1 HW Smith (1961) From Fish to Philosopher. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday.
2 US Barzel & J Jowsey (1969) The effects of chronic acid and alkali administration on bone turnover in adult rats. Clin Sci 36, 517–524.
3 RP Heaney (2001) Protein intake and bone health: the influence of belief systems on the conduct of nutritional science. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 5–6.
4 L Cordain , SB Eaton , A Sebastian , et al. (2005) Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 341–354.
5 HW Davenport (1958) The ABC of Acid–Base Chemistry, 4th ed.Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
6 H Valtin (1979) Renal Dysfunction: Mechanisms Involved in Fluid and Solute Imbalance. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company.
7 J Vormann & T Goedecke (2006) Acid–base homeostasis: latent acidosis as a cause of chronic diseases. Swiss J Integr Med 18, 255–266.
8 LA Frassetto , RC Morris Jr & A Sebastian (1996) Effect of age on blood acid–base composition in adult humans: role of age-related renal functional decline. Am J Physiol 271, F1114–F1122.
9 TR Fenton , M Eliasziw , SC Tough , et al. (2010) Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 11, 88.
10 TR Fenton , SC Tough , AW Lyon , et al. (2011) Causal assessment of dietary acid load and bone disease: a systematic review & meta-analysis applying Hill's epidemiologic criteria for causality. Nutr J 10, 41.
11 PA Stewart (1978) Independent and dependent variables of acid–base control. Respir Physiol 33, 9–26.
12 PA Stewart (1983) Modern quantitative acid–base chemistry. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 61, 1444–1461.
13 I Kurtz , J Kraut , V Ornekian , et al. (2008) Acid–base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 294, F1009–F1031.
14 AS Relman (1954) What are acids and bases? Am J Med 17, 435–437.
15 HN Christiensen (1959) Anion–cation balance. In Diagnostic Biochemistry: Quantitative Distribution of Body Constituents and their Physiological Interpretation, pp. 128–134. New York: Oxford University Press.
16 ID Weiner & LL Hamm (2007) Molecular mechanisms of renal ammonia transport. Annu Rev Physiol 69, 317–340.
17 LL Hamm , RJ Alpern & PA Preisig (2008) Cellular mechanisms of renal tubular acidification. In Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney, 4th ed. [ RJ Alpern and SC Hebert , editors]. London: Academic Press.
18 BM Koeppen (2009) The kidney and acid–base regulation. Adv Physiol Educ 33, 275–281.
19 ID Weiner & JW Verlander (2011) Role of NH3 and NH4+ transporters in renal acid–base transport. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 300, F11–F23.
20 C Bernard (1865) Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale (Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine). Paris: Garnier Flammarion.
21 AS Relman , EJ Lennon & J Lemann Jr (1961) Endogenous production of fixed acid and the measurement of the net balance of acid in normal subjects. J Clin Invest 40, 1621–1630.
22 AD Goodman , J Lemann Jr, EJ Lennon , et al. (1965) Production, excretion, and net balance of fixed acid in patients with renal acidosis. J Clin Invest 44, 495–506.
23 J Lemann Jr, JR Litzow & EJ Lennon (1966) The effects of chronic acid loads in normal man: further evidence for the participation of bone mineral in the defense against chronic metabolic acidosis. J Clin Invest 45, 1608–1614.
24 JR Litzow , J Lemann Jr & EJ Lennon (1967) The effect of treatment of acidosis on calcium balance in patients with chronic azotemic renal disease. J Clin Invest 46, 280–286.
25 EF Morgan , GL Barnes & TA Einhorn (2008) The bone organ system: form and function. In Osteoporosis, 3rd ed., pp. 3–25 [ R Marcus , D Feldman , DA Nelson and CJ Rosen , editors]. Amsterdam, Boston: Elsevier, Academic Press.
26 R Rizzoli & JP Bonjour (2006) Physiology of calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In Dynamics of Bone and Cartilage Metabolism: Principles and Clinical Applications, 2nd ed., pp. 345–360 [ MJ Seibel , SP Robins and JP Bilezikian , editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
27 J Lutz (1984) Calcium balance and acid–base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion. Am J Clin Nutr 39, 281–288.
28 D Ball & RJ Maughan (1997) Blood and urine acid–base status of premenopausal omnivorous and vegetarian women. Br J Nutr 78, 683–693.
29 TR Fenton & AW Lyon (2011) Milk and acid–base balance: proposed hypothesis versus scientific evidence. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 471S–475S.
30 MS Oh (1991) Irrelevance of bone buffering to acid–base homeostasis in chronic metabolic acidosis. Nephron 59, 7–10.
31 J Uribarri , H Douyon & MS Oh (1995) A re-evaluation of the urinary parameters of acid production and excretion in patients with chronic renal acidosis. Kidney Int 47, 624–627.
32 MS Oh & HJ Carroll (2008) External balance of electrolytes and acids and alkalis. In Seldin and Giebisch's The Kidney, 4th ed. [ RJ Alpern and SC Hebert , editors]. London: Academic Press.
33 MS Oh (2000) New perspectives on acid–base balance. Semin Dial 13, 212–219.
34 J Uribarri (2000) Acidosis in chronic renal insufficiency. Semin Dial 13, 232–234.
35 KA Hruska & S Mathew (2009) Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). In Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 7th ed., pp. 343–353 [ CJ Rosen , JE Compston and JB Lian , editors]. Washington, DC: The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
36 US Barzel (1969) The effect of excessive acid feeding on bone. Calcif Tissue Res 4, 94–100.
37 TR Arnett & DW Dempster (1986) Effect of pH on bone resorption by rat osteoclasts in vitro. Endocrinology 119, 119–124.
38 DA Bushinsky & KK Frick (2000) The effects of acid on bone. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 9, 369–379.
39 DA Bushinsky , SB Smith , KL Gavrilov , et al. (2003) Chronic acidosis-induced alteration in bone bicarbonate and phosphate. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 285, F532–F539.
40 KK Frick , NS Krieger , K Nehrke , et al. (2009) Metabolic acidosis increases intracellular calcium in bone cells through activation of the proton receptor OGR1. J Bone Miner Res 24, 305–313.
41 US Barzel (1995) The skeleton as an ion exchange system: implications for the role of acid–base imbalance in the genesis of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 10, 1431–1436.
42 SA Lanham-New (2008) The balance of bone health: tipping the scales in favor of potassium-rich, bicarbonate-rich foods. J Nutr 138, 172S–177S.
43 E Wynn , MA Krieg , JM Aeschlimann , et al. (2009) Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism. Bone 44, 120–124.
44 J Pizzorno , LA Frassetto & J Katzinger (2010) Diet-induced acidosis: is it real and clinically relevant? Br J Nutr 103, 1185–1194.
45 D Feskanich , WC Willett , MJ Stampfer , et al. (1996) Protein consumption and bone fractures in women. Am J Epidemiol 143, 472–479.
46 HE Meyer , JI Pedersen , EB Loken , et al. (1997) Dietary factors and the incidence of hip fracture in middle-aged Norwegians. A prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 145, 117–123.
47 ME Mussolino , AC Looker , JH Madans , et al. (1998) Risk factors for hip fracture in white men: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Bone Miner Res 13, 918–924.
48 RG Munger , JR Cerhan & BC Chiu (1999) Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 147–152.
49 MT Hannan , KL Tucker , B Dawson-Hughes , et al. (2000) Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 15, 2504–2512.
50 DE Sellmeyer , KL Stone , A Sebastian , et al. (2001) A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 118–122.
51 JH Promislow , D Goodman-Gruen , DJ Slymen , et al. (2002) Protein consumption and bone mineral density in the elderly: The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol 155, 636–644.
52 HJ Wengreen , RG Munger , NA West , et al. (2004) Dietary protein intake and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in elderly residents of Utah. J Bone Miner Res 19, 537–545.
53 P Dargent-Molina , S Sabia , M Touvier , et al. (2008) Proteins, dietary acid load, and calcium and risk of postmenopausal fractures in the E3N French women prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 23, 1915–1922.
54 E Wynn , SA Lanham-New , MA Krieg , et al. (2008) Low estimates of dietary acid load are positively associated with bone ultrasound in women older than 75 years of age with a lifetime fracture. J Nutr 138, 1349–1354.
55 AL Darling , DJ Millward , DJ Torgerson , et al. (2009) Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1674–1692.
56 D Misra , SD Berry , KE Broe , et al. (2011) Does dietary protein reduce hip fracture risk in elders? The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int 22, 345–349.
57 L Shi , L Libuda , E Schonau , et al. (2012) Long term higher urinary calcium excretion within the normal physiologic range predicts impaired bone status of the proximal radius in healthy children with higher potential renal acid load. Bone 50, 1026–1031.
58 MS Oh (1989) A new method for estimating G-I absorption of alkali. Kidney Int 36, 915–917.
59 T Remer & F Manz (1994) Estimation of the renal net acid excretion by adults consuming diets containing variable amounts of protein. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 1356–1361.
60 S Berkemeyer & T Remer (2006) Anthropometrics provide a better estimate of urinary organic acid anion excretion than a dietary mineral intake-based estimate in children, adolescents, and young adults. J Nutr 136, 1203–1208.
61 T Remer , T Dimitriou & F Manz (2003) Dietary potential renal acid load and renal net acid excretion in healthy, free-living children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1255–1260.
62 T Remer & F Manz (1995) Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 791–797.
63 LA Frassetto , KM Todd , RC Morris Jr, et al. (1998) Estimation of net endogenous noncarbonic acid production in humans from diet potassium and protein contents. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 576–583.
64 F Grases , A Costa-Bauza & RM Prieto (2006) Renal lithiasis and nutrition. Nutr J 5, 23.
65 OW Moe , MS Pearle & K Sakhaee (2011) Pharmacotherapy of urolithiasis: evidence from clinical trials. Kidney Int 79, 385–392.
66 A Sebastian , ST Harris , JH Ottaway , et al. (1994) Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. N Engl J Med 330, 1776–1781.
67 DE Sellmeyer , M Schloetter & A Sebastian (2002) Potassium citrate prevents increased urine calcium excretion and bone resorption induced by a high sodium chloride diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 2008–2012.
68 M Maurer , W Riesen , J Muser , et al. (2003) Neutralization of Western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 284, F32–F40.
69 L Frassetto , RC Morris Jr & A Sebastian (2005) Long-term persistence of the urine calcium-lowering effect of potassium bicarbonate in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 831–834.
70 K Rafferty , KM Davies & RP Heaney (2005) Potassium intake and the calcium economy. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 99–106.
71 S Jehle , A Zanetti , J Muser , et al. (2006) Partial neutralization of the acidogenic Western diet with potassium citrate increases bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. J Am Soc Nephrol 17, 3213–3222.
72 HM Macdonald , AJ Black , L Aucott , et al. (2008) Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 465–474.
73 K Rafferty & RP Heaney (2008) Nutrient effects on the calcium economy: emphasizing the potassium controversy. J Nutr 138, 166S–171S.
74 L Ceglia , SS Harris , SA Abrams , et al. (2009) Potassium bicarbonate attenuates the urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanies an increase in dietary protein and may promote calcium absorption. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 645–653.
75 B Dawson-Hughes , SS Harris , NJ Palermo , et al. (2009) Treatment with potassium bicarbonate lowers calcium excretion and bone resorption in older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 96–102.
76 J Mardon , V Habauzit , A Trzeciakiewicz , et al. (2008) Long-term intake of a high-protein diet with or without potassium citrate modulates acid–base metabolism, but not bone status, in male rats. J Nutr 138, 718–724.
77 S Jehle , HN Hulter & R Krapf (2013) Effect of potassium citrate on bone density, microarchitecture, and fracture risk in healthy older adults without osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, 207–217.
78 JB Cannata-Andia , P Roman-Garcia & K Hruska (2011) The connections between vascular calcification and bone health. Nephrol Dial Transplant 26, 3429–3436.
79 L Wang , JE Manson & HD Sesso (2012) Calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: a review of prospective studies and randomized clinical trials. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 12, 105–116.
80 LA Frassetto , AC Hardcastle , A Sebastian , et al. (2012) No evidence that the skeletal non-response to potassium alkali supplements in healthy postmenopausal women depends on blood pressure or sodium chloride intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 1315–1322.
81 TR Fenton , M Eliasziw , AW Lyon , et al. (2008) Meta-analysis of the quantity of calcium excretion associated with the net acid excretion of the modern diet under the acid–ash diet hypothesis. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1159–1166.
82 TR Fenton , AW Lyon , M Eliasziw , et al. (2009) Meta-analysis of the effect of the acid–ash hypothesis of osteoporosis on calcium balance. J Bone Miner Res 24, 1835–1840.
83 RR McLean , N Qiao , KE Broe , et al. (2011) Dietary acid load is not associated with lower bone mineral density except in older men. J Nutr 141, 588–594.
84 AB Hill (1965) The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc R Soc Med 58, 295–300.
85 RC Muhlbauer , A Lozano & A Reinli (2002) Onion and a mixture of vegetables, salads, and herbs affect bone resorption in the rat by a mechanism independent of their base excess. J Bone Miner Res 17, 1230–1236.
86 SA New , HM MacDonald , MK Campbell , et al. (2004) Lower estimates of net endogenous non-carbonic acid production are positively associated with indexes of bone health in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 131–138.
87 HM Macdonald , SA New , WD Fraser , et al. (2005) Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 923–933.
88 SA New (2002) Nutrition Society Medal lecture. The role of the skeleton in acid–base homeostasis. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 151–164.
89 A Sebastian , LA Frassetto , DE Sellmeyer , et al. (2002) Estimation of the net acid load of the diet of ancestral preagricultural Homo sapiens and their hominid ancestors. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1308–1316.
90 JP Bonjour (2011) Calcium and phosphate: a duet of ions playing for bone health. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 438S–448S.
91 TR Fenton , AW Lyon , M Eliasziw , et al. (2009) Phosphate decreases urine calcium and increases calcium balance: a meta-analysis of the osteoporosis acid–ash diet hypothesis. Nutr J 8, 41.
92 PD Miller , EN Schwartz , P Chen , et al. (2007) Teriparatide in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and mild or moderate renal impairment. Osteoporos Int 18, 59–68.
93 J Coresh , BC Astor , T Greene , et al. (2003) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 41, 1–12.
94 JA Eustace , B Astor , PM Muntner , et al. (2004) Prevalence of acidosis and inflammation and their association with low serum albumin in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 65, 1031–1040.
95 AC Looker , ES Orwoll , CC Johnston Jr, et al. (1997) Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III. J Bone Miner Res 12, 1761–1768.
96 CY Hsu & GM Chertow (2002) Elevations of serum phosphorus and potassium in mild to moderate chronic renal insufficiency. Nephrol Dial Transplant 17, 1419–1425.
97 CY Hsu , SR Cummings , CE McCulloch , et al. (2002) Bone mineral density is not diminished by mild to moderate chronic renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 61, 1814–1820.