This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2WS Harris , D Mozaffarian , E Rimm , (2009) Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 119, 902–907.
3AP Simopoulos (2008) The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233, 674–688.
4T Hamazaki & H Okuyama (2003) The Japan Society for Lipid Nutrition recommends to reduce the intake of linoleic acid. A review and critique of the scientific evidence. World Rev Nutr Diet 92, 109–132.
5G Ailhaud (2008) Omega-6 fatty acids and excessive adipose tissue development. World Rev Nutr Diet 98, 51–61.
6RT Holman (1961) How essential are fatty acids? JAMA 178, 930–933.
10 K Poudel-Tandukar , A Nanri , Y Matsushita , (2009) Dietary intakes of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids are inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels among Japanese men. Nutr Res 29, 363–370.
12A Baylin , MK Kim , A Donovan-Palmer , (2005) Fasting whole blood as a biomarker of essential fatty acid intake in epidemiologic studies: comparison with adipose tissue and plasma. Am J Epidemiol 162, 373–381.
13P Astorg , S Bertrais , F Laporte , (2008) Plasma n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as biomarkers of their dietary intakes: a cross-sectional study within a cohort of middle-aged French men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 1155–1161.
16ES Williams , A Baylin & H Campos (2007) Adipose tissue arachidonic acid and the metabolic syndrome in Costa Rican adults. Clin Nutr 26, 474–482.
18MT Nakamura & TY Nara (2004) Structure, function, and dietary regulation of delta6, delta5, and delta9 desaturases. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 345–376.
20H Demmelmair , B Iser , A Rauh-Pfeiffer , (1999) Comparison of bolus versus fractionated oral applications of [13C]-linoleic acid in humans. Eur J Clin Invest 29, 603–609.
21EA Emken , RO Adlof & RM Gulley (1994) Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim Biophys Acta 1213, 277–288.
22 N Hussein , E Ah-Sing , P Wilkinson , (2005) Long-chain conversion of [13C]linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in men. J Lipid Res 46, 269–280.
25M Briel , I Ferreira-Gonzalez , JJ You , (2009) Association between change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. BMJ 338, b92.
31 R Clarke , C Frost , R Collins , (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. BMJ 314, 112–117.
33G Franceschini (2001) Epidemiologic evidence for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 88, 9N–13N.
34S Yusuf , S Hawken , S Ounpuu , (2004) Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case–control study. Lancet 364, 937–952.
35E Siguel (1996) A new relationship between total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 31, S51–S56.
36MU Jakobsen , EJ O'Reilly , BL Heitmann , (2009) Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1425–1432.
32L Hodson , CM Skeaff & WA Chisholm (2001) The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 908–915.
40S Grimsgaard , KH Bonaa , BK Jacobsen , (1999) Plasma saturated and linoleic fatty acids are independently associated with blood pressure. Hypertension 34, 478–483.
41JA Simon , J Fong & JT Bernert Jr (1996) Serum fatty acids and blood pressure. Hypertension 27, 303–307.
42JM Iacono , RM Dougherty & P Puska (1982) Reduction of blood pressure associated with dietary polyunsaturated fat. Hypertension 4, III34–III42.
49M Navab , GM Ananthramaiah , ST Reddy , (2004) The oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis: the role of oxidized phospholipids and HDL. J Lipid Res 45, 993–1007.
52A Bonanome , A Pagnan , S Biffanti , (1992) Effect of dietary monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the susceptibility of plasma low density lipoproteins to oxidative modification. Arterioscler Thromb 12, 529–533.
53P Kleemola , R Freese , M Jauhiainen , (2002) Dietary determinants of serum paraoxonase activity in healthy humans. Atherosclerosis 160, 425–432.
55PC Calder & RF Grimble (2002) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 3, S14–S19.
56SL Tilley , TM Coffman & BH Koller (2001) Mixed messages: modulation of inflammation and immune responses by prostaglandins and thromboxanes. J Clin Invest 108, 15–23.
58CN Serhan (2005) Lipoxins and aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxins are the first lipid mediators of endogenous anti-inflammation and resolution. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 73, 141–162.
59T Pischon , SE Hankinson , GS Hotamisligil , (2003) Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation 108, 155–160.
60L Ferrucci , A Cherubini , S Bandinelli , (2006) Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 439–446.
61F Thies , EA Miles , G Nebe-von-Caron , (2001) Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 1183–1193.
62CE Lewis , KM McTigue , LE Burke , (2009) Mortality, health outcomes, and body mass index in the overweight range: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation 119, 3263–3271.
63A Romero-Corral , VK Somers & J Sierra-Johnson (2009) Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality. Eur Heart J 31, 737–746.
65DB Hausman , M DiGirolamo , TJ Bartness , (2001) The biology of white adipocyte proliferation. Obes Rev 2, 239–254.
66YD Tchoukalova , MG Sarr & MD Jensen (2004) Measuring committed preadipocytes in human adipose tissue from severely obese patients by using adipocyte fatty acid binding protein. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287, R1132–R1140.
67MP Cleary , FC Phillips & RA Morton (1999) Genotype and diet effects in lean and obese Zucker rats fed either safflower or coconut oil diets. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 220, 153–161.
68 F Massiera , P Saint-Marc , J Seydoux , (2003) Arachidonic acid and prostacyclin signaling promote adipose tissue development: a human health concern? J Lipid Res 44, 271–279.
69D Gaillard , R Negrel , M Lagarde , (1989) Requirement and role of arachidonic acid in the differentiation of pre-adipose cells. Biochem J 257, 389–397.
70CW Miller , DA Casimir & JM Ntambi (1996) The mechanism of inhibition of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation by prostaglandin F2alpha. Endocrinology 137, 5641–5650.
71 G Serrero , NM Lepak & SP Goodrich (1992) Paracrine regulation of adipose differentiation by arachidonate metabolites: prostaglandin F2 alpha inhibits early and late markers of differentiation in the adipogenic cell line 1246. Endocrinology 131, 2545–2551.
72G Serrero , NM Lepak & SP Goodrich (1992) Prostaglandin F2 alpha inhibits the differentiation of adipocyte precursors in primary culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 183, 438–442.
73T Matsuo , H Takeuchi , H Suzuki , (2002) Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11, 302–308.
75JJ Hernandez-Morante , E Larque , JA Lujan , (2009) N-6 from different sources protect from metabolic alterations to obese patients: a factor analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17, 452–459.
76 RB Shekelle , AM Shryock , O Paul , (1981) Diet, serum cholesterol, and death from coronary heart disease. The Western Electric study. N Engl J Med 304, 65–70.
77FB Hu , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson , (1997) Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 337, 1491–1499.
78K Oh , FB Hu , JE Manson , (2005) Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses' health study. Am J Epidemiol 161, 672–679.
79DE Laaksonen , K Nyyssonen , L Niskanen , (2005) Prediction of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men by dietary and serum linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arch Intern Med 165, 193–199.
80WS Harris , WC Poston & CK Haddock (2007) Tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease events. Atherosclerosis 193, 1–10.
81RC Block , WS Harris , KJ Reid , (2008) Omega-6 and trans fatty acids in blood cell membranes: a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes? Am Heart J 156, 1117–1123.
82 ID Frantz Jr, EA Dawson , PL Ashman , (1989) Test of effect of lipid lowering by diet on cardiovascular risk. The Minnesota Coronary Survey. Arteriosclerosis 9, 129–135.
84JM Woodhill , AJ Palmer , B Leelarthaepin , (1978) Low fat, low cholesterol diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 109, 317–330.
85 GA Rose , WB Thomson & RT Williams (1965) Corn oil in treatment of ischaemic heart disease. Br Med J 1, 1531–1533.
86 O Turpeinen , MJ Karvonen , M Pekkarinen , (1979) Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease: the Finnish Mental Hospital Study. Int J Epidemiol 8, 99–118.
87M Miettinen , O Turpeinen , MJ Karvonen , (1983) Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease in women: the Finnish Mental Hospital Study. Int J Epidemiol 12, 17–25.
89 PW Siri-Tarino , Q Sun , FB Hu , (2010) Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 535–546.
91P Trumbo , S Schlicker , AA Yates , (2002) Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 1621–1630.
97WS Harris (2006) The omega-6/omega-3 ratio and cardiovascular disease risk: uses and abuses. Curr Atheroscler Rep 8, 453–459.
98MB Katan (2009) Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1283–1284.
101LH Kushi , RA Lew , FJ Stare , (1985) Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. The Ireland-Boston Diet-Heart Study. N Engl J Med 312, 811–818.
102BM Posner , JL Cobb , AJ Belanger , (1991) Dietary lipid predictors of coronary heart disease in men. The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 151, 1181–1187.
103TA Dolecek (1992) Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 200, 177–182.
104KL Esrey , L Joseph & SA Grover (1996) Relationship between dietary intake and coronary heart disease mortality: lipid research clinics prevalence follow-up study. J Clin Epidemiol 49, 211–216.
105A Ascherio , EB Rimm , EL Giovannucci , (1996) Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. BMJ 313, 84–90.
106P Pietinen , A Ascherio , P Korhonen , (1997) Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Epidemiol 145, 876–887.
107Medical Research Council (1968) Controlled trial of soya-bean oil in myocardial infarction: report of a research committee to the Medical Research Council. Lancet 292, 693–700.
108GF Watts , B Lewis , JN Brunt , (1992) Effects on coronary artery disease of lipid-lowering diet, or diet plus cholestyramine, in the St Thomas' Atherosclerosis Regression Study (STARS). Lancet 339, 563–569.