1Chiu CJ & Taylor A (2007) Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy. Exp Eye Res 84, 229–245.
2Congdon N, O'Colmain B, Klaver CC, et al. (2004) Causes and prevalence of visual impairment among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol 122, 477–485.
3Laitinen A, Laatikainen L, Harkanen T, et al. (2010) Prevalence of major eye diseases and causes of visual impairment in the adult Finnish population: a nationwide population-based survey. Acta Ophthalmol 88, 463–471.
4Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group (2001) Risk factors associated with age-related nuclear and cortical cataract: a case-control study in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, AREDS Report no. 5. Ophthalmology 108, 1400–1408.
5Vashist P, Talwar B, Gogoi M, et al. (2011) Prevalence of cataract in an older population in India: the India study of age-related eye disease. Ophthalmology 118, 272–278.
6Moeller SM, Voland R, Tinker L, et al. (2008) Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol 126, 354–364.
7Spector A (1995) Oxidative stress-induced cataract: mechanism of action. FASEB J 9, 1173–1182.
8Yeum KJ, Shang FM, Schalch WM, et al. (1999) Fat-soluble nutrient concentrations in different layers of human cataractous lens. Curr Eye Res 19, 502–505.
9Mares-Perlman JA, Brady WE, Klein BE, et al. (1995) Diet and nuclear lens opacities. Am J Epidemiol 141, 322–334.
10Jacques PF, Chylack LT Jr, Hankinson SE, et al. (2001) Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities. Arch Ophthalmol 119, 1009–1019.
11Gale CR, Hall NF, Phillips DI, et al. (2001) Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age-related cataract. Ophthalmology 108, 1992–1998.
12Dherani M, Murthy GV, Gupta SK, et al. (2008) Blood levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and retinol are inversely associated with cataract in a North Indian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49, 3328–3335.
13Vu HT, Robman L, Hodge A, et al. (2006) Lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of cataract: the Melbourne visual impairment project. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, 3783–3786.
14Delcourt C, Carriere I, Delage M, et al. (2006) Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin and other carotenoids as modifiable risk factors for age-related maculopathy and cataract: the POLA Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47, 2329–2335.
15Valero MP, Fletcher AE, De Stavola BL, et al. (2002) Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population. J Nutr 132, 1299–1306.
16Mares-Perlman JA, Brady WE, Klein BE, et al. (1995) Serum carotenoids and tocopherols and severity of nuclear and cortical opacities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36, 276–288.
17Lyle BJ, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BE, et al. (1999) Serum carotenoids and tocopherols and incidence of age-related nuclear cataract. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 272–277.
18Trumbo PR & Ellwood KC (2006) Lutein and zeaxanthin intakes and risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts: an evaluation using the Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for health claims. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 971–974.
19Salonen JT (1988) Is there a continuing need for longitudinal epidemiologic research? The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Ann Clin Res 20, 46–50.
20Karppi J, Nurmi T, Olmedilla-Alonso B, et al. (2008) Simultaneous measurement of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and six carotenoids in human plasma by using an isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 867, 226–232.
21Rissanen TH, Voutilainen S, Nyyssönen K, et al. (2001) Low serum lycopene concentration is associated with an excess incidence of acute coronary events and stroke: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr 85, 749–754.
22Laukkanen JA, Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, et al. (2004) Metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer in Finnish men: a population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 1646–1650.
23Laukkanen JA, Laaksonen D, Lakka TA, et al. (2009) Determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness in men aged 42 to 60 years with and without cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 103, 1598–1604.
24Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, et al. (2002) Serum status of carotenoids and tocopherols in patients with age-related cataracts: a case-control study. J Nutr Health Aging 6, 66–68.
25Rodriguez-Rodriguez E, Ortega RM, Lopez-Sobaler AM, et al. (2006) The relationship between antioxidant nutrient intake and cataracts in older people. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 76, 359–366.
26de Moura FF, Ho CC, Getachew G, et al. (2005) Kinetics of 14C distribution after tracer dose of 14C-lutein in an adult woman. Lipids 40, 1069–1073.
27Hartmann D, Thurmann PA, Spitzer V, et al. (2004) Plasma kinetics of zeaxanthin and 3′-dehydro-lutein after multiple oral doses of synthetic zeaxanthin. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 410–417.
28Bernstein PS, Khachik F, Carvalho LS, et al. (2001) Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye. Exp Eye Res 72, 215–223.
29Sujak A, Gabrielska J, Grudzinski W, et al. (1999) Lutein and zeaxanthin as protectors of lipid membranes against oxidative damage: the structural aspects. Arch Biochem Biophys 371, 301–307.
30Woodall AA, Britton G & Jackson MJ (1997) Carotenoids and protection of phospholipids in solution or in liposomes against oxidation by peroxyl radicals: relationship between carotenoid structure and protective ability. Biochim Biophys Acta 1336, 575–586.
31Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Tan AG, et al. (2009) Use of inhaled and oral corticosteroids and the long-term risk of cataract. Ophthalmology 116, 652–657.
32Coyne T, Ibiebele TI, Baade PD, et al. (2009) Metabolic syndrome and serum carotenoids: findings of a cross-sectional study in Queensland. Australia. Br J Nutr 102, 1668–1677.
33Redon J, Oliva M, Tormos C, et al. (2003) Antioxidant activities and oxidative stress byproducts in human hypertension. Hypertension 41, 1096–1101.
34Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, et al. (2004) Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest 114, 1752–1761.
35Krinsky NI & Johnson EJ (2005) Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and disease. Mol Aspects Med 26, 459–516.