Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 0.435 Render date: 2022-08-10T01:56:45.362Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temoperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Henry Jørgensen
Affiliation:
National Institute of Animal Science, Department of Animal Physiolgy and Biochemistry, Research Centre Fouhum, Po Box 39, Dk-8830 Tjele, Denmark
Xin-Quan Zhao
Affiliation:
National Institute of Animal Science, Department of Animal Physiolgy and Biochemistry, Research Centre Fouhum, Po Box 39, Dk-8830 Tjele, Denmark
Bjørn O. Eggum
Affiliation:
National Institute of Animal Science, Department of Animal Physiolgy and Biochemistry, Research Centre Fouhum, Po Box 39, Dk-8830 Tjele, Denmark
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The present study was undertaken to provide detailed information about the effect of dietary fibre (DF)level on the development of the digestive tract, on nutrient digestibility and on energy and protein metabolism of pigs housed in low (13°) or high (23°) thermal environments. Low- and high-fibre diets (59 v. 268 g DF/kg DM) were studied in three balance periods with fistulated pigs in the weight range 45-120 kg. Heat production was measured using open-circuit respiration chambers. Pea fibre and pectin were used to adjust theDF level in the high-fibre diet. Per kg empty body weight the stomach, caecum and colon and the length of colon were significantly greater in pigs consuming the high-fibre diet than in those on the low-fibre diet. Pigs kept at low temperature had significantly heavier caecums than those kept at the high temperature. Digestibilities of protein, DM and energy were lowest for the high-fibre diet. Only minor amounts of NSP and its constituent sugars were degraded anterior to the ileum, whereas in the hind-gut the fermentation of the total NSP fraction was high, being 0·77 for the high-fibre diet and 0·59 for the low-fibre diet. Feeding the high-fibre diet increased the flow of digesta through the terminal ileum 5-6-fold and an extra 460 g organic matter was fermented daily in the hind-gut compared with pigs fed on the low-fibre diet. The amount of retained energy as a proportion of metabolizable energy decreased in relation to the amount of energy fermented in the hind-gut. Based on the present data it was estimated that the relative value of energy derived from hind-gut fermentation was 0·73 in comparison with energy enzymically digested in the small intestine. There was negligible effect of the temperature –fibre interaction on energy metabolism. However, it could be calculated that the decrease in temperature from 23° to 13° was associated with an increase in heat production by 2.9 MJ/pig per d.

Type
Effects of dietary fibre on gastrointestinal function
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1996

References

Anugwa, F. O. I., Varel, V. H., Dickson, J. S. & Pond, W. G. (1989). Effects of dietary fiber and protein concentration on growth, feed efficiency, visceral organ weights and large intestine microbial populations of swine. Journal of Nutrition 119, 879886.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Argenzio, R. A. & Southworth, M. (1974). Sites of organic acid production and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of the pig. American Journal of Physiology 228, 454460.Google Scholar
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1975). Official Methods of Analysis 11th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical chemists.Google Scholar
Bach, Knudsen K. E., Jensen, B. B., Andersen, J. O. & Hansen, I.(1991). Gastrointestinal implications in pigs of wheat and oat fractions. 2. Microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract. British of Nutrition 65, 233248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bach, Knudsen K. E., Jensen, B. B. & Hansen, I. (1993). Digestion of polysaccharides and other major components in the samll and large intestine of pigs fed on diets consisting of oat fractions rich in βD-glucan. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 537556.Google Scholar
Bakker, G. C. M., Dekker, R. A., Jongbloed, R. & Jongbloed, A. W. (1994). The effect of starch, fat and nonstarch polysaccharides on net energy and on the proportion of digestible organic matter or digestible energy that disappeared in the hindgut. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals. EAAP Publication no. 76, pp. 163166 [Aguilera, J. F. editor]. Madrid: CSIC Publishing Service.Google Scholar
Brouwer, E. (1965). Report of Sub-committee on Constants and Factors. In Energy Meiabolism. EAAP Publication no. 11, pp. 441443 [Blaxter, K. L. editor]. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Christensen, K., Chwalibog, A., Henckel, S. & Thorbek, G. (1988). Heat production in growing pigs calculated according to the RQ and CN methods. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 91A, 463468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christensen, K. & Thorbek, G. (1987). Methane excretion in the growing pig. British Journal of Nutrition 57, 355361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christopherson, R. J. & Kennedy, P. M. (1983). Effect of thermal environment on digestion in ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 63, 417496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Close, W. H. (1989). The influence of the thermal environment on the voluntary food intake of pigs. In The Voluntary Food Intake of Pigs. British Society of Animal Produciion Occasional Publication no. 13, pp. 8797 [ Forbes, J. M.Varley, M. A. and Lawrence, T. L. J. , editors]. Midlothian, Scotland: BSAP.Google Scholar
Close, W. H. & Mount, L. E. (1978). The effects of plane of nutrition and environmental temperature on the energy metabolism of the growing pig. 1. Heat loss and critical temperature. British Journal of Nutrition 40, 413421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dauncey, M. J. & Ingram, D. L. (1986).Acclimatization to warm or cold temperatures and the role of food intake. Journal of Thermal Biology 11, 8993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eggum, B. O., Beames, R. M., Wolstrup, J. & Bach Knudsen, K. E. (1984). The effect of protein quality and fibre level in the diet and microbial activity in the digestive tract on protein utilization and energy digestibility in rats. Briiish Journal of Nuirition 51, 305314.Google ScholarPubMed
Eggum, B. O., Thorbek, G., Beames, R. M., Chwalibog, A. & Henckel, S. (1982). Influence ofdiet and microbial activity in the digestive tract on digestibility, and nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats and pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 48, 161175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Englyst, H. N., Wiggins, H. S. & Cummings, J. H. (1982). Determination of non-starch polysaccharides in plant foods by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates. Analyst 107, 307318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferrell, C. L., Crouse, J. D., Field, R. A. & Chant, .I. L. (1979). Effects of sex, diet and stage of growth upon energy utilization by lambs. Journal of Animal Science 49, 790801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrell, C. L. & Koong, K. J. (1986). Influence of plane of nutrition on body composition, organ size and energy utilization of Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of Nutrition 116, 25252535.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuller, M. F. & Boyne, A. W. (1972). The effects of environmental temperature on the growth and metabolism of pigs given different amounts of food. 2. Energy metabolism. British Journal of Nutrition 28, 373384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fussell, R. J. & McCalley, D. V. (1987). Determination of volatile fatty acids (C2-C5) and lactic acid in silage by gas chromatography. Analyst 112, 12131216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodlad, J. S. & Mathers, J. C. (1990). Large bowel fermentation in rats given diets containing raw peas (Pisum sativum). Britisb Journal of Nutrition 64, 569587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, H. & Aman, P. (1987). Whole-crop peas. II. Digestion of early- and late-harvested crops in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.Animal Feed Science and Technology 17, 3343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, H., Hesselman, K. & Åman, P. (1986). The influence of wheat bran and sugar-beet pulp on digestibility of dietary components in a cereal-based pig diet. Journal of Nutrition 116, 242251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hansen, I., Bach, Knudsen K. E. & Eggum, B. O. (1992). Gastrointestinal implications in the rat of wheat bran, oat bran and pea fibre. British Journal of Nutrition 68, 451462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffmann, L., Klein, M. & Schiemann, R. (1991). Energieumsatz wachsender Ratten in Abhangigkeit von der Umgebungstemperatur (Energy metabolism of growing rats in dependence on environmental temperature). Archives of Animal Nutrition 41, 2947.Google Scholar
Jensen, B. B. & Jørgensen, H. (1994). Effect of dietary fiber on microbial activity and microbial gas production in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 18971904.Google ScholarPubMed
Just, A. (1982). The net energy value of balanced diets for growing pigs. Livestock Production Science 8, 541555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Just, A., Fernandez, J. A. & Jøsrgensen, H. (1983 a). The net energy value of diets for growth in pigs in relation to the fermentative processes in the digestive tract and the site of absorption of the nutrients. Livestock Production Science 10, 171186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Just, A., Jørgensen, H. & Fernandez, J. A. (1983 b). Maintenance requirement and the net energy value of different diets for growth in pigs. Livestock Produciion Science 10, 487506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jørgensen, H., Just, A. & Fernández, J. A. (1985). The influence of dietary supply of minerals on apparent absorption and retention of minerals in growing pigs. In Digestive Physiology in Growing Pigs. National Institute of Animal Science Report no. 580, pp. 360363 [Just, A.Jørgensen, H. and Fernández, J. A. editors]. Copenhagen: National Institute of Animal Science.Google Scholar
Jørgensen, H., Sørensen, P. & Eggum, B. O. (1990). Protein and energy metabolism in broiler chickens selected for either body weight gain or feed efficiency. British Poultry Science 31, 517525.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koong, L. J., Ferrell, C. L. & Nienaber, J. A. (1985). Assessment of interrelationships among levels of intake and production, organ size and fasting heat production in growing animals. Journal of Nutrition 115, 13831390.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Le Dividich, J. & Noblet, J. (1986). Effect of dietary energy level on the performance of individually housed early weaned piglets in relation to environmental temperature. Livestock Production Science 14, 255263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liener, I. E. (1989). Antinutritional factors in legume seeds: state of the art. In Recent Advances qf Research in Antinutritional Factors in Legume Seeds, pp. 613 [Huisman, J., van der Poel, T. F. B. and Liener, I. E, editors]. Wageningen: Pudoc.Google Scholar
Livesey, G. (1992). The energy values of dietary fibre and sugar alcohols for man. Nutrition Research Reviews 5, 6184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Livesey, G., Smith, T., Eggum, B. O., Tetens, I. H., Nyman, M., Roberfroid, M., Delzenne, N., Schweizer, T. F. & Decombaz, J. (1995). Determination of digestible energy values and fermentabilities of dietary fibre supplements: a European interlaboratory study in vivo. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 289302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Macfarlane, G. T., Cummings, J. H. & Allison, C. (1986). Protein degradation by human intestinal bacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 132, 16471656.Google ScholarPubMed
Miller, T. L. & Wolin, M. J. (1979). Fermentations by saccharolytic intestinal bacteria. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, 164172.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milliken, G. A. & Johnson, D. E. (1984). Analysis OfMessy Data. Vol. 1. Designed Experiments. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.Google Scholar
Neergaard, L., Petersen, C. B. & Thorbek, G. (1969). Carbon determination in biological materials related to respiration trials. Zeitschrift fiir Tierphysiologie, Tierernahrung und Futtermittelkunde 25, 302308.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noblet, J., Fortune, H., Shi, X. S. & Dubois, S. (1994). Prediction of net energy value of feeds for growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 72, 344354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Noblet, J., Le Dividich, J. & Bikawa, T. (1985). Interaction between energy level in the diet and environmental temperature on the utilization of energy in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 61, 452459.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pekas, J. C. & Wray, J. E. (1991). Principal gastrointestinal variables associated with metabolic heat production in pigs: statistical cluster analyses. Journal of Nutrition 121, 231239.Google ScholarPubMed
Phillips, P. A., Young, B. A. & McQuitty, J. B. (1982). Liveweight, protein deposition anddigestibility responses in growing pigs exposed to low temperature. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 62, 95108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pond, W. G., Jung, H. G. & Varel, V. H. (1988). Effect of dietary fiber on young adult genetically lean, obese and contemporary pigs: body weight, carcass measurements, organ weights and digesta content. Journal of Animal Science 66, 699706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rechkemmer, G., Rönnau, K. & Engelhardt, W. v. (1988). Fermentation of polysaccharides andabsorption of short chain fatty acids in the mammalian hindgut. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology WA, 90A, 563568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Satchithanandam, S., Vargofcak-Apker, M., Calvert, R. J., Leeds, A. R. & Cassidy, M. M. (1990). Alteration of gastrointestinal mucin by fiber feeding in rats. Journal of Nutrition 120, 11791184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schürch, A. F., Lloyd, L. E. & Crampton, E. W. (1950). The use of chromic oxide as anindex for determining the digestibility of a diet. Journal of Nutrition 50, 628636.Google Scholar
Shi, X. S. & Noblet, J. (1993). Contribution of the hindgut to digestion of diets in growing pigs and adult sows: effect of diet composition. Livestock Production Science 34, 237252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stahly, T. S. & Cromwell, G. L. (1986). Responses to dietary additions of fiber (alfalfa meal) in growing pigs housed in a cold, warm or hot thermal environment. Journal of Animal Science 63, 18701876.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Statistical Analysis Systems (1985). User's Guide. Statistics. Cary NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Inc.Google Scholar
Stoldt, W. (1952). Vorslag zur Vereinheitlichung der Fettbestimmung in Lebensmitteln (Suggestions to standardize theo determinations of fat in foodstuffs). Fette, Seifen, Anstrichmittel 54, 206207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Theander, O. & Aman, P. (1979). Studies on dietary fibre. 1. Analysis and chemical characterization of water-soluble and water-insoluble dietary fibres. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 9, 97106.Google Scholar
Theander, O. & Westerlund, E. A. (1986). Studies on dietary fiber. 3. Improved procedures for analysis of dietary fiber. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 34, 330336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varel, V. H., Jung, H. G. & Pond, W. G. (1988). Effects of dietary fiber on young adult genetically lean, obese and contemporary pigs: rate of passage, digestibility and microbiological data. Journal of Animal Science 66, 707712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verstegen, M. W. A., Close, W. H., Start, I. B. & Mount, L. E. (1973). The effects of environmental temperature and plane of nutrition on heat loss, energy retention and deposition of protein and fat in groups of growing pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 30, 2135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yen, J. T., Nienaber, J. A., Hill, D. A. & Pond, W. G. (1989). Oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by whole animal in conscious growing swine. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 190, 393398.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhao, X., Jørgensen, H. & Eggum, B. O. (1995). The influence of dietary fibre on body composition, visceral organ weight, digestibility and energy balance in rats housed in different thermal environments. British Journal of Nutrition 73, 687699.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
You have Access
201
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temoperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temoperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The influence of dietary fibre and environmental temoperature on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility, degree of fermentation in the hind-gut and energy metabolism in pigs
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *