Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Nutrition challenges for the twenty-first century

  • Alan D. Dangour (a1) and Ricardo Uauy (a1) (a2)
Abstract

Although progress has been made towards international goals for the eradication of hunger and malnutrition, considerable work is still required to achieve them and to respond to emerging public health nutrition challenges. The present paper outlines sixteen major inter-linked nutrition challenges recently identified by the UN Standing Committee on Nutrition. While many of the challenges relate to the nutritional needs of children and mothers, an increased emphasis on nutrition-related chronic diseases that affect later life is also evident. Promoting healthy ageing and the maintenance of physical and mental function in older age are undoubtedly major challenges for the future, and the present paper also informs on the role of nutrition, specifically n-3 essential fatty acids, in the prevention of cognitive decline. The importance of determining the cost-effectiveness of nutrition interventions is advocated, in order that the nutrition community can respond appropriately to global nutrition challenges.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Nutrition challenges for the twenty-first century
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Nutrition challenges for the twenty-first century
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Nutrition challenges for the twenty-first century
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Alan D. Dangour, fax +44 207 958 8111, email alan.dangour@lshtm.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Barberger-Gateau P, Letenneur L, Deschamps V, Peres K, Dartigues JF & Renaud S (2002) Fish, meat, and risk of dementia: cohort study. BMJ 325, 932933.
Calon F, Lim GP & Yang F (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Neuron 43, 633645.
Catalan J, Moriguchi T, Slotnick B, Murthy M, Greiner RS & Salem N Jr (2002) Cognitive deficits in docosahexaenoic acid-deficient rats. Behav Neurosci 116, 10221031.
Dangour AD, Sibson VL & Fletcher AE (2004) Micronutrient supplementation in later life: limited evidence for benefit. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59, 659673.
Favrelere S, Stadelmann-Ingrand S, Huguet F, De Javel D, Piriou A, Tallineau C & Durand G (2000) Age-related changes in ethanoalmine glycerophospholipid fatty acid levels in rat frontal cortex and hippocampus. Neurobiol Aging 21, 653660.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World & Health Organization (1992) World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition. Rome: FAO.
Goodwin JS, Goodwin JM & Garry PJ (1983) Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. JAMA 249, 29172921.
Graat JM, Schouten EG & Kok FJ (2002) Effect of daily vitamin E and multivitamin–mineral supplementation on acute respiratory tract infections in elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288, 715721.
Haller J, Weggemans RM, Ferry M & Guigoz Y (1996) Mental health: minimental state examination and geriatric depression score of elderly Europeans in the SENECA study of 1993. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, Suppl. 2. S112S116.
Heude B, Ducimetiere P & Berr C (2003) Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes – The EVA Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 803808.
Jama JW, Launer LJ, Witteman JC, den Breeijen JH, Breteler MM, Grobbee DE & Hofman A (1996) Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in a population-based sample of older persons. The Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol 144, 275280.
James WPT, Simitasiri S, Ul Haq M, Tagwirery J, Norum K, Uauy R & Swaminathan MS (2000) Ending malnutrition by 2020 – an agenda for change in the millennium. WHO Food and Nutrition Bulletin 21 1S – 76S
Kalmijn S, Feskens EJ, Launer LJ & Kromhout D (1997) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 145   3341.
Kalmijn S, van Boxtel MP, Ocke M, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D & Launer LJ (2004) Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology 62, 275280.
Kim HY, Akbar M, Lau A & Edsall L (2000) Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6 n -3). Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem 275, 3521535223.
Lawlor DA, Davey Smith G, Kundu D, Bruckdorfer KR & Ebrahim S (2004) Those confounded vitamins: what can we learn from the differences between observational versus randomised trial evidence?. Lancet 363, 17241727.
Lim SY & Suzuki H (2000) Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.   J Nutr 130, 16291632.
Malouf M, Grimley EJ & Areosa SA (2003) Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for cognition and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD004514.
Malouf R, Areosa Sastre A (2003) Vitamin B 12 for cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD004326.
Malouf R & Grimley EJ (2003) The effect of vitamin B6 on cognition. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004393.
Manders M, de Groot LC, van Staveren WA, Wouters-Wesseling W, Mulders AJ, Schols JM & Hoefnagels WH (2004) Effectiveness of nutritional supplements on cognitive functioning in elderly persons: a systematic review. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59, 10411049.
Marcheselli VL, Hong S & Lukiw WJ (2003) Novel docosanoids inhibit brain ischemia-reperfusion-mediated leukocyte infiltration and pro-inflammatory gene expression. J Biol Chem 278, 4380743817.
Melzer D, Ely M & Brayne C (1997) Cognitive impairment in elderly people: population based estimate of the future in England, Scotland, and Wales. BMJ 315, 462
Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ & Guallar E (2005) Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med 142, 3746.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N & Schneider J (2003) Consumption of fish and n -3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60, 940946.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC & Wilson RS (2002) Vitamin E and cognitive decline in older persons. Arch Neurol 59, 11251132.
Mukherjee PK, Marcheselli VL, Serhan CN & Bazan NG (2004) Neuroprotectin D1: a docosahexaenoic acid-derived docosatriene protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 84918496.
O'Brien JT, Erkinjuntti T, Reisberg B, Roman G, Sawada T, Pantoni L, Bowler JV, Ballard C, DeCarli C, Gorelick PB, Rockwood K, Burns A, Gauthier S & DeKosky ST (2003) Vascular cognitive impairment. Lancet Neurol 2, 8998.
Perkins AJ, Hendrie HC, Callahan CM, Gao S, Unverzagt FW, Xu Y, Hall KS & Hui SL (1999) Association of antioxidants with memory in a multiethnic elderly sample using the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Am J Epidemiol 150, 3744.
Perrig WJ, Perrig P & Stahelin HB (1997) The relation between antioxidants and memory performance in the old and very old. J Am Geriatr Soc 45, 718724.
Rodriguez-Martin JL, Qizilbash N, Lopez-Arrieta JM (2001) Thiamine for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD001498.
Rojas CV, Martinez JI, Flores I, Hoffman DR & Uauy R (2003) Gene expression analysis in human fetal retinal explants treated with docosahexaenoic acid. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 31703177.
Selhub J, Bagley LC, Miller J & Rosenberg IH (2000) B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 71 614S – 620S
Soderberg M, Edlund C, Kristensson K & Dallner G (1990) Lipid compositions of different regions of the human brain during aging. J Neurochem 54, 415423.
Soderberg M, Edlund C, Kristensson K & Dallner G (1991) Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Lipids 26, 421425.
Suzuki H, Hayakawa S & Wada S (1989) Effect of age on the modification of brain polyunsaturated fatty acids and enzyme activities by fish oil diet in rats. Mech Ageing Dev 50, 1725.
Suzuki H, Park SJ, Tamura M & Ando S (1998) Effect of the long-term feeding of dietary lipids on the learning ability, fatty acid composition of brain stem phospholipids and synaptic membrane fluidity in adult mice: a comparison of sardine oil diet with palm oil diet. Mech Ageing Dev 101, 119128.
Tabet N, Birks J, Grimley Evans J (2000) Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD002854.
Uauy R, Hoffman DR, Peirano P, Birch DG & Birch EE (2001) Essential fatty acids in visual and brain development. Lipids 36, 885895.
Uauy R & Valenzuela A (2000) Marine oils: the health benefits of n -3 fatty acids. Nutrition 16, 680684.
United Nations (2001) World Population Prospects, the 2000 Revision, Volume 1: Comprehensive Tables. New York: United Nations
Vermeer SE, Prins ND, den Heijer T, Hofman A, Koudstaal PJ & Breteler MM (2003) Silent brain infarcts and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline. N Engl J Med 348, 12151222.
Wald DS, Law M & Morris JK (2002) Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ 325, 1202
World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization (2002) Keep Fit for Life: Meeting the Nutritional Needs of Older Persons. Geneva: WHO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 125 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 149 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.