Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Piyathilake, Chandrika 2016. Dietary factors associated with bladder cancer. Investigative and Clinical Urology, Vol. 57, Issue. Suppl 1, p. S14.

    Chamberland, John P. and Moon, Hyun-Seuk 2015. Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells. Familial Cancer, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 25.

    Tsoukas, Michael A. Ko, Byung-Joon Witte, Theodore R. Dincer, Fadime Hardman, W. Elaine and Mantzoros, Christos S. 2015. Dietary walnut suppression of colorectal cancer in mice: Mediation by miRNA patterns and fatty acid incorporation. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 26, Issue. 7, p. 776.

    Kim, Kyu-Bong Nam, Yoon A. Kim, Hyung Sik Hayes, A. Wallace and Lee, Byung-Mu 2014. α-Linolenic acid: Nutraceutical, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 70, p. 163.

    Moon, Hyun-Seuk Batirel, Saime and Mantzoros, Christos S. 2014. Alpha linolenic acid and oleic acid additively down-regulate malignant potential and positively cross-regulate AMPK/S6 axis in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cells. Metabolism, Vol. 63, Issue. 11, p. 1447.

    Zhang, Xiao-Jing Su, Huanxing He, Cheng-Wei Wang, Yi-Tao Yang, Feng-Qing and Wan, Jian-Bo 2014. Discrimination of Pterocephalus hookeri collected at flowering and non-flowering stages using GC-MS-based fatty acid profiling. Analytical Methods, Vol. 6, Issue. 7, p. 2141.

    Allen, Naomi E. Appleby, Paul N. Key, Timothy J. Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. Ros, Martine M. Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M. Tjønneland, Anne Roswall, Nina Overvad, Kim Weikert, Steffen Boeing, Heiner Chang-Claude, Jenny Teucher, Birgit Panico, Salvatore Sacerdote, Carlotta Tumino, Rosario Palli, Domenico Sieri, Sabina Peeters, Petra Quirós, Jose Ramón Jakszyn, Paula Molina-Montes, Esther Chirlaque, María-Dolores Ardanaz, Eva Dorronsoro, Miren Khaw, Kay-Tee Wareham, Nick Ljungberg, Börje Hallmans, Göran Ehrnström, Roy Ericson, Ulrika Gram, Inger Torhild Parr, Christine L. Trichopoulou, Antonia Karapetyan, Tina Dilis, Vardis Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine Fagherrazzi, Guy Romieu, Isabelle Gunter, Marc J. and Riboli, Elio 2013. Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 132, Issue. 3, p. 635.

    Burger, Maximilian Catto, James W.F. Dalbagni, Guido Grossman, H. Barton Herr, Harry Karakiewicz, Pierre Kassouf, Wassim Kiemeney, Lambertus A. La Vecchia, Carlo Shariat, Shahrokh and Lotan, Yair 2013. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Urothelial Bladder Cancer. European Urology, Vol. 63, Issue. 2, p. 234.

    Eynard, Aldo R. and Navarro, Alicia 2013. Crosstalk among dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, urolithiasis, chronic inflammation, and urinary tract tumor risk. Nutrition, Vol. 29, Issue. 7-8, p. 930.

    Han, Y J Li, J Huang, W Fang, Y Xiao, L N and Liao, Z' E 2013. Fish consumption and risk of esophageal cancer and its subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 67, Issue. 2, p. 147.

    Parada, Belmiro Reis, Flávio Cerejo, Raquel Garrido, Patrícia Sereno, José Xavier-Cunha, Maria Neto, Paula Mota, Alfredo Figueiredo, Arnaldo and Teixeira, Frederico 2013. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Inhibit Tumor Growth in a Rat Model of Bladder Cancer. BioMed Research International, Vol. 2013, p. 1.

    Zhang, Xiao-Jing Huang, Li-Li Cai, Xiu-Jiang Li, Peng Wang, Yi-Tao and Wan, Jian-Bo 2013. Fatty acid variability in three medicinal herbs of Panax species. Chemistry Central Journal, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 12.


Intake of α-linolenic acid and other fatty acids in relation to the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire case–control study

  • Maree T. Brinkman (a1) (a2), Margaret R. Karagas (a3), Michael S. Zens (a3), Alan R. Schned (a4), Raoul C. Reulen (a5) and Maurice P. Zeegers (a2) (a6)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 10 May 2011

The role of dietary fat in bladder cancer aetiology is currently unclear due to few studies, equivocal findings and a lack of information on important dietary fatty acids. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the intake of major dietary fats and fatty acids and the risk of bladder cancer. A case–control study was conducted in New Hampshire, USA. Dietary data were collected from 322 cases and 239 controls, and OR and 95 % CI were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Adjustment was made for potential confounders: sex, age, smoking status, pack-years smoked, cholesterol and energy intake. Statistically significant reduced odds of bladder cancer were observed for high intakes (highest quartile v. lowest quartile) of α-linolenic acid (ALA) (OR 0·26, 95 % CI 0·10, 0·65; P for trend = 0·01) and vegetable fat (OR 0·39, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·86; P for trend = 0·03). Borderline statistically significant reduced odds were detected for polyunsaturated fat (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·98; P for trend = 0·07) and linoleic acid (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·96; P for trend = 0·06). These fats and fatty acids were highly correlated and following adjustment for each other, the only potential inverse association to remain was for ALA. The present findings suggest that ALA may have a protective role against developing bladder cancer; however, further investigation and replication in other epidemiological studies are required. Future research should focus on the type, source and quantities of different dietary fatty acids consumed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Intake of α-linolenic acid and other fatty acids in relation to the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire case–control study
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Intake of α-linolenic acid and other fatty acids in relation to the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire case–control study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Intake of α-linolenic acid and other fatty acids in relation to the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire case–control study
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr M. T. Brinkman, fax +32 16 33 74 80, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1DM Parkin , F Bray , J Ferlay , (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55, 74108.

2P Wolmarans (2009) Background paper on global trends in food production, intake and composition. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 244272.

4S Yoneyama , K Miura , S Sasaki , (2007) Dietary intake of fatty acids and serum C-reactive protein in Japanese. J Epidemiol 17, 8692.

5CM Steinmaus , S Nunez & AH Smith (2000) Diet and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of six dietary variables. Am J Epidemiol 151, 693702.

7DS Michaud , D Spiegelman , SK Clinton , (2000) Prospective study of dietary supplements, macronutrients, micronutrients, and risk of bladder cancer in US men. Am J Epidemiol 152, 11451153.

8PH Chyou , AM Nomura & GN Stemmermann (1993) A prospective study of diet, smoking, and lower urinary tract cancer. Ann Epidemiol 3, 211216.

9C La Vecchia , E Negri , A Decarli , (1989) Dietary factors in the risk of bladder cancer. Nutr Cancer 12, 93101.

11M Maggiora , M Bologna , MP Ceru , (2004) An overview of the effect of linoleic and conjugated-linoleic acids on the growth of several human tumor cell lines. Int J Cancer 112, 909919.

12E Riboli , CA Gonzalez , G Lopez-Abente , (1991) Diet and bladder cancer in Spain: a multi-centre case–control study. Int J Cancer 49, 214219.

13DC Cremonezzi , MP Diaz , MA Valentich , (2004) Neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions induced by melamine in rat urothelium are modulated by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 19992007.

15O Adam , A Tesche & G Wolfram (2008) Impact of linoleic acid intake on arachidonic acid formation and eicosanoid biosynthesis in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 79, 177181.

16M Gerber (2009) Background review paper on total fat, fatty acid intake and cancers. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 140161.

17B Bruemmer , E White , TL Vaughan , (1996) Nutrient intake in relation to bladder cancer among middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol 144, 485495.

18K Wakai , M Takashi , K Okamura , (2000) Foods and nutrients in relation to bladder cancer risk: a case–control study in Aichi Prefecture, Central Japan. Nutr Cancer 38, 1322.

19V Radosavljevic , S Jankovic , J Marinkovic , (2005) Diet and bladder cancer: a case–control study. Int Urol Nephrol 37, 283289.

20CN Holick , EL Giovannucci , MJ Stampfer , (2006) A prospective study of fish, marine fatty acids, and bladder cancer risk among men and women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17, 11631173.

21MR Karagas , TD Tosteson , J Blum , (1998) Design of an epidemiologic study of drinking water arsenic exposure and skin and bladder cancer risk in a U.S. population. Environ Health Perspect 106, 10471050.

23KM Applebaum , MR Karagas , DJ Hunter , (2007) Polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, arsenic exposure, and non-melanoma skin cancer in New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect 115, 12311236.

24MR Karagas , S Park , A Warren , (2005) Gender, smoking, glutathione-S-transferase variants and bladder cancer incidence: a population-based study. Cancer Lett 219, 6369.

26DS Michaud , D Spiegelman , SK Clinton , (1999) Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 91, 605613.

30E Theodoratou , G McNeill , R Cetnarskyj , (2007) Dietary fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case–control study. Am J Epidemiol 166, 181195.

31AC Thiébaut , V Chajès , M Gerber , (2009) Dietary intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 124, 924931.

32JA Simon , Y-H Chen & S Bent (2009) The relation of alpha-linolenic acid to the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1558S1564S.

33S McClinton , LE Moffat , DF Horrobin , (1991) Abnormalities of essential fatty acid distribution in the plasma phospholipids of patients with bladder cancer. Br J Cancer 63, 314316.

34AR Eynard (1998) Is the risk of urinary tract tumorigenesis enhanced by a marginal chronic essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD)? Nutrition 14, 211216.

35CH MacLean , SJ Newberry , WA Mojica , (2006) Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cancer risk: a systematic review. JAMA 295, 403415.

37LA Smit , D Mozaffarian & W Willett (2009) Review of fat and fatty acid requirements and criteria for developing dietary guidelines. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 4455.

38JE Vena , S Graham , J Freudenheim , (1992) Diet in the epidemiology of bladder cancer in western New York. Nutr Cancer 18, 255264.

39M Carayol , P Grosclaude & C Delpierre (2010) Prospective studies of dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 21, 347355.

40P Astorg , S Bertrais , F Laporte , (2008) Plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as biomarkers of their dietary intakes: a cross-sectional study within a cohort of middle-aged French men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 11551161.

43R Garcia-Closas , M Garcia-Closas , M Kogevinas , (2007) Food, nutrient and heterocyclic amine intake and the risk of bladder cancer. Eur J Cancer 43, 17311740.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *