Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections

  • G. R. Gibson (a1), A. L. McCartney (a1) and R. A. Rastall (a1)
Abstract

Acute gut disorder is a cause for significant medicinal and economic concern. Certain individual pathogens of the gut, often transmitted in food or water, have the ability to cause severe discomfort. There is a need to manage such conditions more effectively. The route of reducing the risk of intestinal infections through diet remains largely unexplored. Antibiotics are effective at inhibiting pathogens; however, these should not be prescribed in the absence of disease and therefore cannot be used prophylactically. Moreover, their indiscriminate use has reduced effectiveness. Evidence has accumulated to suggestthat some of the health-promoting bacteria in the gut (probiotics) can elicit a multiplicity of inhibitory effects against pathogens. Hence, an increase in their numbers should prove effective at repressing pathogen colonisation if/when infectious agents enter the gut. As such, fortification of indigenous bifidobacteria/lactobacilli by using prebiotics should improve protection. There are a number of potential mechanisms for lactic acid bacteria to reduce intestinal infections. Firstly, metabolic endproducts such as acids excreted by these micro-organisms may lower the gut pH to levels below those at which pathogens are able to effectively compete. Also, many lactobacilli and bifidobacteria species are able to excrete natural antibiotics, which can have a broad spectrum of activity. Other mechanisms include an improved immune stimulation, competition for nutrients and blocking of pathogen adhesion sites in the gut. Many intestinal pathogens like type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli, salmonellae and campylobacters utilise oligosaccharide receptor sites in the gut. Once established, they can then cause gastroenteritis through invasive and/or toxin forming properties. One extrapolation of the prebiotic concept is to simulate such receptor sites in the gut lumen. Hence, the pathogen is ‘decoyed’ into not binding at the host mucosal interface. The combined effects of prebiotics upon the lactic acid flora and anti-adhesive strategies may lead towards new dietary interventions against food safety agents.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Glenn R. Gibson, fax +44 1189 357222, email g.r.gibson@reading.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Asahara T, Nomoto K, Shimizu K, Watanuki M & Tanaka R (2001) Increased resistance of mice to Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhymurium infection by synbiotic administration of bifidobacteria and transgalactosylated-oligosaccharides. J Appl Microbiol 91, 985996.
Bouhnik Y, Flourie B, Ouarne F, Riottot M, Bisetti N, Bornet F & Rambaud JC (1994) Effects of prolonged ingestion of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on colonic bifidobacteria, fecal enzymes and bile acids in humans. Gastroenterology 106, A598.
Brück WB, Kelleher S, Gibson GR, Nielsen KE, Chatterton DEW & Lönnerdal B (2003) rRNA probes used to quantify the effects of glycomacropeptide and α-lactalbumin supplementation on the predominant groups of intestinal microflora of infant rhesus monkeys challenged with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 37, 273280.
Buddington RK, Williams CH, Chen S & Witherly SA (1996) Dietary supplement of neosugar alters the fecal flora and decreases activities of some reductive enzymes in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 709716.
Buddington KK, Danohoo JB & Buddington RK (2002) Dietary oligofructose and inulin protect mice from enteric and systemic pathogens and tumour inducers. J Nutr 132, 472477.
Crittenden RG & Playne MJ (1996) Production, properties and applications of food-grade oligosaccharides. Trends Food Sci Technol 7, 353361.
Cummings JH, Christie S & Cole TJ (2001) A study of fructooligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 15, 11391145.
Finlay BB & Falkow S (1989) Common themes in microbial pathogenicity. Microbiol Rev 53, 210230.
Gibson GR & Wang X (1994a) Enrichment of bifidobacteria from human gut contents by oligofructose using continuous culture. FEMS Microbiol Lett 118, 121128.
Gibson GR & Wang X (1994b) Regulatory effects of bifidobacteria on the growth of other colonic bacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 77, 412420.
Gibson GR & Wang X (1994c) Bifidogenic properties of different types of fructo-oligosaccharides. Food Microbiol 11, 491498.
Gibson GR, Willis CL & Van Loo J (1994) Non-digestible oligosaccharides and bifidobacteria – implications for health. Int Sugar J 96, 381387.
Gibson GR, Beatty ER, Wang X & Cummings JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975982.
Gibson GR, Saavedra JM, Macfarlane S & Macfarlane GT (1997) Gastrointestinal microbial disease. Probiotics 2: Application and Practical Aspects, 1039 [Fuller R, editor]. Andover: Chapman and Hall.
Heerze LD, Kelm MA & Talbot JA (1994) Oligosaccharide sequences attached to an inert support (SYNSORB) as potential therapy for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. J Infect Dis 169, 12911296.
Hidaka H, Eida T, Takizawa T, Tokunaga T & Tashiro Y (1986) Effects of fructooligosaccharides on intestinal flora and human health. Bifidobacteria Microflora 5, 3750.
Jayaraman N, Nepogodiev SA & Stoddart JF (1997) Synthetic carbohydrate-containing dendimers. Chem Eur J 3, 11931199.
Karlsson KA (1989) Animal glycosphingolipids as membrane attachment sites for bacteria. Annu Rev Biochem 58, 309350.
Kleessen B, Sykura B, Zunft H-J & Blaut M (1997) Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 13971402.
McBain AJ & Macfarlane GT (1997) Investigations of bifidobacterial ecology and oligosaccharide metabolism in a three-stage compound continuous culture system. Scand J Gastoenterol 32, 3240.
Meyer DP, Tungland BC, Causey JL & Slavin JL (2000) The immune effects of inulin in vitro and in vivo. Agro-Food Ind Hi Technol 11, 1820.
Mitsuoka T (1990) Bifidobacteria and their role in human health. J Ind Microbiol 6, 263268.
Mizota T (1996) Functional and nutritional foods containing bifidogenic factors. Bull Int Dairy Found 313, 3135.
Oli MW, Petschow BW & Buddington RK (1998) Evaluation of fructooligosaccharide supplementation of oral electrolyte solutions for treatment of diarrhea. Recovery of the intestinal bacteria. Dig Dis Sci 43, 138147.
Park SF & Kroll RG (1993) Expression of listeriolysin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C is repressed by the plant-derived molecule cellobiose in Listeria monocytogenes. Mol Microbiol 8, 653661.
Sghir A, Chow JM & Mackie RI (1998) Continuous culture selection of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from human faecal samples using fructooligosaccharide as selective substrate. J Appl Microbiol 85, 769777.
Tuohy KM, Finlay RK, Wynne AG & Gibson GR (2001) A human volunteer study on the prebiotic effects of HP-Inulin – gut bacteria enumerated using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Anaerobe 7, 113118.
Wang X & Gibson GR (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. J Appl Bacteriol 75, 373380.
Williams CH, Witherly SA & Buddington RK (1994) Influence of dietary neosugar on selected bacterial groups of the human faecal microbiota. Microb Ecol Health Dis 7, 9197.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 247 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 558 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.