Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

  • Vera Mikkilä (a1), Leena Räsänen (a1), Olli T. Raitakari (a2), Jukka Marniemi (a3), Pirjo Pietinen (a4), Tapani Rönnemaa (a5) and Jorma Viikari (a5)...

Abstract

Studies on the impact of single nutrients on the risk of CVD have often given inconclusive results. Recent research on dietary patterns has offered promising information on the effects of diet as a whole on the risk of CVD. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline (3–18 years, n 1768) and adults at the latest follow-up study (24–39 years, n 1037). We investigated the associations between two major dietary patterns and several risk factors for CVD. In longitudinal analyses with repeated measurements, using multivariate mixed linear regression models, the traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was independently associated with total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, apolipoprotein B and C-reactive protein concentrations among both genders, and also with systolic blood pressure and insulin levels among women and concentrations of homocysteine among men (P < 0·05 for all). A dietary pattern reflecting more health-conscious food choices (such as high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and alcoholic beverages) was inversely, but less strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Our results support earlier findings that dietary patterns have a role in the development of CVD.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr V. Mikkilä, fax +358 (0)9 191 58269, email vera.mikkila@helsinki.fi

References

Hide All
Åkerblom, HK, Viikari, J, Raitakari, OT & Uhari, M (1999) Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study: general outline and recent developments. Ann Med 31, S45S54.
Craddick, SR, Elmer, PJ, Obarzanek, E, Vollmer, WM, Svetkey, LP & Swain, MC (2003) The DASH diet and blood pressure. Curr Atheroscler Rep 5, 484491.
Esposito, K, Marfella, R, Ciotola, M, Di Palo, C, Giugliano, F, Giugliano, G, D'Armiento, M, D'Andrea, F & Giugliano, D (2004) Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome: a randomised trial. J Am Med Assoc 292, 14401446.
Friedewald, WT, Levy, RI & Fredrickson, DS (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18, 499502.
Fung, TT, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE & Hu, FB (2001) Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med 161, 18571862.
Hu, FB, Rimm, E, Smith-Warner, SA, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ, Ascherio, A, Sampson, L & Willett, WC (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 243249.
Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Ascherio, A, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WC (2000) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 912921.
Huijbregts, PP, Feskens, EJ & Kromhout, D (1995) Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Int J Epidemiol 24, 313320.
Jacques, PF & Tucker, KL (2001) Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? Am J Clin Nutr 73, 12.
Juonala, M, Viikari, JS, Hutri-Kähonen, N, Pietikäinen, M, Jokinen, E, Taittonen, L, Marniemi, J, Rönnemaa, T & Raitakari, OT (2004) The 21-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study: risk factor levels, secular trends and east-west difference. J Intern Med 255, 457468.
Kant, AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615635.
Kerver, JM, Yang, EJ, Bianchi, L & Song, WO (2003) Dietary patterns associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 11031110.
Kris-Etherton, P, Eckel, RH, Howard, BV, St Jeor, S & Bazzarre, TL (2001) Nutrition Committee Population Science Committee and Clinical Science Committee of the American Heart Association AHA Science Advisory: Lyon Diet Heart Study. Benefits of a Mediterranean-style, national cholesterol education program/American Heart Association step I dietary pattern on cardiovascular disease. Circulation 103, 18231825.
Kris-Etherton, PM, Lichtenstein, AH, Howard, BV, Steinberg, D & Witztum, JL (2004) Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Antioxidant vitamin supplements and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 110, 637641.
Littell, RC, Henry, PR & Ammerman, CB (1998) Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS procedures. J Anim Sci 76, 12161231.
McKinley, MC (2000) Nutritional aspects and possible pathological mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinaemia: an independent risk factor for vascular disease. Proc Nutr Soc 59, 221237.
McNaughton, SA, Mishra, GD, Bramwell, G, Paul, AA & Wadsworth, MEJ (2005) Comparability of dietary patterns assessed by multiple dietary assessment methods: results from the 1946 British Cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 341352.
Mikkilä, V, Räsänen, L, Raitakari, OT, Pietinen, P & Viikari, J (2004) Longitudinal changes in the diet from childhood to adulthood with respect to cardiovascular diseases—the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 10381045.
Mikkilä, V, Räsänen, L, Raitakari, OT, Pietinen, P & Viikari, J (2005) Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Br J Nutr 93, 923931.
Millen, BE, Quatromoni, PA, Nam, BH, O'Horo, CE, Polak, JF & D'Agostino, RB (2002) Dietary patterns and the odds of carotid atherosclerosis in women: the Framingham nutrition studies. Prev Med 35, 540547.
Porkka, KV, Raitakari, OT, Leino, A, et al. (1997) Trends in serum lipid levels during 1980–1992 in children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Am J Epidemiol 146, 6477.
Raitakari, OT, Juonala, M, Kähönen, M, et al. (2003) Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Am Med Assoc 290, 22772283.
Rantala, M, Rantala, TT, Savolainen, MJ, Friedlander, Y & Kesäniemi, YA (2000) Apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms and serum lipids: meta-analysis of the role of genetic variation in responsiveness to diet. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 713724.
Riccardi, G & Rivellese, AA (2000) Dietary treatment of the metabolic syndrome—the optimal diet. Br J Nutr 83, S143S148.
Räsänen, L, Ahola, M, Kara, R & Uhari, M (1985) Atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and adolescents. VIII. Food consumption and nutrient intakes. Acta Paediatr Scand 318, S135S153.
Räsänen, L, Laitinen, S, Stirkkinen, R, Kimppa, S, Viikari, J, Uhari, M, Pesonen, E, Salo, M & Åkerblom, HK (1991) Composition of the diet of young Finns in 1986. Ann Med 23, 7380.
Slattery, ML, Boucher, KM, Caan, BJ, Potter, JD & Ma, KN (1998) Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer. Am J Epidemiol 148, 416.
Srinath Reddy, K & Katan, MB (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Public Health Nutr 7, 167186.
Togo, P, Heitmann, BL, Sorensen, TI & Osler, M (2003) Consistency of food intake factors by different dietary assessment methods and population groups. Br J Nutr 90, 667678.
Törnwall, ME, Virtamo, J, Korhonen, PA, Virtanen, MJ, Taylor, PR, Albanes, D & Huttunen, JK (2004) Effect of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on coronary heart disease during the 6-year post-trial follow-up in the ATBC study. Eur Heart J 25, 11711178.
van Dam, RM, Rimm, EB, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ & Hu, FB (2002) Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. Ann Intern Med 136, 201209.
Willett, WC (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed