002) 159, 10291037.
Barazzoni R, Bosutti A, Stebel M, Cattin MR, Roder E, Visintin L, Cattin L, Biolo G, Zanetti M & Guarnieri G Ghrelin regulates mitochondrial-lipid metabolism gene expression and tissue fat distribution in liver and skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol (2005) 288, E228E235.
Barazzoni R, Zanetti M, Stebel M, Biolo G, Cattin L & Guarnieri G Hyperleptinemia prevents increased plasma ghrelin concentration during short-term moderate caloric restriction in rats. Gastroenterology (2003) 124, 11881192.
Barkan AL, Dimaraki EV, Jessup SK, Symons KV, Ermolenko M & Jaffe CA Ghrelin secretion in humans is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by somatostatin, and not affected by the ambient growth hormone levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2003) 88, 21802184.
Batterham RL, Cowley MA, Small CJ et al. Gut hormone PYY(3-36) physiologically inhibits food intake. Nature (2002) 418, 650654.
Beaumont NJ, Skinner VO, Tan TM et al. Ghrelin can bind to a species of high-density lipoprotein associated with paraoxonase. J Biol Chem (2003) 278, 88778880.
Bedendi I, Alloatti G, Marcantoni A, Malan D, Catapano F, Ghe C, Deghenghi R, Ghigo E & Muccioli G Cardiac effects of ghrelin and its endogenous derivatives des-octanoyl ghrelin and des-Gln14-ghrelin. Eur J Pharmacol (2003) 476, 8795.
Bednarek MA, Feighner SD, Pong SS, McKee KK, Hreniuk DL, Silva MV, Warren VA, Howard AD Van Der Ploeg LH & Heck JV Structure–function studies on the new growth hormone-releasing peptide, ghrelin: minimal sequence of ghrelin necessary for activation of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. J Med Chem (2000) 43 43704376
Beg ZH, Allmann DW & Gibson DM Modulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity with cAMP and with protein fractions of rat liver cytosol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (1973) 54, 13621369.
Bercu BB & Walker RF Novel growth hormone secretagogues: clinical applications. Endocrinologist (1997) 7, 5164.
Bing C, Ambye L, Fenger M, Jorgensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Madsbad S & Urhammer SA Large-scale studies of the Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene in relation to the metabolic syndrome and associated quantitative traits. Diabet Med (2005) 22, 11571160.
Bowers CY Unnatural growth hormone-releasing peptide begets natural ghrelin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001) 8, 14641469.
Bowers CY, Chang J, Momany FA & Folkers K Effects of the enkephalins and enkephalin-analog on release of pituitary hormones in vitro. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Endocrinology, Molecular Endocrinology. In, [MacIntyre I]. Amsterdam: Elsevier. (1977) 287
Broberger C, Landry M, Wong H, Walsh JN & Hokfelt T Subtypes Y1 and Y2 of the neuropeptide Y receptor are respectively expressed in pro-opiomelanocortin- and neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons of the rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Neuroendocrinology (1997) 66 393408
Broglio F, Arvat E, Benso A, Gottero C, Muccioli G, Papotti M, van der Lely AJ, Deghenghi R & Ghigo E Ghrelin, a natural GH secretagogue produced by the stomach, induces hyperglycemia and reduces insulin secretion in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001) 86 50835086
Broglio F, Gottero C, Prodam F, Gauna C, Muccioli G, Papotti M, Abribat T, van der Lely AJ & Ghigo E Non-acylated ghrelin counteracts the metabolic but not the neuroendocrine response to acylated ghrelin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 89 30623065
Broglio F, Koetsveld PP, Benso A et al. Ghrelin secretion is inhibited by either somatostatin or cortistatin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2002) 87 48294832
Callahan HS, Cummings DE, Pepe MS, Breen PA, Matthys CC & Weigle DS Postprandial suppression of plasma ghrelin level is proportional to ingested caloric load but does not predict intermeal interval in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 89 13191324
Carlson CA & Kim KH Regulation of hepatic acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. J Biol Chem (1973) 248 378380
Casanueva FF & Diéguez C Ghrelin: the link connecting growth with metabolism and energy homeostasis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord (2002) 3 325338
Cassoni P, Ghe C, Marrocco T, Tarabra E, Allia E, Catapano F, Deghenghi R, Ghigo E, Papotti M & Muccioli G Expression of ghrelin and biological activity of specific receptors for ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin in human prostate neoplasms and related cell lines. Eur J Endocrinol (2004) 150 173184
Chan CB & Cheng CH Identification and functional characterization of two alternatively spliced growth hormone secretagogue receptor transcripts from the pituitary of black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Mol Cell Endocrinol (2004) 214 8195
Chanoine JP & Wong AC Ghrelin gene expression is markedly higher in fetal pancreas compared with fetal stomach: effect of maternal fasting. Endocrinology (2004) 145 38133820
Chen CY, Chao Y, Chang FY, Chien EJ, Lee SD & Doong ML Intracisternal des-acyl ghrelin inhibits food intake and non-nutrient gastric emptying in conscious rats. Int J Mol Med (2005 a) 16 695699
Chen CY, Inui A, Asakawa A, Fujino K, Kato I, Chen CC, Ueno N & Fujimiya M Des-acyl ghrelin acts by CRF type 2 receptors to disrupt fasted stomach motility in conscious rats. Gastroenterology (2005 b) 129 825
Chen HY, Trumbauer ME, Chen AS et al. Orexigenic action of peripheral ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y and agoutirelated protein. Endocrinology (2004) 145 26072612
Cone RD The central melanocortin system and energy homeostasis. Trends Endocrinol Metab (1999) 10 211216
Cone RD Anatomy and regulation of the central melanocortin system. Nature Neurosci (2005) 8 571578
Corbetta S, Peracchi M, Cappiello V, Lania A, Lauri E, Vago L, Beck-Peccoz P & Spada A Circulating ghrelin levels inpatients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2003) 88 31173120
Cowley MA, Smith RG, Diano S et al. The distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis. Neuron (2003) 37 649661
Culmsee C, Monnig J, Kemp BE & Mattson MP AMP-activated protein kinase is highly expressed in neurons in the developing rat brain and promotes neuronal survival following glucose deprivation. J Mol Neurosci (2001) 17 4558
Cummings DE & Foster KE Ghrelin–leptin tango in bodyweight regulation. Gastroenterology (2003) 124 15321535
Cummings DE, Foster-Schubert KE & Overduin J Ghrelin and energy balance: focus on current controversies. Curr Drug Targets (2005) 6 153169
Cummings DE, Purnell JQ, Frayo RS, Schmidova K, Wisse BE & Weigle DS preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin levels suggests a role in meal initiation in humans. Diabetes (2001) 50 17141719
Cummings DE & Shannon MH Ghrelin and gastric bypass: is there a hormonal contribution to surgical weight loss? J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2003) 88 29993002
Cummings DE, Weigle DS, Frayo RS, Breen PA, Ma MK, Dellinger EP & Purnell JQ Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery. New Eng J Med (2002) 346 16231630
Date Y, Kojima M, Hosoda H, Sawaguchi A, Mondal MS, Suganuma T, Matsukura S, Kangawa K & Nakazato M Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans. Endocrinology (2000) 141 42554261
Date Y, Murakami N, Toshinai K, Matsukura S, Niijima A, Matsuo H, Kangawa K & Nakazato M The role of the gastric afferent vagal nerve in ghrelin-induced feeding and growth hormone secretion in rats. Gastroenterology (2002) 123 11201128
Date Y, Nakazato M, Murakami N, Kojima M, Kangawa K & Matsukura S Ghrelin acts in the central nervous system to stimulate gastric acid secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2001) 280 904907
Davis JD, Wirtshafter D, Asin KE & Brief D Sustained intracerebroventricular infusion of brain fuels reduces body weight and food intake in rats. Science (1981) 212 8183
De Smet B, Depoortere I, Moechars D, Swennen Q, Moreaux B, Cryns K, Tack J, Buyse J Coulie B & Peeters TL Energy homeostasis and gastric emptying in ghrelin knockout mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther (2006) 316 431439
De Vriese C, Gregoire F, Lema-Kisoka R, Waelbroeck M, Robberecht P & Delporte C Ghrelin degradation by serum and tissue homogenates: identification of the cleavage sites. Endocrinology (2004) 145 49975005
Del Rincón JP, Thorner MO & Gaylinn BG Motilin-related peptide and ghrelin: lessons from molecular techniques, peptide chemistry, and receptor biology. Gastroenterology (2001) 120 587588
Dixit VD, Schaffer EM, Pyle RS, Collins GD, Sakthivel SK, Palaniappan R, Lillard JW Jr & Taub DD Ghrelin inhibits leptin- and activation-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes and T cells. J Clin Invest (2004) 114 5766
Dockray GL Luminal sensing in the gut; an overview. J Physiol Pharmacol (2003) 54 suppl. 4, 918
Druce MR, Neary NM, Small CJ, Milton J, Monteiro M, Patterson M, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR Subcutaneous administration of ghrelin stimulates energy intake in healthy lean human volunteers. Int J Obes (Lond) (2006) 30 293296
Druce MR, Small CJ & Bloom SR Minireview: gut peptides regulating satiety. Endocrinology (2004) 145 26602665
Egido EM, Rodriguez-Gallardo J, Silvestre RA & Marco J Inhibitory effect of ghrelin on insulin and pancreatic somatostatin secretion. Eur J Endocrinol (2002) 146 241244
Eisenstein J & Greenberg A Ghrelin: update 2003. Nutr Rev (2003) 61 101104
English PJ, Ghatei MA, Malik IA, Bloom SR & Wilding JP Food fails to suppress ghrelin levels in obese humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2002) 87 29842987
Erdmann J, Topsch R, Lippl F, Gussmann P & Schusdziarra V Postprandial response of plasma ghrelin levels to various test meals in relation to food intake, plasma insulin, and glucose. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 89 30483054
Flanagan DE, Evans ML, Monsod TP, Rife F, Heptulla RA, Tamborlane WV & Sherwin RS The influence of insulin on circulating ghrelin. Am J Physiol (2003) 284 E313E316
Gauna C, Delhanty PJ, Hofland LJ, Janssen JA, Broglio F, Ross RJ, Ghigo E & van der Lely AJ Ghrelin stimulates, whereas des-octanoyl ghrelin inhibits, glucose output by primary hepatocytes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005) 90 10551060
Gauna C, Meyler FM, Janssen JA, Delhanty PJ, Abribat T, van Koetsveld P, Hofland LJ, Broglio F, Ghigo E & van der Lely AJ Administration of acylated ghrelin reduces insulin sensitivity, whereas the combination of acylated plus unacylated ghrelin strongly improves insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 89 50355042
Gaytan F, Barreiro ML, Caminos JE et al. Expression of ghrelin and its functional receptor, the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor, in normal human testis and testicular tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 89 400409
Ghigo E, Arvat E, Giordano R et al. Biologic activities of growth hormone secretagogues in humans. Endocrine (2001) 14 8793
Ghigo E, Broglio F, Arvat E, Maccario M, Papotti M & Muccioli G Ghrelin: more than a natural GH secretagogue and/or an orexigenic factor. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) (2005) 62 117
Gil M, Villada I, Aguilera C, Linde J, Ramírez-Tortosa C, Cañete R & Gil A Prepubertal obese children exhibit an altered postprandial plasma ghrelin pattern. Int J Obes (2004) 28 suppl. 1, 194
Gil-Campos M Relaciones entre parámetros antropométricos, ingesta de nutrientes, hormonas y lípidos plasmáticos en niños obesos (Relationships between anthropometric parameters, nutrient intake, hormones and plasma lipids in obese children). PhD Thesis, University of Cordoba (2004)
Gil-Campos M, Cañete R & Gil A Hormones regulating lipid metabolism and plasma lipids in childhood obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord (2004 a) 28 S75S80
Gil-Campos M, Cañete R & Gil A Adiponectin, the missing link in insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Nutr (2004 b) 23 963974
Giustina A, Bonfanti C, Licini M, Ragni G & Stefana B Hexarelin, a novel GHRP-6 analog, stimulates growth hormone (GH)release in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH1) insensitive to GHreleasing hormone. Regul Pept (1997) 70 4954
Gnanapavan S, Kola B, Bustin SA, Morris DG, McGee P, Fairclough P, Bhattacharya S, Carpenter R, Grossman AB & Korbonits M The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GHS-R, in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2002) 87 29882991
Gropp E, Shanabrough M, Borok E et al. Agouti-related peptide-expressing neurons are mandatory for feeding. Nat Neurosci (2005) 8 12891291
Grove KL & Cowley MA Is ghrelin a signal for the development of metabolic systems? J Clin Invest (2005) 115 33933397
Guan XM, Yu H, Palyha OC, McKee KK, Feighner SD, Sirinathsinghji DJ, Smith RG, Van der Ploeg LH & Howard AD Distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in brain and peripheral tissues. Brain Res Mol Brain Res (1997) 48 2329
Hahn TM, Breininger JF, Baskin DG & Schwartz MW Coexpression of AgRP and NPY in fasting-activated hypothalamic neurons. Nat Neurosci (1998) 1 271272
Halem HA, Taylor JE, Dong JZ et al. Novel analogs of ghrelin:physiological and clinical implications. Eur J Endocrinol (2004) 151 suppl. 1, S71S75
Halem HA, Taylor JE, Dong JZ, Shen Y, Datta R, Abizaid A, Diano S, Horvath TL & Culler MD A novel growth hormone secretagogue-1a receptor antagonist that blocks ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion but induces increased body weight gain. Neuroendocrinology (2005) 81 339349
Haqq AM, Farooqi IS, O'Rahilly S, Stadler DD, Rosenfeld RG, Pratt KL, LaFranchi SH & Purnell JQ Serum ghrelin levels are inversely correlated with body mass index, age, and insulin concentrations in normal children and are markedly increased in Prader–Willi syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2003) 88 174178
Hardie DG, Salt IP, Hawley SA & Davies SP AMP-activated protein kinase: an ultrasensitive system for monitoring cellular energy charge. Biochem J (1999) 338 717722
Haskell-Luevano C, Chen P, Li C, Chang K, Smith MS, Cameron JL & Cone RD Characterization of the neuroanatomical distribution of agouti-related protein immunoreactivity in the rhesus monkey and the rat. Endocrinology (1999) 140 14081415
Heller RS, Jenny M, Collombat P, Mansouri A, Tomasetto C, Madsen OD, Mellitzer G, Gradwohl G & Serup P Genetic determinants of pancreatic epsilon-cell development. Dev Biol (2005) 28 217224
Hewson AK & Dickson SL Systemic administration of ghrelin induces Fos and Egr-1 proteins in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of fasted and fed rats. J Neuroendocrinol (2000) 12 10471049
Hinney A, Hoch A, Geller F, Schafer H, Siegfried W, Goldschmidt H, Remschmidt H & Hebebrand J Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2002) 87 2716
Hirsh D, Heinrichs C, Leenders B, Wong AC, Cummings DE & Chanoine JP Ghrelin is suppressed by glucagon and does not mediate glucagon-related growth hormone release. Horm Res (2005) 63 111118
Holdstock C, Engstrom BE, Ohrvall M, Lind L, Sundbom M & Karlsson FA Ghrelin and adipose tissue regulatory peptides: effect of gastric bypass surgery in obese humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2003) 88 31773183
Holst B, Cygankiewicz A, Jensen TH, Ankersen M & Schwartz TW High constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor identification of a potent inverse agonist. Mol Endocrinol (2003) 17 22012210
Horvath TL The hardship of obesity: a soft-wired hypothalamus. Nat Neurosci (2005) 8 561565
Horvath TL, Diano S, Sotonyi P, Heiman M & Tschop M Minireview: ghrelin and the regulation of energy balance – a hypothalamic perspective. Endocrinology (2001) 142 41634169
Hosoda H, Kojima M, Matsuo H & Kangawa K Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2000 a) 279 909913
Hosoda H, Kojima M, Matsuo H & Kangawa K Purification and characterization of rat des-Gln14-ghrelin, a second endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. J Biol Chem (2000 b) 275 2199522000
Hosoda H, Kojima M, Mizushima T, Shimizu S & Kangawa K Structural divergence of human ghrelin. Identification of multiple ghrelin-derived molecules produced by post-translational processing. J Biol Chem (2003) 278 6470
Howard AD, Feighner SD, Cully DF et al. A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release. Science (1996) 273 974977
Huszar D, Lynch CA, Fairchild-Huntress V et al. Targeted disruption of the melanocortin-4 receptor results in obesity in mice. Cell (1997) 88 131141
Ikezaki A, Hosoda H, Ito K, Iwama S, Miura N, Matsuoka H, Kondo C, Kojima M, Kangawa K & Sugihara S Fasting plasma ghrelin levels are negatively correlated with insulin resistance and PAI-1, but not with leptin, in obese children and adolescents. Diabetes (2002) 51 34083411
Jacobowitz DM & O'Donohue TL α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone: immunohistochemical identification and mapping in neurons of rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (1978) 75 63006304
Jeffery PL, Duncan RP, Yeh AH, Jaskolski RA, Hammond DS, Herington AC & Chopin LK Expression of the ghrelin axis in the mouse: an exon 4-deleted mouse proghrelin variant encodes a novel C terminal peptide. peptide. Endocrinology (2005) 146 432440
Kaiya H, Kojima M, Hosoda H, Koda A, Yamamoto K, Kitajima Y, Matsumoto M, Minamitake Y, Kikuyama S & Kangawa K Bullfrog ghrelin is modified by n-octanoic acid at its third threonine residue. J Boil Chem (2001) 276 4044140448
Kaiya H, Kojima M, Hosoda H, Riley LG, Hirano T, Grau EG & Kangawa K Identification of tilapia ghrelin and its effects on growth hormone and prolactin release in the tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comp Biochem Physiol (2003) 135B 421429
Kalra SP, Bagnasco M, Otukonyong EE, Dube MG & Kalra PS Rhythmic, reciprocal ghrelin and leptin signaling: new insight in the development of obesity. Regul Pept (2003) 111 111
Kalra SP & Kalra PS Neuropeptide Y: a physiological orexigen modulated by the feedback action of ghrelin and leptin. Endocrine (2003) 22 4956
Kalra SP, Ueno N & Kalra PS Stimulation of appetite by ghrelin is regulated by leptin restraint: peripheral and central sites of action. J Nutr (2005) 135 13311335
Kamegai J, Tamura H, Shimizu T, Ishii S, Sugihara H & Wakabayashi I Chronic central infusion of ghrelin increases hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein mRNA levels and body weight in rats. Diabetes (2001) 50 24382443
Kanamoto N, Akamizu T, Tagami T, Hataya Y, Moriyama K, Takaya K, Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K & Nakao K Genomic structure and characterization of the 5′-flanking region of the human ghrelin gene. Endocrinology (2004) 145 41444153
Kelley AE & Berridge KC The neuroscience of natural rewards: relevance to addictive drugs. J Neurosci (2002) 22 33063311
Kemp BE, Stapleton D, Campbell DJ et al. AMP-activated protein kinase, super metabolic regulator. Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 162168
Kim MS & Lee KU Role of hypothalamic 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. J Mol Med (2005) 83 514520
Kim MS, Namkoong C, Kim HS, Jang PG, Kim Pak YM, Katakami H, Park JY & Lee KU Chronic central administration of ghrelin reverses the effects of leptin. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord (2004) 28 12641271
Kim SW, Her SJ, Park SJ, Kim D, Park KS, Lee HK, Han BH, Kim MS, Shin CS & Kim SY Ghrelin stimulates proliferation and differentiation and inhibits apoptosis in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone (2005) 37 359369
Kishimoto M, Okimura Y, Nakata H, Kudo T, Iguchi G, Takahashi Y, Kaji H & Chihara K Cloning and characterization of the 5(′)-flanking region of the human ghrelin gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2003) 305 186192
Kleinz MJ, Maguire JJ, Skepper JN & Davenport AP Functional and immunocytochemical evidence for a role of ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin in the regulation of vascular tone in man. Cardiovasc Res (2006) 69 227235
Kohno D, Gao HZ, Muroya S, Kikuyama S & Yada T Ghrelin directly interacts with neuropeptide-Y-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus: Ca2+ signaling via protein kinase A and N-type channel-dependent mechanisms and cross-talk with leptin and orexin. Diabetes (2003) 52 948956
Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H & Kangawa K Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature (1999) 402 656660
Kojima M, Hosoda H & Kangawa K Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Ghrelin, a novel growth-hormone-releasing and appetite-stimulating peptide from stomach. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 18 517530
Kojima M, Hosoda H, Matsuo H & Kangawa K Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Trends Endocrinol Metab (2001) 12 118122
Konturek PC, Konturek JW, Czesnikiewicz-Guzik M, Brzozowski T, Sito E & Konturek PC Neuro-hormonal control of food intake; basic mechanisms and clinical implications. J Physiol Pharmacol (2005) 56 suppl. 6, 525
Konturek SJ, Konturek JW, Pawlik T & Brzozowski Y Brain–gut axis and its role in the control of food intake. J Physiol Pharmacol (2004) 55 137154
Konturek SJ, Pepera J, Zabielski K, Konturek PC, Pawlik T, Szlachcic A & Hahn EG Brain–gut axis in pancreatic secretion and appetite control. J Physiol Pharmacol (2003) 54 293317
Koob GF Neural mechanisms of drug reinforcement. Ann N Y Acad Sci (1992) 654 171191
Korbonits M, Bustin SA, Kojima M, Jordan S, Adams EF, Lowe DG, Kangawa K & Grossman AB The expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin in normal and abnormal human pituitary and other neuroendocrine tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001) 86 881887
Korbonits M, Gueorguiev M, O'Grady E, Lecoeur C, Swan DC, Mein CA, Weill J, Grossman AB & Froguel P A variation in the ghrelin gene increases weight and decreases insulin secretion in tall, obese children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2002) 87 40054008
Lam TK, Schwartz GJ & Rossetti L Hypothalamic sensing of fatty acids. Nat Neurosci (2005) 8 579584
Langenberg C, Bergstrom J, Laughlin GA & Barrett-Connor E Ghrelin and the metabolic syndrome in older adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005) 90 64486453
Larsen LH, Gjesing AP, Sorensen TI, Hamid YH, Echwald SM, Toubro S, Black E, Astrup A, Hansen T & Pedersen O Mutation analysis of the preproghrelin gene: no association with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Clin Biochem (2005) 38 420424
Le Roux CW, Neary NM, Halsey TJ, Small CJ, Martinez-Isla AM, Ghatei MA, Theodorou NA & Bloom SR Ghrelin does not stimulate food intake in patients with surgical procedures involving vagotomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005 a) 90 45214524
Le Roux CW, Patterson M, Vincent RP, Hunt C, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR Postprandial plasma ghrelin is suppressed proportional to meal calorie content in normal-weight but not obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005 b) 90 10681071
Lee HM, Wang G, Englander EW, Kojima M & Greeley GH Jr Ghrelin, a new gastrointestinal endocrine peptide that stimulates insulin secretion: enteric distribution, ontogeny, influence of endocrine, and dietary manipulations. Endocrinology (2002) 143 185190
Lucidi P, Murdolo G, Di Loreto C, De Cicco A, Parlanti N, Fanelli C, Santeusanio F, Bolli GB & De Feo P Ghrelin is not necessary for adequate hormonal counterregulation of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Diabetes (2002) 51 29112914
McKeown M Alternative mRNA splicing Annu Rev Cell Biol (1992) 8, 133155
Maffeis C, Bonadonna RC, Consolaro A, Vettor R, Banzato C, Silvagni D, Bogoni G, Pellegrino M & Tato L Ghrelin, insulin sensitivity and postprandial glucose disposal in overweight and obese children. Eur J Endocrinol (2006) 154 6168
Malagon MM, Luque RM, Ruiz-Guerrero E, Rodriguez-Pacheco F, Garcia-Navarro S, Casanueva FF, Gracia-Navarro F & Castano JP Intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating ghrelinstimulated growth hormone release in somatotropes. Endocrinology (2003) 144 53725380
Marx J Cellular warriors at the battle of the bulge. Science (2003) 299 846852
Masuda Y, Tanaka T, Inomata N, Ohnuma N, Tanaka S, Itoh Z, Hosoda H, Kojima M & Kangawa K Ghrelin stimulates gastric acid secretion and motility in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2000) 276 905908
Matsumoto M, Hosoda H, Kitajima Y, Morozumi N, Minamitake Y, Tanaka S, Matsuo H, Kojima M, Hayashi Y & Kangawa K Structure–activity relationship of ghrelin: pharmacological study of ghrelin peptides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2001) 287 4246
Matzinger D, Degen L, Drewe J, Meuli J, Duebendorfer R, Ruckstuhl N, D'Amato M, Rovati L & Beglinger C The role of long chain fatty acids in regulating food intake and cholecystokinin release in humans. Gut (2000) 46 688693
Mayer J Regulation of energy intake and the body weight: the glucostatic theory and the lipostatic hypothesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci (1955) 63 1543
Minokoshi Y, Alquier T, Furukawa N et al. AMP-kinase regulates food intake by responding to hormonal and nutrient signals in the hypothalamus. Nature (2004) 428 569574
Minokoshi Y, Haque MS & Shimazu T Microinjection of leptin into the ventromedial hypothalamus increases glucose uptake in peripheral tissues in rats. Diabetes (1999) 48 287291
Mohlig M, Koebnick C, Weickert MO, Lueder W, Otto B, Steiniger J, Twilfert M, Meuser F, Pfeiffer AF & Zunft HJ rabinoxylan-enriched meal increases serum ghrelin levels in healthy humans. Horm Metab Res (2002) 37 303308
Mohlig M, Spranger J, Otto B, Ristow M, Tschop M & Pfeiffer AF Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, but not lipid infusion, decreases circulating ghrelin levels in humans. J Endocrinol Invest (2002) 25 RC36RC38
Moran LJ, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Noakes M, Wittert GA, Keogh JB & Clifton PM The satiating effect of dietary protein is unrelated to postprandial ghrelin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005) 90 52055211
Muccioli G, Papotti M, Locatelli V, Ghigo E & Deghenghi R Binding of 125I-labeled ghrelin to membranes from human hypothalamus and pituitary gland. J Endocrinol Invest (2001) 24 RC7RC9
Muccioli G, Pons N, Ghe C, Catapano F, Granata R & Ghigo E Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin both inhibit isoproterenolinduced lipolysis in rat adipocytes via a non-type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Eur J Pharmacol (2004) 498 2735
Muller AF, Lamberts SW, Janssen JA, Hofland LJ, Koetsveld PV, Bidlingmaier M,Strasburger CJ,Ghigo E & van der Lely AJ Ghrelin drives GH secretion during fasting in man. Eur J Endocrinol (2002) 146 203207
Murashita M, Kusumi I, Inoue T, Takahashi Y, Hosoda H, Kangawa K, Koyama T Olanzapine increases plasma ghrelin level in patients with schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology (2005) 30 106110
Murata M, Okimura Y, Iida K,Matsumoto M,Sowa H,Kaji H,Kojima M,Kangawa K & Chihara K Ghrelin modulates the downstream molecules of insulin signaling in hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem (2002) 15, 56675674.
Mustonen AM, Nieminen P & Hyvarinen H Preliminary evidence that pharmacologic melatonin treatment decreases rat ghrelin levels. Endocrine (2001) 16, 4346.
Nagaya N, Kojima M, Uematsu M,Yamagishi M,Hosoda H,Oya H,Hayashi Y & Kangawa K Hemodynamic and hormonal effects of human ghrelin in healthy volunteers. Am J Physiol (2001 a) 280,R1483R1487.
Nagaya N, Miyatake K, Uematsu M,Oya H,Shimizu W,Hosoda H,Kojima M,Nakanishi N,Mori H & Kangawa W Hemodynamic, renal, and hormonal effects of ghrelin infusion in patients with chronic heart failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001 b) 86,58545859.
Nakagawa E, Nagaya N, Okumura H,Enomoto M,Oya H,Ono F,Hosoda H,Kojima M &Kangawa K Hyperglycaemia suppresses the secretion of ghrelin, a novel growth-hormone-releasing peptide: responses to the intravenous and oral administration of glucose. Clin Sci (Lond) (2002) 103,325328.
Nakai Y, Hosoda H, Nin K,Ooya C,Hayashi H,Akamizu T & Kangawa k Plasma levels of active form of ghrelin during oral glucose tolerance test in patients with anorexia nervosa. Eur J Endocrinol (2003) 149,R001R003.
Nakazato M, Murahami N, Date M,Kojima M,Matsuo H,Kangawa K & Matsukura SA Role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature (2001) 409,194198.
Naleid AM, Grace MK, Cummings DE & Levine AS Ghrelin induces feeding in the mesolimbic reward pathway between the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens. Peptides (2005) 26,22742279.
Obici S, Feng Z, Tan J,Liu L,Karkanias GRossetti L Central melanocortin receptors regulate insulin action.J Clin Invest (2001) 108,10791085.
Obici S, Zhang BB, Karkanias G & Rossetti L Hypothalamic insulin signaling is required for inhibition of glucose production. Nat Med (2002) 8,13761382.
Ott V, Fasshauer M, Dalski A,Meier B,Perwitz N,Klein HH,Tschop M & Klein J Direct peripheral effects of ghrelin include suppression of adiponectin expression. Horm Metab Res (2002) 34,640645.
Otto B, Spranger J, Benoit SC,Clegg DJTschop MH The many faces of ghrelin: new perspectives for nutrition research? Br J Nutr (2005) 93,765771.
Otukonyong EE, Dube MG, Torto R,Kalra PS & Kalra sp High-fat diet-induced ultradian leptin and insulin hypersecretion are absent in obesity-resistant rats. Obes Res (2005) 13,991999.
Shrestha YB, Wickwire K & Giraudo SQ Role of AgRP on ghrelin-induced feeding in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Regul Pept (2006) 133,6873.
Silva-Elipe MV, Bednarek MA & Gao YD 1H NMR structural analysis of human ghrelin and its six truncated analogs. Biopolymers (2001) 59,489501.
Smith RG, Jiang H & Sun Y Developments in ghrelin biology and potential clinical relevance. Trends Endocrinol Metab (2005) 16,436442.
Snitker S, Tataranni PA & Ravussin E Respiratory quotient is inversely associated with muscle sympathetic nerve activity J Clin Endocrinol Metab (1998) 83,39773979.
Soriano-Guillen L, Barrios V, Campos-Barros A & Argente J (2004) Ghrelin levels in obesity and anorexia nervosa: effect of weight reduction or recuperation. J Pediatr 144,3642.
Soule S, Pemberton C, Hunt P,Cole D,Raudsepp S & Inder W Prandial regulation of ghrelin secretion in humans: does glucagon contribute to the preprandial increase in circulating ghrelin? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) (2005) 63,412417.
Steinle NI, Pollin TI, O'Connell JR, Mitchell BD & Shuldiner AR Variants in the ghrelin gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in the Old Order Amish. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2005) 90,66726677.
Sun Y, Ahmed S & Smith RG Deletion of ghrelin impairs neither growth nor appetite. Mol Cell Biol (2003) 23,79737981.
Sun Y, Wang P, Zheng H & Smith RG Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone release and appetite is mediated through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2004) 101,46794684.
Takaya K, Ariyasu H, Kanamoto N, et al..Ghrelin strongly stimulates growth hormone release in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2000) 85,49084911.
Tamura H, Kamegai J, Shimizu T,Ishii S Sugihara H & Oikawa S Ghrelin stimulates GH but not food intake in arcuate nucleus ablated rats. Endocrinology (2002) 143,32683275.
Tanaka M, Hayashida Y, Iguchi T,Nakao N,Nakai N & Nakashima K Organization of the mouse ghrelin gene and promoter:occurrence of a short noncoding first exon. Endocrinology (2001) 142,36973700.
Tanaka M, Naruo T, Muranaga T,Yasuhara D,Shiiya T,Nakazato M,Matsukura S & Nozoe S Increased fasting plasma ghrelin levels in patients with bulimia nervosa. Eur J Endocrinol (2002) 146,R1R3.
Teff KL, Elliott SS, Tschop M,Kieffer TJ, Rader D, Heiman M, Townsend RR, Keim NL, D'Alessio DHavel PJ Dietary fructose reduces circulating insulin and leptin, attenuates postprandial suppression of ghrelin, and increases triglycerides in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2004) 89,29632972.
Tena-Sempere M Ghrelin: novel regulator of gonadal function. J Endocrinol Invest (2005) 28,2629.
Thompson NM, Gill DA, Davies R,Loveridge N,Houston PA,Robinson IC & Wells T Ghrelin and des-octanoyl ghrelin promote adipogenesis directly in vivo by a mechanism independent of the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Endocrinology (2004) 145,234242.
Tolle V, Kadem M, Bluet-Pajot MT,et al.. Balance in ghrelin and leptin plasma levels in anorexia nervosa patients and constitutionally thin women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2003) 88,109116.
Tomas E, Tsao TS, Saha AK,Murrey HE,Zhang CC,Itani SI,Lodish HF & Ruderman NB Enhanced muscle fat oxidation and glucose transport by ACRP30 globular domain: acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition and AMP-activated protein kinase activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2002) 99,1630916313.
Tomasetto C, Karam SM, Ribieras S,Masson R,Lefebvre O,Staub A,Alexander G,Chenard MP & Rio MC Identification and characterization of a novel gastric peptide hormone: the motilin-related peptide. Gastroenterology (2000) 119,395405.
Toshinai K, Date Y, Murakami N,et al.. Ghrelin-induced food intake is mediated via the orexin pathway. Endocrinology (2003) 144,15061512.
Toshinai K, Mondal MS, Nakazato M,Date Y,Murakami N,Kojima M,Kangawa K & Matsukura s Upregulation of ghrelin expression in the stomach upon fasting, insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and leptin administration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (2001) 281,2811225.
Tschop M, Flora DB, Mayer JP & Heiman ML Hypophysectomy prevents ghrelin-induced adiposity and increases gastric ghrelin secretion in rats. Obes Res (2002) 10,991999.
Tschop M, Smiley DL & Heiman ML Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature (2000) 407,908913.
Tschop M, Wawarta R, Riepl RL,Friedrich S,Bidlingmaier M,Landgraf R & Folwaczny c Post-prandial decrease of circulating human ghrelin levels. J Endocrinol Invest (2001) 24,RC19RC21.
Turnley AM, Stapleton D, Mann RJ,Witters LA,Kemp BE & Bartlett PF Cellular distribution and developmental expression of AMP-activated protein kinase isoforms in mouse central nervous system. J Neurochem (1999) 72,17071716.
Ukkola O Ghrelin and the metabolic balance. J Endocrinol Invest (2005) 28,849852.
Ukkola O, Ravussin E, Jacobson P,Snyder EE,Chagnon M,Sjostrom L & Bouchard c Mutations in the preproghrelin/ghrelin gene associated with obesity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001) 86,39963999.
van der Lely AJ, Tschop M, Heiman ML & Ghigo E Biological, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin. Endocr Rev (2004) 25,426457.
Viollet B, Andreelli F, Jorgensen SB,et al.. The AMPactivated protein kinase alpha2 catalytic subunit controls whole-body insulin sensitivity. J Clin Invest (2003) 111,9198.
Vivenza D, Rapa A, Castellino N,Bellone S,Petri A,Vacca G,Aimaretti G,Broglio F & Bona G Ghrelin gene polymorphisms and ghrelin, insulin, IGF-I, leptin and anthropometric data in children and adolescents. Eur J Endocrinol (2004) 151,127133.
Wajnrajch MP, Ten IS, Gertner JM & Leibel RL Genomic organization of the ghrelin gene. J Endo Gen (2000) 1,231233.
Wang L, Saint-Pierre DH & Tache Y Peripheral ghrelin selectively increases Fos expression in neuropeptide Y-synthesizing neurons in mouse hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Neurosci Lett (2002) 325,4751.
Watson SJ, Akil H, Richard CW III & Barchas JD Evidence for two separate opiate peptide neuronal systems. Nature (1978) 275,226228.
Weber E, Esch FS, Bohlen P,Paterson S,Corbett AD,McKnight AT,Kosterlitz HW,Barchas JD & Evans CJ Metorphamide:isolation, structure, and biologic activity of an amidated opioid octapeptide from bovine brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (1983) 80,73627366.
Wierup N, Yang S, McEvilly RJ,Mulder H & Sundler F Ghrelin is expressed in a novel endocrine cell type in developing rat islets and inhibits insulin secretion from INS-1 (832/13) cells. J Histochem Cytochem (2004) 52,301310.
Wiley KE & Davenport AP Comparison of vasodilators in human internal mammary artery: ghrelin is a potent physiological antagonist of endothelin-1. Br J Pharmacol (2002) 136,11461152.
Williams J & Mobarhan S A critical interaction: leptin and ghrelin. Nutr Rev (2003) 61,391393.
Woods SC, Stein LJ, McKay LD & Porte D Jr Suppression of food intake by intravenous nutrients and insulin in the baboon. Am J Physiol (1984) 247, R393R401.
Wortley KE, Anderson KD, Garcia K et al. . Genetic deletion of ghrelin does not decrease food intake but influences metabolic fuel preference Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2004) 101,82278232.
Wortley KE, del Rincon JP, Murray JD,Garcia K,Iida K,Thorner MOSleeman MW Absence of ghrelin protects against early-onset obesity. J Clin Invest (2005) 115,35733578.
Wren AM, Seal LJ, Cohen MA, Brynes AE, Frost GS, Murphy KG, Dhillo WS,Ghatei MABloom SR Ghrelin enhances appetite and increases food intake in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001) 86, 59925995.
Yamanaka A Hypothalamic orexin neurons regulate arousal according to energy balance in mice Neuron (2003) 38 701713
Yamauchi T, Kamon J & Minokoshi Y et al. Adiponectin stimulates glucose utilization and fatty-acid oxidation by activating AMP-activated protein kinase Nat Med (2002) 8 12881295
Yeh AH, Jeffery PL, Duncan RP, Herington AC, Chopin LK Ghrelin and a novel preproghrelin isoform are highly expressed in prostate cancer and ghrelin activates mitogen-activated protein kinase in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res (2005) 11, 82958303.
Yeh LA, Lee KH, Kim KH Regulation of rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Regulation of phosphorylation and inactivation of acetyl CoA carboxylase by adenylate energy charge. J Biol Chem (1980) 255, 23082314.
Yildiz BO, Suchard MA, Wong ML, McCann SM, Licinio J Alterations in the dynamics of circulating ghrelin, adiponectin, and leptin in human obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2004) 101, 1043410439.
Yokota I, Kitamura S, Hosoda H, Kotani Y, Kangawa K Concentration of the n-octanoylated active form of ghrelin in fetal and neonatal circulation. Endocr J (2005) 52, 271276.
Zhang JV, Ren PG, Avsian-Kretchmer O, Luo CW, Rauch R, Klein C, Hsueh AJ Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake. Science (2005) 310, 996999.
Zigman JM, Nakano Y, Coppari R et al. Mice lacking ghrelin receptors resist the development of diet-induced obesity. J Clin Invest (2005) 115, 35643572.
Zong H, Ren JM, Young LH, Pypaert M, Mu J, Birnbaum MJ, Shulman GI AMP kinase is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to chronic energy deprivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2002) 99, 1598315987.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 278 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 497 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.