Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Impact of Antinutritional Factors in Food Proteins on the Digestibility of Protein and the Bioavailability of Amino Acids and on Protein Quality

  • G. Sarwar Gilani (a1), Chao Wu Xiao (a1) and Kevin A. Cockell (a1)
Abstract

Dietary antinutritional factors have been reported to adversely affect the digestibility of protein, bioavailability of amino acids and protein quality of foods. Published data on these negative effects of major dietary antinutritional factors are summarized in this manuscript. Digestibility and the quality of mixed diets in developing countries are considerably lower than of those in developed regions. For example, the digestibility of protein in traditional diets from developing countries such as India, Guatemala and Brazil is considerably lower compared to that of protein in typical North American diets (54–78 versus 88–94 %). Poor digestibility of protein in the diets of developing countries, which are based on less refined cereals and grain legumes as major sources of protein, is due to the presence of less digestible protein fractions, high levels of insoluble fibre, and/or high concentrations of antinutritional factors present endogenously or formed during processing. Examples of naturally occurring antinutritional factors include glucosinolates in mustard and canola protein products, trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins in legumes, tannins in legumes and cereals, gossypol in cottonseed protein products, and uricogenic nucleobases in yeast protein products. Heat/alkaline treatments of protein products may yield Maillard reaction compounds, oxidized forms of sulphur amino acids, D-amino acids and lysinoalanine (LAL, an unnatural nephrotoxic amino acid derivative). Among common food and feed protein products, soyabeans are the most concentrated source of trypsin inhibitors. The presence of high levels of dietary trypsin inhibitors from soyabeans, kidney beans or other grain legumes have been reported to cause substantial reductions in protein and amino acid digestibility (up to 50 %) and protein quality (up to 100 %) in rats and/or pigs. Similarly, the presence of high levels of tannins in sorghum and other cereals, fababean and other grain legumes can cause significant reductions (up to 23 %) in protein and amino acid digestibility in rats, poultry, and pigs. Normally encountered levels of phytates in cereals and legumes can reduce protein and amino acid digestibility by up to 10 %. D-amino acids and LAL formed during alkaline/heat treatment of lactalbumin, casein, soya protein or wheat protein are poorly digestible (less than 40 %), and their presence can reduce protein digestibility by up to 28 % in rats and pigs, and can cause a drastic reduction (100 %) in protein quality, as measured by rat growth methods. The adverse effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and protein quality have been reported to be more pronounced in elderly rats (20-months old) compared to young (5-weeks old) rats, suggesting the use of old rats as a model for assessing the protein digestibility of products intended for the elderly.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Impact of Antinutritional Factors in Food Proteins on the Digestibility of Protein and the Bioavailability of Amino Acids and on Protein Quality
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Impact of Antinutritional Factors in Food Proteins on the Digestibility of Protein and the Bioavailability of Amino Acids and on Protein Quality
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Impact of Antinutritional Factors in Food Proteins on the Digestibility of Protein and the Bioavailability of Amino Acids and on Protein Quality
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr. G. S. Gilani, fax 1-613-941-6182, email gilanisarwar@rogers.com
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2 G Sarwar (1987) Digestibility of protein and bioavailability of amino acids in foods. World Rev Nutr Diet 54, 2670.

7 M Friedman & DL Brandon (2001) Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins. J Agr Food Chem 49, 10691086.

8 IE Liener (1994) Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 34, 3167.

10 M Miyagi , S Shinjo , R Nishida , et al. (1997) Trypsin inhibitor activity in commercial soybean products in Japan. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 43, 575580.

11 SY Giami (2002) Chemical composition and nutritional attributes of selected newly developed lines of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr). J Sci Food Agri 82, 17351739.

12 C Radha , PR Kumar & V Prakash (2008) Enzymatic modification as a tool to improve the functional properties of heat-processed soy flour. J Sci Food Agric 88, 336343.

13 RW Peace , G Sarwar & SP Touchburn (1992) Trypsin inhibitor levels in soy-based infant formulas and commercial soy protein isolates and concentrates. Food Res Int 25, 137141.

14 F Gatel (1994) Protein quality of legume seeds for non-ruminant animals: a literature review. Anim Feed Sci Tech 45, 317348.

15 TA El-Adaway (2002) Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chick peas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57, 8397.

16 V Vadivel & Janardhanan (2005) Nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of seven South Indian wild legumes. Plant Food Hum Nutr 60, 6975.

17 EA Shimelis & SK Rakshit (2007) Effect of processing on antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in East Africa. Food Chem 103, 161172.

18 D Betancur-Ancona , S Gallegos-Tintoré , Delgado-Herrera , et al. (2008) Some physiochemical and antinutritional properties of raw flours and protein isolates from Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) and Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean). Int J Food Sci Technol 43, 816823.

19 JJ Rackis (1974) Biological and physiological factors in soybeans. J Am Oil Chem Soc 51, 161A.

21 S Li , WC Sauer , S Huang , et al. (1998) Response of pancreatic secretions to feeding diets with low and high levels of soybean trypsin inhibitors in growing pigs. J Sci Food Agric 76, 347356.

22 W Wu , P Woodie , M Williams , et al. (1996) Amino acid availability and availability-corrected amino acid score of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agr Food Chem 44, 12961301.

24 JH Lewis & FHL Taylor (1947) Comparative utilization of raw and autoclaved soybean protein by the human. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 85.

28 K Krépon , P Marget , C Peyronnet , et al. (2010) Nutritional value of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds for feed and food. Field Crop Res 115, 329339.

30 KG Duodu , JRN Taylor , PS Belton , et al. (2003) Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility. J Cereal Sci 38, 117131.

32 RG Elkin , MB Freed , BR Hamaker , et al. (1996) Condensed tannins are only partially responsible for variations in nutrient digestibilities of sorghum grain cultivars. J Agri Food Chem 44, 848853.

33 H Mehansho , TN Asquith , LG Butler , et al. (1992) Tannin-mediated induction of proline-rich protein synthesis. J Agri Food Chem 40, 9397.

34 BF Harland & D Oberleas (1987) Phytates in foods. Wld Rev Nutr Diet 52, 235259.

36 V Ravindran , S Cabahug , G Ravindran , et al. (1999) Influence of microbial phytase on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of food stuffs for broilers. Poultry Sci 78, 699706.

40 Z Li , I Alli & S Kermasha (1993) In vitro alpha-amylase inhibitor activity-phytate relationships in proteins from Phaseolus beans. Food Res 26, 195201.

41 U Chitra , V Vimala , U Singh , et al. (1995) Variability in phytic acid content and protein digestibility of grain legumes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 47, 163172.

42 KA Batista , SH Prudêncio & KE Fernandes (2010) Changes in functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Food Sci 75, C286C290.

43 JM Porres , G Urbano , I Fernández-Figares , et al. (2002) Digestive utilization of protein and amino acids from raw and heated lentils by growing rats. J Sci Food Agri 82, 17401747.

45 IA Vaintraub & VP Bulmaga (1991) Effect of phytate on the in vitro activity of digestive proteinases. J Agri Food Chem 39, 859861.

46 D Lothia , H Hoch & Y Kievernagel (1987) Influence of phytate on in vitro digestibility of casein under physiological conditions. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 37, 229235.

47 U Antony & TS Chnadra (1999) Enzymatic treatment and use of starters for the nutrient enhancement in fermented flour of red and white varieties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). J Agri Food Chem 47, 20162019.

48 V Ravindran , PH Selle , G Ravindran , et al. (2001) Microbial phytase improves performance, apparent metabolizable energy, and ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-deficient diet. Poultry Sci 80, 338344.

50 D Brulé , G Sarwar & L Savoie (1988) Purine contents of selected Canadian food products. J Food Comp Anal 1, 130138.

53 A Rérat , R Calmes , P Vaissade , et al. (2002) Nutritional and metabolic consequences of the early Maillard reaction of heat treated milk in the pig. Significance for man. Eur J Nutr 41, 111.

55 JA Rufián-Henares , E Guerra-Hernandez & B Garcia-Villanova (2001) Determination of furfural compounds in enteral formulas. J Liquid Chrom Relat Technolo 24, 30493062.

56 PA Finot (1990) Metabolic and physiological consequences of Maillard reaction products. In The Maillard Reaction in Food Processing, Human Nutrition and Physiology, pp. 259272 [, editors]. Basel: Birkhauser.

58 S Rudolff & B Lönnerdal (1992) Solubility and digestibility of milk proteins in infant formulas exposed to different heat treatments. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 15, 2533.

60 M Friedman (1999) Chemistry, nutrition, and microbiology of D-amino acids. J Agr Food Chem 47, 34573479.

61 M Friedman (1991) Formation, nutritional value and safety of D-amino acids. In Nutritional and Toxicological Consequences of Food Processing, pp. 447481 [, editor]. New York, N.Y: Plenum Press.

63 IL Payan , R Cadilla-Perezrios , GH Fisher , et al. (1985) Analysis of problems encountered in the determination of amino acid enantiomeric ratios by gas chromatography. Anal Biochem 149, 484491.

64 PM Masters & M Friedman (1980) Amino acid racemisation in alkali-treated food proteins-chemistry, toxicology, and nutritional consequences. In Chemical Deterioration of Proteins, pp. 165194 [, editors]. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.

65 JW Finley (1985) Environmental effects of protein quality. In Chemical Changes in Food Processing, pp. 443482Inst. Food Technologies Basic Symp SerWestport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing.

66 G Palla , R Marchelli , G Dossena , et al. (1989) Occurrence of D-amino acids in food. Detection by capillary gas chromatography and by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with L-phenylalanine amides as chiral selectors. J Chromatogr 475, 4553.

67 BJ Struthers , RR Dahlgren , DT Hopkins , et al. (1979) Lysinolanine: biological effects and significance. In Soy Protein and Human Nutrition, pp. 235260 [, editors]. New York, NY: Academic Press.

69 M Friedman (1999) Chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition and microbiology of lysinoalanine, lanthionine, and histidinoalanine in food and other proteins. J Agr Food Chem 47, 12951319.

73 M Sternberg , CY Kim & FJ Schwende (1975) Lysinoalanine: presence in foods and food ingredients. Science 190, 992994.

74 DH Gould & JT MacGregor (1977) Biological effects of alkali-treated protein and lysinoalanine: an overview. In Protein Crosslinking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences, pp. 2948 [, editor]. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

75 N Karayiannis , JT MacGregor & LF Bjeldanes (1979) Biological effects of alkali-treated soy protein and lactalbumin in the rat and mouse. Food Cosmet Toxicol 17, 591604.

79 G Sarwar , MR L'Abbé , K Trick , et al. (1999) Influence of feeding alkaline/heat processed proteins on growth and protein and mineral status of rats. Adv Exp Med Biol 459, 161177.

80 M Friedman , JC Zahnley & PM Masters (1981) Relationship between in vitro digestibility of casein and its contents of lysinoalanine and D-amino acids. J Food Sci 46, 127131.

84 C Pompei , M Rossi & F Mare (1987) Protein quality in commercial milk-based infant formulas. J Food Quality 10, 375391.

85 N Lister , AP Sykes , PD Baily , et al. (1995) Dipeptide transport and hydrolysis in isolated loops of rat small intestine: effects of stereospecificity. J Physiol London 484, 173182.

86 A Paquet , WC Thresher , HE Swaisgood , et al. (1985) Synthesis and digestibility determination of some epimeric tripeptides occurring in dietary proteins. Nutr Res 5, 891901.

87 G Sarwar , A Paquet & RW Peace (1985) Bioavailability of methionine in some tripeptides occurring in dietary proteins as determined by rat growth. Nutr Res 5, 903909.

91 SP Lalles & R Toullec (1994) Trypsin loss at the ileum of calves fed milk replacers containing legume protein. Ann Zootech 43, 263.

92 RE Greenberg & PR Holt (1986) Influence of aging upon pancreatic digestive enzymes. Dig Dis Sci 31, 970977.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 102
Total number of PDF views: 990 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 959 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.