Department of Health (1997) Health of the Nation. A Progress Report. Public Accounts Committee 17th Report. London: The Stationery Office.
Durnin JVGA (1987) Energy requirements of pregnancy: an integration of longitudinal data from the five-country study. Lancet ii, 1131–1133.
Durnin JVGA and Womersley J (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. British Journal of Nutrition 32, 77–97.
Forsum E, Sadurskis A and Wager J (1988) Resting metabolic rate and body composition of healthy Swedish women during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 942–947.
Harris HE and Ellison GT (1997) Do the changes in energy balance that occur during pregnancy predispose parous women to obesity?. Nutrition Research Reviews 10, 57–81.
Harris HE, Ellison GTH, Holliday M and Lucassan E (1997) The impact of pregnancy on the long term weight gain of primiparous women in England. International Journal of Obesity 21, 747–757.
Institute of Medicine (1990) Nutrition During Pregnancy: Weight Gain and Nutrient Supplement. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Jung RT (1997) Obesity as a disease. British Medical Bulletin 53, 307–321.
Kissebah AH and Krakower GR (1994) Regional adiposity and morbidity. Physiological Reviews 74, 761–809.
Lederman SA, Pierson RN, Wang J, Paxton A, Thornton J, Wendel J and Heymsfield SB (1993) Body composition measurements during pregnancy. Basic Life Science 60, 193–195.
McKeigue PM, Pierpoint T, Ferrie JE and Marmot MG (1992) Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat patterns in south Asians and Europeans. Diabetologia 35, 785–791.
Matthews J, Altman DG, Campbell MJ and Royston P (1990) Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. British Medical Journal 300, 230–235.
Muscati SK, Graydonald K and Koski KG (1996) Timing of weight gain during pregnancy, promoting fetal growth and minimizing maternal weight retention. International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders 20, 526–532.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1991), Census of Great Britain 2, 40–41.
Ohlin A and Rossner S (1990) Maternal body weight development after pregnancy. International Journal of Obesity 14, 159–173.
Sadurskis A, Kabob N, Wager J and Forsum E (1988) Energy metabolism, body composition, and milk production in healthy Swedish women during lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 44–49.
Siri WE (1956) The gross composition of the body. In Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, pp. 239–280 [Tobias CA and Lawrence JH, editors]. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Sohlström A and Forsum E (1995) Changes in adipose tissue volume and distribution during reproduction in Swedish women as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61, 287–295.
Sohlström AW, haled L & Forsum E (1993) Total body fat and its distribution during human reproduction as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. In Human Body Composition, pp. 181–184 [Ellis KJ and Eastman JD, editors]. New York, NY: Polonium Press.
Solomon CG, Willett WC, Carey VJ, Rich-Edwards J, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Spiegelman D and Manson JE (1997) A prospective study of pregravid determinants of gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Medical Association 278, 1078–1083.
Taggart NR, Holliday RM, Billewicz WZ, Hytten FE and Thompson AM (1967) Changes in skinfolds during pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 21, 439–451.
Van Raaij JMA, Peek MEM, Vermaat-Miedema SH, Schnock CM and Hautvast JGAJ (1988) New equations for estimating body fat mass in pregnancy for body density or total body water. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 24–29.
Van Raaij JMA, Schnock CM, Vermaat-Miedema SH, Peek MEM and Hautvast JGAJ (1989) Body fat mass and basal metabolic rate in Dutch women before, during and after pregnancy: a reappraisal of energy cost of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 765–772.
World Health Organization (1987) Report on a WHO Consultation on the Epidemiology of Obesity: Measuring Obesity-classification and Description of Anthropometric Data. Copenhagen and Warsaw: WHO.