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Iodine status of New Zealand residents as assessed by urinary iodide excretion and thyroid hormones

  • Christine D. Thomson (a1), Andrew J. Colls (a1), John V. Conaglen (a2), Matthew Macormack (a1), Martin Stiles (a2) and Jim Mann (a1)...

The aims of this study were (1) to compare various measures of I status, and (2) to assess urinary I and thyroid hormone status of residents of two areas of New Zealand where, before the iodization of salt, goitre was endemic due to low soil I. A total of 189 subjects (102 males, eighty-seven females) were recruited from the Dunedin Blood Transfusion Centre, and 144 (sixty-seven males, seventyseven females) from the Waikato Blood Transfusion Centre between November 1993 and June 1994. Blood was taken for thyroid hormone assays, and subjects collected a fasting overnight urine specimen, a double-voided fasting urine sample, and a complete 24 h specimen for iodide and creatinine analyses. Positive correlations (P < 0.0001) between daily iodide excretion and iodide concentrations in fasting and double-voided fasting urines, identical median values for iodide concentrations in the three samples, and similar numbers of subjects classified as at risk from I deficiency disorders according to the International Committee for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders/World Health Organization categories (World Health Organization, 1994) confirmed indications from earlier studies that fasting urine samples were suitable for population studies. However 24 h urinary iodide excretion remains the recommended measure for individual I status. Waikato residents excreted more iodide in urine and all measures were significantly greater than for Otago residents. However median urinary iodide excretions for both areas (60 and 76 μg/d for Otago and Waikato respectively) were considerably lower than those reported previously for New Zealand. Thyroid hormone concentrations were within normal ranges. Our findings suggest that I status of New Zealanders may no longer be considered adequate and may once again be approaching levels of intake associated with clinical I deficiency.

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British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
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