Ashes, JR, Siebert, BD, Gulati, SK, Cuthbertson, AZ& Scott, TW (1992) Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids of fish oil into tissue and serum lipids of ruminants. Lipids 27, 629–631.
BanniS, S,& Martin, JC (1998) Conjugated linoleic acid and metabolites. In Trans fatty acids in human nutrition, pp. 261–302 [W, Sebedio and W, Christie, editors]. Dundee: The Oily Press.
Barlow, SM, Young, FVK& Duthie, IF (1990) Nutritional recommendations for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the challenge to the food industry. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 49, 13–21.
Bauchart, D, Verite, R and Remond, B (1984) Long-chain fatty acid digestion in lactating cows fed fresh grass from spring to autumn. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64 (Suppl. 1), 330–331.
Cant, JP, Fredeen, AH, MacIntyre, T, Gunn, J& Crow, N (1997) Effect of fish oil and monensin on milk composition in dairy cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 77, 125–131.
Chilliard, Y& Doreau, M (1997) Influence of supplementary fish oil and rumen-protected methionine on milk yield and composition in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research 64, 173–179.
Clinquart, A, Istasse, L, Dufrasne, I, Mayombo, A, van Eenaeme, C& Bienfait, JM (1991) Effects on animal performance and fat composition of two fat concentrates in diets for growing-fattening bulls. Animal Production 53, 315–320.
Cook, LJ, Scott, TW, Faichney, GJ& Lloyd Davies, H (1972) Fatty acid interrelationships in plasma, liver, muscle and adipose tissue of cattle fed safflower oil protected from ruminal hydrogenation. Lipids 7, 83–89.
Dawson, JM, Buttery, PJ, Lammiman, LJ, Soar, JE& Essex, CP (1991) Nutritional and endocrinological manipulation of lean deposition in forage fed steers. British Journal of Nutritional 66, 171–185.
Department of Health (1994) Report on health and social subjects No. 46. Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. London: HMSO.
Dewhurst, RJ, Aston, K, Fisher, WJ, Evans, RT, Dhanoa, MS& McAllan, AB (1999) Comparison of energy and protein sources offered at low levels in grass-silage-based diets for dairy cows. Animal Science 68, 789–799.
Eaton, SB, Eaton, SB III, Konner, MJ& Shostak, M (1996) An evolutionary perspective enhances understanding of human nutritional requirements. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1732–1740.
Enser, M, Hallett, K, Hewett, B, Fursey, GAF& Wood, JD (1996) Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb and pork at retail. Meat Science 42, 443–456.
Enser, M, Scollan, ND, Choi, NJ, Kurt, E, Hallett, K& Wood, JD (1999) Effect of dietary lipid on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in beef muscle. Animal Science 69, 143–146.
Folch, J, Lees, M& Stanley, GHS (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226, 497–509.
HarfootCG, CG, & Hazlewood, GP (1988) Lipid metabolism in the rumen In The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem pp. 285–322 [PN, Hobson, editor]. London, New York: Elsevier Applied Science.
Hay, JD& Morrison, WR (1972) Positional isomers of cis and trans monoenoic fatty acids from ox (steer) perinephric fat. Lipids 8, 94–95.
Hwang, DH, Boudreau, M& Chanmugam, P (1988) Dietary linolenic acid and longer-chain n-3 fatty acids: comparison of effects on arachidonic acid metabolism in rats. Journal of Nutrition 118, 427–437.
Kempster, AJ, Cook, GL& Grantley-Smith, N (1986) National estimates of the body composition of British cattle, sheep and pigs with special reference to trends in fatness. A review. Meat Science 17, 107–138.
Kennelly, JJ (1996) The fatty acid composition of milk fat as influenced by feeding oilseeds. Animal Feed Science Technology 60, 137–152.
Kimoto, WI, Ellis, R, Wasserman, AE, Oltjen, R& Wrenn, TR (1974) Fatty acid composition of muscle phospholipids from calves and growing and mature steers fed protected safflower oil. Journal of Food Science 39, 997–1001.
Koizumi, I, Suzuki, Y& Kaneko, JJ (1991) Studies on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids of cattle, pigs and birds. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 37, 545–554.
Mandell, IB, Buchanan-Smith, JG, Holub, BJ& Campbell, CP (1997) Effects of fish meal in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle. Journal of Animal Science 75, 910–919.
Mansbridge, RJ& Blake, JS (1998) Nutritional factors affecting the fatty acid composition of bovine milk. British Journal of Nutrition 78 (Suppl. 1), S37–S47.
Marmer, WN, Maxwell, RJ& Williams, JE (1984) Effects of dietary regimen and tissue site on bovine fatty acid profiles. Journal of Animal Science 59, 109–121.
McDonald, IW& Scott, TW (1977) Foods of ruminant origin with elevated content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 26, 144–207.
Mills, EW, Comerford, JW, Hollender, C, Harpster, HW, House, B& Henning, WR (1992) Meat composition and palatability of Holstein and beef steers as influenced by forage type and protein source. Journal of Animal Science 70, 2446–2451.
Mitchell, GE, Reed, AW& Rogers, SA (1991) Influence of feeding regime on the sensory qualities and fatty acid contents of beef steaks. Journal of Food Science 56, 1102–1103.
Morgan, CA, Noble, RC, Cocchi, M& McCartney, R (1992) Manipulation of the fatty acid composition of pig meat lipids by dietary means. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 58, 357–368.
Nettleton, JA (1991) ω-3 fatty acids. Comparison of plant and seafood sources in human nutrition. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 91, 331–337.
Ratnayake, WMN, Ackman, RG& Hulan, HW (1989) Effect of redfish meal enriched diets on the taste and n-3 PUFA of 42-day-old broiler chickens. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 49, 59–74.
Scollan, ND, Fisher, WJ, Davies, DWR, FisherAV, Enser M & Wood JD AV, Enser M & Wood JD (1997). Manipulating the fatty acid composition of muscle in beef cattle. Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, 20.
Scollan, ND, Choi, NJ, Maeng, WJ, Enser, M& Wood, JD. Digestion of long chain fatty acids from differing feed sources and their effect on the rumen function of steers. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge (In the Press).
Scott, TW& Ashes, JR (1993) Dietary lipids for ruminants: protection, utilization and effects on remodelling of skeletal muscle phospholipids. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 44, 495–508.
Van Elswyk, ME, Sams, AR& Hargis, PS (1992) Composition, functionality and sensory evaluation of eggs from hens fed manhaden fish oil. Journal of Food Science 57, 342–344.
Weber, PC, Sellmayer, A& Hrboticky, N (1993) Are we what we eat? Fatty acids and their diverse functions. In Lifestyle diseases and the human diet: a challenge to future food production. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, pp. 19-27. Foulum, Denmark: National Institute of Animal Science.
Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, Colditz, GA, Speizer, FE, Rosner, BA, Sampson, LA& Hennekins, CH (1993) Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 341, 581–585.
Wonsil, BJ, Herbein, JH& Watkins, BA (1994) Dietary and ruminally derived trans-18:1 fatty acids alter bovine milk lipids. Journal of Nutrition 124, 556–565.