Skip to main content Accessibility help

Olive oil and its main phenolic micronutrient (oleuropein) prevent inflammation-induced bone loss in the ovariectomised rat

  • C. Puel (a1), A. Quintin (a1), A. Agalias (a2), J. Mathey (a1), C. Obled (a3), A. Mazur (a1), M. J. Davicco (a1), P. Lebecque (a1), A. L. Skaltsounis (a2) and V. Coxam (a1)...

The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil and its main polyphenol (oleuropein) in ovariectomised rats with or without inflammation. Rats (6 months old) were ovariectomised or sham-operated as control. Ovariectomised rats were separated into three groups receiving different diets for 3 months: a control diet with 25 g peanut oil and 25 g rapeseed oil/kg (OVX), the control diet with 50 g olive oil/kg or the control diet with 0·15 g oleuropein/kg. The sham-operated group was given the same control diet as OVX. Inflammation was induced 3 weeks before the end of the experiment by subcutaneous injections of talc (magnesium silicate) in one-half of each group. The sucess of ovariectomy was verified at necropsy by the atrophy of uterine horns. Inflammation, oleuropein or olive oil intakes did not have any uterotrophic activity, as they had had no effect on uterus weight. The plasma concentration of α-1-acid glycoprotein (an indicator of inflammation) was increased in OVX rats with inflammation. With regard to bone variables, osteopenia in OVX was exacerbated by inflammation, as shown by a decrease in metaphyseal and total femoral mineral density. Both oleuropein and olive oil prevented this bone loss in OVX rats with inflammation. At necropsy, oleuropein and olive oil consumption had had no effect on plasma osteocalcin concentrations (marker of bone formation) or on urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion (marker of bone resorption). In conclusion, oleuropein and olive-oil feeding can prevent inflammation-induced osteopenia in OVX rats.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Olive oil and its main phenolic micronutrient (oleuropein) prevent inflammation-induced bone loss in the ovariectomised rat
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Olive oil and its main phenolic micronutrient (oleuropein) prevent inflammation-induced bone loss in the ovariectomised rat
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Olive oil and its main phenolic micronutrient (oleuropein) prevent inflammation-induced bone loss in the ovariectomised rat
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: fax +33 473 62 4638, Email
Hide All
1Armour, KE, Van' T Hof, RJ, Grabowski, PS, Reid, DM & Ralston, SHEvidence for a pathogenic role of nitric oxide in inflammation-induced osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 1999 14, 21373142.
2Benzie, FF & Strain, JJThe ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996 239, 7076.
3Bors, W, Heller, W, Michel, C & Saran, MFlavonoids as antioxidants: determination of radical-scavenging efficiencies. Methods Enzymol 1990 186, 343355.
4Breuillé, D, Arnal, M, Rambourdin, F, Bayle, G, Levieux, D & Obled, CSustained modifications of protein metabolism in various tissues in a rat model of long-lasting sepsis. Clin Sci (Lond) 1998 94, 413423.
5Browner, WS, Pressman, AR, Nevitt, MC & Cummings, SRMortality following fractures in older women. The study of osteoporotic fractures. Arch Intern Med 1996 156, 15211525.
6Chaudiere, JSome chemical and biochemical constraints of oxidative stress in living cells. In Free Radical Damage and its Control, Pp. 2566 [Rice-Evans, CA and Burdon, RH, editors] New York: Elsevier-Science. 1994.
7Cohen-Solal, ME, Graulet, AM & Denne, MAPeripheral monocyte culture supernatants of menopausal women induce bone resorption: involvement of cytokines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993 77, 16481653.
8Consensus Development Statement European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. Who are candidates for prevention and treatment for osteoporosis?. Osteoporosis Int 1997 7, 16.
9Cook, JGHFactors influencing the assay of creatinine. Ann Clin Biochem 1975 12, 219232.
10Cooper, C, Atkinson, EJ, Jacobsen, SJ, O'Fallon, WM & Melton, LJ 3rd Population-based study of survival after osteoporotic fractures. Am J Epidemiol 1993 137, 10011005.
11Coxam, V, Bowman, BM, Mecham, M, Roth, CM, Miller, MA & Miller, SCEffects of dihydrotestosterone alone and combined with estrogen on bone mineral density, bone growth and formation rates in ovariectomized rats. Bone 1996 19, 107114.
12Cuzzocrea, S, Santagati, S, Sautebin, L, Mazzon, E, Calabro, I, Caputi, AP & Maggi, A17 beta-estradiol antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Endocrinology 2000 141, 14551463.
13Das, UNInteraction(s) between essential fatty acids, eicosanoids, cytokines, growth factors and free radicals: relevance to new therapeutic strategies in rhumatoid arthritis and other collagen vascular diseases. Prostaglandins Leucot Essent Fatty Acids 1991 44, 201210.
14Das, UNNitric oxide as the mediator of the antiosteoporotic actions of estrogen, statins, and essential fatty acids. Exp Biol Med 2002 227, 8893.
15De la Puerta, R, Ruiz Gutierrez, V & Hoult, JRInhibition of leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase by phenolics from virgin olive oil. Biochem Pharmacol 1999 57, 445449.
16Diplock, AT, Aggett, P, Ashwell, M, Bornet, F, Fern, EB & Roberfroid, MBScientific concepts of functional foods in Europe: consensus document. Br J Nutr 1999 81, S1S27.
17Eastell, R, Calvo, MS, Burritt, MF, Offord, KP, Russell, RG & Riggs, BLAbnormalities in circadian patterns of bone resorption and renal calcium conservation in type I osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992 74, 487494.
18Ershler, WB, Harman, SM & Keller, ETImmunologic aspects of osteoporosis. Dev Comp Immunol 1997 21, 487499.
19European Commission Report on Osteoporosis in the European Community: Action for Prevention Luxembourg: Office for Official Publication of the European Communities. 1998.
20Fournier, T, Medjoubi, N & Porquet, DAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000 1482, 157171.
21Horcajada-Molteni, MN & Coxam, VFlavonols and idoflavones prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized rat, a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. In Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, Pp. 325340 [Burkhardt, F, Dawson-Hughes, B and Heaney, RP, editors] San Diego: CA Academic Press. 2001.
22Horowitz, MC & Raisz, LGCytokines and Prostaglandins. In Aging Skeleton, Pp. 195207[Rosen, CJ, Glowack, J and Bilezikian, JP, editors] San Diego: Academic Press. 1999.
23Kalu, DNThe ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Bone Miner 1991 15, 175191.
24Kanis, JAThe incidence of hip fracture in Europe. Osteoporos Int 1993 3, 1015.
25Keys, A, Menotti, A, Karvenen, MJ, Arvanis, C, Blackbuen, H, Buzina, R, Djordjevic, BS, Donsas, AS, Fidanza, F & Keys, MHThe diet and 15-years death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol 1986 24, 903915.
26Martinez-Dominguez, E, De La Puerta, R & Ruiz-Guitiérrez, VProtective effects upon experimental inflammation models of polyphenol-supplemented virgin olive oil diet. Inflamm Res 2001 50, 102106.
27Martin-Moreno, JM, Willett, WC, Gorgojo, L, Banegas, JR, Rodriguez-Artalejo, F, Fernandez-Rodriguez, JC, Maisonneuve, P & Boyle, PDietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1994 58, 774780.
28Miller, SC, Bowmann, BM, Miller, MA & Bagi, CCalcium absorption and osseous organ, tissue and envelope specific changes following ovariectomy in rats. Bone 1991 12, 439446.
29Minne, HW, Pfeilschifter, J, Scharla, S, Mutschelknauss, S, Schwarz, A, Krempien, B & Ziegler, RInflammation-mediated osteopenia in the rat: a new animal model for pathological loss of bone mass. Endocrinology 1984 115, 5054.
30Mody, N, Parhami, F, Sarafian, TA & Demer, LOxidative stress modulates osteoblastic differenciation of vascular and bone cells. Free Radic Biol Med 2001 31, 509519.
31Ohkawa, H, Ohishi, N & Yagi, KAssay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979 95, 351358.
32Pacifi, R, Brown, C, Puscheck, E, Slatopolsky, E, Maggio, D, McCracken, R & Avioli, LVEffect of surgical menopause and estrogen replacement on cytokine release from human blood mononuclear cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991 88, 51345138.
33Quaranta, G & Rotundo, VEconomic and commercial prospects for olive oil in view of the changes in the common market organisation (CMO) (part one). Olivae 2000 91, 2024.
34Riggs, BL & Melton, LJInvolutional osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 1986 26, 16761684.
35Robbins, SPBiochemical markers for assessing skeletal growth. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994 48, S199S209.
36Tsarbopoulos, A, Gikas, E, Papadopoulos, N, Aligiannis, N & Kafatos, ASimultaneous determination of oleuropein and its metabolites in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 2003 785, 157164.
37Tuck, KL, Freeman, MP, Hayball, PJ, Stretch, GL & Stupans, IThe in vivo fate of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, antioxidant phenolic constituents of olive oil, after intravenous and oral dosing of labeled compounds to rats. J Nutr 2001 131, 19931996.
38Turner, CH & Burr, CBBasic mechanical measurements of bone: a tutorial. Bone 1993 14, 595608.
39Uebelhart, D, Schlemmer, A, Johansen, J, Gineyts, E, Christiansen, C & Delmas, PDEffects of menopause and hormone therapy on the urinary excretion of pyridinium crosslinks. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991 72, 367373.
40Visioli, F, Bellomo, G & Galli, CFree radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998 247, 6064.
41Vissers, MN, Zock, PL, Roodenburg, AJ, Leenen, R & Katan, MBOlive oil phenols are absorbed in humans. J Nutr 2002 132, 409417.
42Vukicevic, S, Marusic, A, Stavljenic, A, Cesnjaj, M & Ivankovic, DThe role of tumor necrosis factors-alpha in the generation of acute phase response and bone loss in rats with talc gramulomastosis. Lab Invest 1994 70, 386391.
43Watkins, BA, Lippman, HE, Bouteiller, LL, Li, Y & Seifert, MFBioactive fatty acids: role in bone biology and bone cell function. Prog Lipid Res 2001 40, 125148.
44Zeng, SX, Vrindts, Y, Lopez, M, De Groote, D, Zangerle, PF, Collette, J, Franchimont, N, Geenen, V, Albert, A & Reginster, JYIncrease in cytokine production (Il-1 beta, Il-6, TNF-alpha but not IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF) by stimulated whole blood cells in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Maturitas 1997 26, 6371.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed