1 Clandinin, MT, Cheema, S, Field, CJ, et al. (1991) Dietary fat: exogenous determination of membrane structure and cell function. FASEB J 5, 2761–2769.
2 Calder, PC (1998) Dietary fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. Proc Nutr Soc 57, 487–502.
3 Simopoulos, AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56, 365–379.
4 Fan, YY, McMurray, DN, Ly, LH, et al. (2003) Dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids remodel mouse T-cell lipid rafts. J Nutr 133, 1913–1920.
5 Li, Q, Wang, M, Tan, L, et al. (2005) Docosahexaenoic acid changes lipid composition and interleukin-2 receptor signaling in membrane rafts. J Lipid Res 46, 1904–1913.
6 Bouwens, M, Rest, O, Dellschaft, , et al. (2009) Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 415–424.
7 Burdge, GC, Jones, AE & Wooton, SA (2002) Eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids are the principal products of α-linolenic acid metabolism in young men. Br J Nutr 88, 355–363.
8 Pawlosky, RJ, Hibbeln, JR, Novotny, JA, et al. (2001) Physiological compartmental analysis of α-linolenic acid metabolism in adult humans. J Lipid Res 42, 1257–1265.
9 Morisea, A, Combeb, N, Bouéb, C, et al. (2004) Dose effect of α-linolenic acid on PUFA conversion, bioavailability and storage in the hamster. Lipids 39, 325–334.
10 Diwakar, BT, Dutta, PK, Lokesh, BR, et al. (2008) Bio-availability and metabolism of n-3 fatty acid rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seed oil in albino rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 78, 123–130.
11 Jeffery, NM, Sanderson, P, Sherrington, EJ, et al. (1996) The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat diet alters serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Lipids 31, 737–745.
12 Coblijn, GB, Murphy, EJ, Othman, R, et al. (2009) Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 801–809.
13 Kelley, DS, Branch, LB, Love, JE, et al. (1991) Dietary (α-linolenic acid and immunocompetence in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 40–46.
14 Caughey, GE, Mantzioris, E, Gibson, RA, et al. (1996) Interleukin 1 production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 116–122.
15 Mizota, T, Kambara, CF, Matsuya, N, et al. (2009) Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on Th1/Th2 polarization in lymphocytes. J Parent Enteral Nutr 33, 390–396.
16 Diwakar, BT, Dutta, PK, Lokesh, BR, et al. (2010) Physicochemical properties of ω-3 fatty acid rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 87, 539–548.
17 Sladowski, D, Steer, SJ, Clothier, RH, et al. (1993) An improved MTT assay. J Immunol Methods 157, 203–207.
18 Yaqoob, P & Calder, P (1995) Effects of dietary lipid manipulation upon inflammatory mediator production by murine macrophages. Cell Immunol 163, 120–128.
19 Manosroi, A, Saraphanchotiwitthaya, A & Manosroi, J (2003) Immunomodulatory activities of Clausena excavate Burm. f. wood extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 89, 155–160.
20 Raghavenra, H, Diwakra, BT, Lokesh, BR, et al. (2006) Eugenol – the active principle from cloves inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity and leukotriene-C4 in human PMNL cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 74, 23–27.
21 Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, A, et al. (1951) Protein measurement with Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 143, 265–271.
22 Morisson, WR & Smith, LM (1964) Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron fluoride methanol. J Lipid Res 5, 600–608.
23 Furth, RV & Colin, ZA (1968) The origin and kinetics of mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med 128, 415–435.
24 Kaku, S, Yunoki, SI, Ohkura, KI, et al. (2001) Interactions of dietary fats and proteins on fatty acid composition of immune cells and LTB4 production by peritoneal exudate cells of rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65, 315–321.
25 Abbas, AK, Lichtman, AH & Pober, JS (1994) Cellular and Molecular Immunology. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.
26 Wang, YW, Field, CJ & Sim, JS (2000) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids alter lymphocyte subset proportion and proliferation, serum immunoglobulin G concentration, and immune tissue development in chicks. Poult Sci 79, 1741–1748.
27 Jeffery, NM, Newsholme, EA & Calder, PC (1997) The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet both affect serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 57, 149–160.
28 Calder, PC, Costa-Rosa, LF & Curi, R (1994) Effects of feeding lipids of different fatty acid compositions upon rat lymphocyte proliferation. Life Sci 56, 455–463.
29 Thies, F, Nebe-von-Caron, G, Powell, JR, et al. (2001) Dietary supplementation with γ-linolenic acid or fish oil decreases T lymphocyte proliferation in healthy older humans. J Nutr 131, 1918–1927.
30 Turek, JJ, Schoenlein, IA, Clark, LK, et al. (1994) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids effects on immune cells of the porcine lung. J Leukoc Biol 56, 599–604.
31 Wallace, FA, Miles, EA, Evans, C, et al. (2001) Dietary fatty acids influence the production of Th1- but not Th2-type cytokines. J Leukoc Biol 69, 449–457.
32 Meydani, SN, Lichtenstein, AH, Cornwall, S, et al. (1993) Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived n-3 fatty acid enrichment. J Clin Invest 92, 105–113.
33 Yaqoob, P, Pala, HS, Cortina-Borja, M, et al. (2000) Encapsulated fish oil enriched in α-tocopherol alters plasma phospholipid and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions but not mononuclear cell functions. Eur J Clin Invest 30, 260–274.
34 Endres, S, Meydani, SN, Ghorbani, R, et al. (1993) Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids suppresses interleukin-2 production and mononuclear cell proliferation. J Leukoc Biol 54, 599–603.
35 Babu, US, Wiesenfeld, PW, Collins, TFX, et al. (2003) Impact of high flaxseed diet on mitogen-induced proliferation, IL-2 production, cell subsets and fatty acid composition of spleen cells from pregnant and F1 generation Sprague–Dawley rats. Food Chem Toxicol 41, 905–915.
36 Jolly, CA, Mac Murray, DN & Chapkin, RS (1998) Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids on interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor α expression in activated murine lymphocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 58, 289–293.
37 Stulnig, TM, Huber, J, Leitinger, N, et al. (2001) Polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic acid displaces proteins from membrane rafts by altering raft lipid composition. J Biol Chem 276, 37335–37340.
38 Ebinu, JO, Stang, SL, Teixeira, C, et al. (2000) Ras GRP links T cell receptor signaling to Ras. Blood 95, 3199–3203.
39 Bi, K & Altman, A (2001) Membrane lipid microdomains and the role of PKCq in T cell activation. Semin Immunol 13, 139–146.
40 Xavier, R, Brennan, T, Li, Q, et al. (1998) Membrane compartmentalization is required for efficient T cell activation. Immunity 8, 723–732.
41 Gordge, MP (1998) How cytotoxic is nitric oxide? Exp Nephrol 6, 12–16.
42 Boutard, V, Fouquery, B, Philippe, C, et al. (1994) Fish oil supplementation and essential fatty acid deficiency reduce nitric oxide synthesis by rat macrophages. Kidney Int 46, 1200–1286.
43 Joe, B & Lokesh, BR (1994) Role of capsaicin, curcumin and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lowering the generation of reactive oxygen species in rat peritoneal macrophages. Biochim Biophys Acta 1224, 255–263.
44 Renier, G, Skamene, E, de Sanctis, J, et al. (1993) Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent the development of atherosclerotic lesions in mice: modulation of macrophage secretory activities. Arterioscler Thromb 13, 1515–1524.
45 Chaet, MS, Garcia, VF, Arya, G, et al. (1994) Dietary fish oil enhances macrophage production of nitric oxide. J Surg Res 57, 65–68.
46 Hubbard, NE, Chapkin, RS & Erickson, KL (1994) Effect of dietary linseed oil on tumoricidal activity and eicosanoid production in murine macrophages. Lipids 29, 651–655.
47 Narayanan, BA, Narayanan, KN, Simi, B, et al. (2003) Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and related proinflammatory genes by the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in human colon cancer cells. Cancer Res 63, 972–979.
48 Aldridge, C, Razzak, A, Babcock, TA, et al. (2008) LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide production is decreased by an omega-3 fatty acid lipid emulsion. J Surg Res 149, 296–302.
49 Ren, J & Chung, SH (2007) Anti-inflammatory effect of (γ-linolenic acid and its mode of action through the inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression via NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Agr Food Chem 55, 5073–5080.
50 Jiang, Q, Schwab, IE, Courtemanche, C, et al. (2000) γ-Tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to α-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 11494–11499.
51 Allen, RC (1994) Role of oxygen in phagocyte microbicidal action. Environ Health Perspect 102, Suppl. 10, 201–208.
52 Schnyder, J & Baggiolini, M (1978) Secretion of lysosomal hydrolases by stimulated and nonstimulated macrophages. J Exp Med 148, 435–450.