Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Metabolic utilization of dietary energy and nutrients for maintenance energy requirements in sows: basis for a net energy system

  • J. Noblet (a1), X. S. Shi (a1) and S. Dubois (a1)
Abstract

Digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy for maintenance (NEm) values of a set of fourteen diets were measured in six adult sows fed at and below their maintenance energy level. The efficiency of ME for NEm was estimated from heat production (HP) measurements (indirect calorimetry) at these different feeding levels. HP was partitioned between HP due to physical activity, thermic effect of food (TEF) and fasting heat production (FHP). The amounts of DE digested in the small intestine or in the hindgut were measured. Equations for prediction of NEm from dietary characteristics were calculated. HP at maintenance level averaged 400 kJ/kg body-weight0.75, 16 and 19% of the total being due to physical activity and TEF respectively. The efficiency of ME for NEm averaged 77·4% with higher values for digestible diethyl ether extract (100%) and starch + sugar (82 %). The efficiencies of digestible crude protein (N × 6·25) and digestible residue averaged 69 and 56 % respectively. The energy absorbed from the small intestine was used more efficiently than the energy fermented in the hindgut (82 v. 59%). These values are comparable with those obtained in growing pigs. The NEm content of diets can be predicted accurately from equations including DE (or ME) values and some dietary chemical characteristics.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Metabolic utilization of dietary energy and nutrients for maintenance energy requirements in sows: basis for a net energy system
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Metabolic utilization of dietary energy and nutrients for maintenance energy requirements in sows: basis for a net energy system
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Metabolic utilization of dietary energy and nutrients for maintenance energy requirements in sows: basis for a net energy system
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
Agricultural Research Council (1981). The Nutrient Requirements of Pigs. Slough: Commonwealth Agriculture Bureaux.
Armstrong, D. G. (1969). Cell bioenergetics and energy metabolism. In Handbuch der Tierernuhrung, pp. 385414 [Lenkeit, W., K., Breirem and Craseman, E., editors]. Hamburg und Berlin: Verlag P. Parey.
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (1975). Ofticial Methods of Analysis, 12th ed. Washington, DC: AOAC.
Breirem, K. (1939). Der energieumsatz bei den schweinen (Energy utilization in pigs). Tierernuhrung 11, 487528.
Brouwer, E. (1965). Report of sub-committee on constants and factors. In Energy Metabolism. European Association of Animal Production Publicationno. 11, pp. 441443 [Blaxter, K. L., editor]. London: Academic Press.
Carre, B. & Brillouet, J. M. (1989). Determination of water-insoluble cell walls in feeds. Interlaboratory study. Journal of the Association of Oficial Analytical Chemists 72, 463467.
Close, W. H. & Mount, L. E. (1975). The rate of heat loss during fasting in the growing pig. British Journal of Nutrition 34, 279290.
Close, W. H., Noblet, J. & Heavens, R. P. (1985). Studies on energy metabolism of the pregnant sow. 2. The partition and utilization of metabolizable energy intake in pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Brirish Journal of Nutrition 53, 267279.
Dauncey, M. J. (1979). Energy metabolism in man and the influence of diet and temperature: a review. Journal of Human Nutrition 33, 259269.
Dauncey, M. J. & Bingham, S. A. (1983). Dependence of 24 h energy expenditure in man on the composition of the nutrient intake. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 429442.
EEC (1972). Analytical determination of starch. Oficial Journal of European Communities L123/7.
Golay, A., Schutz, Y., Broquet, C., Moeri, R., Felber, J. P. & Jcquier, E. (1983). Decreased thermogenic response to an oral glucose load in older subjects. Journal ofthe American Geriatrics Sociery 31, 144148.
Hurni, M., Burnand, B., Pittet, Ph. & Jequier, E. (1982). Metabolic effects of a mixed and a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet in man, measured over 24 h in a respiration chamber. British Journal of Nutrition 47, 3343.
INRA (1984). L'alimentation des animaux monogastripes (porc, lapin, volailles) (Feeding of non-ruminant livestock). Paris: INRA.
Just, A. (1982). The net energy value of balanced diets for growing pigs. Livestock Production Science 8, 541555.
Kinabo, J. L. & Durnin, J. V. G. A. (1990). Thermic effect of food in man: effect of meal composition, and energy content. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 3744.
Koong, L. J., Nienaber, J. A., Pekas, J. C. & Yen, J. T. (1982). Effects of plane of nutrition on organ size and fasting heat production in pigs. Journal of Nutrition 112, 16381642.
Lin, P. Y., Romsos, D. R., Vander Tuig, J. G. & Leveille, G. A. (1979). Maintenance energy requirements, energy retention and heat production of young obese (ob/ob) and lean mice fed a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate diet. Journal of Nutrition 109, 11431153.
Nair, K. S., Halliday, D. & Garrow, J. S. (1983). Thermic response to isoenergetic protein, carbohydrate or fat meals in lean and obese subjects. Clinical Science 65, 307312.
Noblet, J., Dourmad, J. Y. & Etienne, M. (1990). Energy utilization in pregnant and lactating sows: Modeling of energy requirements. Journal of Animal Science 68, 562572.
Noblet, J., Fortune, H., Dubois, S. & Henry, Y. (1989). Nouvelles bases d'estimation des teneurs énergie digestible, mitabolisable et nette des aliments pour le porc. (New approaches for estimating digestible, metabolizable and net energy values in pig feeds). Paris: INRA.
Noblet, J., Henry, Y. & Dubois, S. (1987). Effect of protein and lysine levels in the diet on body gain composition and energy utilization in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science 65, 717726.
Noblet, J. & Shi, X. S. (1993). Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in growing pigs fed ad libitum and adult sows fed at maintenance. Livestock Production Science 34, 137152.
Noblet, J., Shi, X. S. & Dubois, S. (1993). Energy cost of standing activity in sows. Livesfock Production Science 34, 127136.
Perez, J. M. (1991). Intérêt et limites des modèkles de prévision de la valeur énergetique des aliments destinés au porc (Interest and limits of models for prediction of the energy value of pig feeds). Thèse Doctorat, Université Montpellier 11.
SAS (1988). SAS User's Guide: Statistics.Cary, NC: SAS Inst.
Schiemann, R., Nehring, K., Hoffmann, L., Jentsch, W. & Chudy, A. (1972). Energetische Futterbewertung und Energienormen (Food energy evaluation and energy requirements). Berlin: VEB Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag.
Schutz, Y., Bessard, T. & Jequier, E. (1984). Diet-induced thermogenesis measured over a whole day in obese and nonobese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40, 542552.
Shi, X. S. & Noblet, J. (1993). Contribution of the hindgut to digestion of diets in growing pigs and adult sows: effect of diet composition. Livestock Production Science (In the Press.).
Van Es, A. J. H., Vogt, J. E., Niessen, Ch., Veth, H., Rodenburg, L., Teeuwse, V. & Dhuyvetter, J. (1984). Human energy metabolism below, near and above energy equilibrium. British Journal of Nutrition 52, 429442.
Van Soest, P. J. & Wine, R. H. (1967). Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. Determination of plant cell-wall constituents. Journal of Association of OfJicialAnalytical Chemistry 50, 5055.
Vermorel, M., Bouvier, J. C., Binnet, M. & Fauconneau, G. (1973). Construction et fonctionnement de 2 chambres respiratoires de type circuit ouvert pour jeunes bovins (Construction and operation of two “open- circuit” respiration chambers for young cattle). Annales de Biologie Animale, Biochimie et Biophysique 13, 569581.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed