Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora

  • L. J. Fooks (a1) and G. R. Gibson (a1)
Abstract

Probiotic ingestion can be recommended as a preventative approach to maintaining the balance of the intestinal microflora and thereby enhance ‘well-being’. Research into the use of probiotic intervention in specific illnesses and disorders has identified certain patient populations that may benefit from the approach. Undoubtedly, probiotics will vary in their efficacy and it may not be the case that the same results occur with all species. Those that prove most efficient will likely be strains that are robust enough to survive the harsh physico-chemical conditions present in the gastrointestinal tract. This includes gastric acid, bile secretions and competition with the resident microflora. A survey of the literature indicates positive results in over fifty human trials, with prevention/treatment of infections the most frequently reported output. In theory, increased levels of probiotics may induce a ‘barrier’ influence against common pathogens. Mechanisms of effect are likely to include the excretion of acids (lactate, acetate), competition for nutrients and gut receptor sites, immunomodulation and the formation of specific antimicrobial agents. As such, persons susceptible to diarrhoeal infections may benefit greatly from probiotic intake. On a more chronic basis, it has been suggested that some probiotics can help maintain remission in the inflammatory conditions, ulcerative colitis and pouchitis. They have also been suggested to repress enzymes responsible for genotoxin formation. Moreover, studies have suggested that probiotics are as effective as anti-spasmodic drugs in the alleviation of irritable bowel syndrome. The approach of modulating the gut flora for improved health has much relevance for the management of those with acute and chronic gut disorders. Other target groups could include those susceptible to nosocomial infections, as well as the elderly, who have an altered microflora, with a decreased number of beneficial microbial species. For the future, it is imperative that mechanistic interactions involved in probiotic supplementation be identified. Moreover, the survival issues associated with their establishment in the competitive gut ecosytem should be addressed. Here, the use of prebiotics in association with useful probiotics may be a worthwhile approach. A prebiotic is a dietary carbohydrate selectively metabolised by probiotics. Combinations of probiotics and prebiotics are known as synbiotics.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Probiotics as modulators of the gut flora
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr G. R. Gibson, fax +44 1189 357222, email g.r.gibson@reading.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Ahn, J-B, Hwang, J-K, Kim, C-T, Lee, K-H & Park, J-H (1997) Bifidogenic effect of gluco-oligosaccharide prepared from glucose by extrusion process. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 7, 174179.
Anand, SK, Srinivasan, RA & Rao, LK (1984) Antibacterial activity associated with Bifidobacterium bifidum. Cultured Dairy Production Journal Nov: 68.
Anand, SK, Srinivasan, RA & Rao, LK (1985) Antibacterial activity associated with Bifidobacterium bifidum – II. Cultured Dairy Production Journal, Feb: 21–23.
Ballongue, J (1998) Bifidobacteria and probiotic action. In Lactic Acid Bacteria, Microbiology and Functional Aspects, 2nd ed., pp. 519587 [Salminen, S and von Wright, A, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Baquero, F, Fernandez-Jorge, A, Vicente, MF, Alos, JI & Reig, M (1988) Diversity analysis of the human intestinal flora: a sample method based on bacterial morphotypes. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 1, 101.
Bartlett, JG, Chang, TW & Gurwith, M (1987) Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis due to toxin-producing clostridia. New England Journal of Medicine 57, 141145.
Bennet, RG, Laughon, B & Lindsay, J (1990) Lactobacillus GG treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in nursing home patients. Abstract, 3rd International Conference on Nosocomial Infections. Atlanta.
Bennet, R & Nord, CE (1987) Development of the faecal anaerobic microflora after caesarian section and treatment with antibiotics in newborn infants. Infection 15, 332.
Benno, Y, Sawada, K & Mitsuoka, T (1984) The intestinal microflora of infants: composition of faecal flora in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Microbiology and Immunology 28, 975.
Bernet, MF, Brassart, D, Neeser, JR & Servin, AL (1994) Lactobacillus acidophilus La1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by enterovirulent bacteria. Gut 35, 483489.
Bezirtzoglou, E (1985) Contribution à l'étude de l'implantation de la flore fécale anaérobie du nouveau-né mis au monde par césariene. Thèse, Paris-Sud.
Biller, JA, Katz, AJ, Flores, AF, Buie, TM & Gorbach, SL (1995) Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21, 224226.
Black, FT, Andersen, PL, Ørskov, F, Gaarslev, K & Laulund, S (1989) Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveller's diarrhoea. Travellers Medicine 8, 17501753.
Borgia, M, Sepe, N, Brancato, V & Borgia, RA (1982) A controlled clinical study on Streptococcus faecium preparation for the prevention of side reactions during long-term antibiotic therapy. Current Therapeutic Research 31, 265271.
Bovee-Oudenhoven, I, Termont, D, Dekker, R & van der Meer, R (1996) Calcium in milk and fermentation by yoghurt bacteria increase the resistance of rats to Salmonella infection. Gut 38, 5965.
Brassart, D, Neeser, J-R, Michetti, P & Sevin, A (1995) The selection of dairy bacterial strains with probiotic properties based on their adhesion to human intestinal epithelial cells. In Les Bacteries Lactiques/Lactic Acid Bacteria, pp. 201212. Adria Normandie: Presses Universitaires de Caen.
Buddington, RK, Williams, CH, Chen, SC & Witherly, SA (1996) Dietary supplementation of neosugar alters the faecal flora and decreases activities of some reductive enzymes in human subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 709716.
Clayton, CL & Mobley, HLT (1997) Helicobacter pylori Protocols. New Jersey: Humana Press.
Coconnier, MH, Bernet, MF, Kerneis, S, Chauverie, G, Fourniat, J & Servin, AL (1993) Inhibition of adhesion of enteroinvasive pathogens to human intestinal Caco-2 cells by Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB decreases bacterial invasion. FEMS Microbiology Letters 110, 299305.
Collins, MD, Rodrigues, U, Ash, C, Aguirre, M, Farrow, JAE, Martinez-Murcia, A, Phillips, BA, Williams, AM & Wallbanks, S (1991) Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Lactobacillus and related lactic acid bacteria as determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters 77, 512.
Colombel, JF, Corot, A, Neut, C & Romond, C (1987) Yoghurt with Bifidobacterium longum reduces erythromycin-induced gastrointestinal effects. Lancet 2, 43.
de Vries, W & Stouthammer, AH (1968) Fermentation of glucose, lactose, mannitol and xylose by bifidobacteria. Journal of Bacteriology 96, 472478.
De Vuyst, L & Vandamme, EJ (1994) Antimicrobial potential of lactic acid bacteria. In Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiology, Genetics and Applications, pp. 91142. [De Vuyst, L and Vandamme, EJ, editors]. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.
Djouzi, Z & Andrieux, C (1997) Compared effects of three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats inoculated with a human faecal flora. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 313324.
Ducluzeau, R & Bensaada, M (1982) Effet comparé de l'administration unique ou en continu de Saccharomyces boulardii sur l'establissement de diverses souches de Candida dans le tractus digestif de souris garotoxeniques. Annals of Microbiology 133, 149151.
Dumortier, V, Brassart, C & Bouquelet, S (1994) Purification and properties of a β-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum exhibiting a transgalactosylation reaction. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 19, 341354.
Elmer, GW, Surawicz, C & McFarland, L (1996) Biotherapeutic agents: a neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. Journal of the American Medical Association 275, 870876.
Fuller, R (1989) Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 66, 365378.
Gibson, GR, Beatty, EB, Wang, X & Cummings, JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975982.
Gibson, GR, Berry Ottaway, P & Rastall, RA (2000) Prebiotics: New Developments in Functional Foods. Oxford: Chandos Publishing Limited.
Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. Journal of Nutrition 125, 14011412.
GR, Gibson and MB, Roberfroid (editors) (1999) Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gibson, GR & Wang, X (1994) Regulatory effects of bifidobacteria on the growth of other colonic bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 77, 412420.
Gorbach, SL, Chang, TW & Goldin, B (1987) Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet 26, 1519
Halpern, GM, Vruwink, KG, Van de Water, J, Keen, CL & Gershwin, ME (1991) Influence of long-term yoghurt consumption in young adults. International Journal of Immunotherapy 7, 205210.
Hatcher, GE & Lambrecht, RS (1993) Augmentation of macrophage phagocytic activity by cell-free extracts of selected lactic acid-producing bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 76, 24852492.
Hayakawa, K, Mizutani, J, Wada, K, Masai, T, Yoshihara, I & Mitsuoka, T (1990) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on human faecal flora. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 3, 293303.
Hilton, E, Kolakowski, P, Smith, M & Singer, C (1996) Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrhoea preventative. Journal of Travellers Medicine 4, 37.
Hitchins, AD, Wells, P, McDonough, FE & Wong, NP (1986) Amelioration of the adverse effect of a gastrointestinal challenge with Salmonella enteriditis on weaning rats by a yoghurt diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 91100.
Holzapfel, WH, Haberer, P, Snell, J, Schillinger, U & Huis in't Veld, JHJ (1998) Overview of gut flora and probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology 41, 85101.
Hotta, M, Sato, S & Iwata, N (1987) Clinical effects of Bifidobacterium preparations on pediatric intractable diarrhoea. Keio Journal of Medicine 36, 298314.
Hudault, S, Lievin, V, Bernet-Camard, MF & Servin, A (1997) Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 513518.
Imaizumi, K, Nakatsu, Y, Sato, M, Sedamawati, Y & Sugano, M (1991) Effects of xylo-oligosaccharides on blood glucose, serum and liver lipids and short chain fatty acids in diabetic rats. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 55, 199205.
Isolauri, E, Juntunen, M, Rautanen, T, Sillanaukee, P & Koivula, T (1991) A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhoea in children. Pediatrics 88, 9097.
Isolauri, E, Kaila, M, Mykkänen, H, Ling, W-H & Salminen, S (1994) Oral bacteriotherapy for viral gastroenteritis. Digestive Disease Science 39, 25952600.
Isolauri, E, Majamaa, H, Arvola, T, Rantala, I, Virtanen, E & Arvilommi, H (1993) Lactobacillus casei strain GG reverses increased intestinal permeability induced by cow milk in suckling rats. Gastroenterology 105, 16431650.
Ito, M, Deguchi, Y, Miyamori, A, Kikuchi, H, Matsumoto, K, Kobasyashi, Y, Yajima, T & Kan, T (1990) Effect of administration of galacto-oligosaccharides on the human faecal microflora, stool weight and abdominal sensation. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 3, 285292.
Ito, M, Kimura, M, Deguchi, Y, Miyamori-Watabe, A, Yajima, T & Kan, T (1993) Effects of transgalactosylated disaccharides on the human intestinal flora and their metabolism. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 39, 279288.
Jack, RW, Tagg, JR & Ray, B (1995) Bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria. Microbiological Reviews 59, 171200.
Jacobsen, CN, Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V, Hayford, AE, Møller, PL, Michaelsen, KF, Pærregaard, A, Sandström, B, Tvede, M & Jakobsen, M (1999) Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 49494956.
Jalonen, T, Isolauri, E, Heyman, M, Crain-Denoyelle, A-M, Sillanaukee, P & Koivula, T (1991) Increased β-lactoglobulin absorption during rotavirus enteritis in infants: relationship to sugar permeability. Pediatric Research 130, 290293.
Kabir, AMA, Aiba, Y, Takagi, A, Kamiya, S, Miwi, T & Koga, Y (1997) Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection by lactobacilli in a gnotobiotic murine model. Gut 41, 4955.
Kaila, M, Isolauri, E, Soppi, E, Virtanen, E, Laine, S & Arvilommi, H (1992) Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhoea by human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatric Research 32, 141144.
Kay, B, Fuller, R, Wilkinson, AR, Hall, M, McMichael, JE & Cole, CB (1990) High levels of staphylococci in the faeces of breast-fed babies. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 3, 277.
Kebary, KMK (1995) Production, partial purification and stability of antimicrobial substances produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum DI. Egyptian Journal of Dairy Science 23, 151166.
Kennedy, MJ & Volt, PA (1985) Ecology of Candida albicans gut colonisation: inhibition of Candida adhesion, colonisation and dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract by bacterial antagonism. Infection and Immunity 49, 654663.
Klaenhammer, TR (1988) Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Biochemie 70, 337349.
Kleesen, B, Hartman, L & Blaut, M (2001) Oligofructose and long chain inulin: influence on the gut microbial ecology of rats associated with a human faecal flora. British Journal of Nutrition 86, 291300.
Kleesen, B, Sykura, B, Zunft, H-J & Blaut, M (1997) Effects of inulin and lactose on faecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 13971402.
Kohmoto, T, Kukui, F, Takaku, H, Machida, Y, Arai, M & Mitsuoka, T (1988) Effect of isomaltooligosaccharides on human faecal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora 7, 6169.
Lambert, JR & Hull, RR (1996) Upper gastrointestinal tract disease and probiotics. Asian Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5, 3135.
Lilley, DM & Stillwell, RH (1965) Probiotics, growth promoting factors produced by microorganisms. Science 147, 747748.
Lindgren, SE & Dobrogosz, WJ (1990) Antagonistic activities of lactic acid bacteria in food and feed fermentations. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 87, 149163.
Luo, F, Lambert, JR, Hull, RR & Midolo, PD (1994) Anti-Helicobacter factors produced by lactic acid bacteria. American Journal of Gastroenterology 89, 1395
McBain, AJ & Macfarlane, GT (1997) Investigations of bifidobacterial ecology and oligosaccharides metabolism in a three-stage compound continuous culture system. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 32, Suppl. 222, 3240.
McFarland, LV, Surawicz, CM, Greenberg, RN, Elmer, GW, Moyer, KA, Melcher, SA, Bowen, KE & Cox, JL (1995) Prevention of β-lactam-associated diarrhoea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. American Journal of Gastroenterology 90, 439448.
McFarland, LV, Surawicz, CM, Greenberg, RN, Fekerty, R, Elmer, GW & Moyer, KA (1994) A randomised placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 271, 19131918.
Macfarlane, GT & Cummings, JH (1991) The colonic microflora, fermentation and large bowel digestive function. In The Large Intestine: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Disease, pp. 5192 [Phillips, SF, Pemberton, JH and Shorter, RG, editors]. New York: Raven Press.
Majaama, H, Isolauri, E, Saxelin, M & Vesikari, T (1995) Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 20, 333339.
Meghrous, J, Euloge, P, Junelles, AM, Ballongue, J & Petitdemange, H (1990) Screening of Bifidobacterium strains for bacteriocin production. Biotechnology Letters 12, 575580.
Metchnikoff, E (1907) The Prolongation of Life. London: Heinemann.
Michetti, P, Dorta, G, Brassart, D & Vouillamoz, D (1995) Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant as an adjuvant in the therapy of Helicobacter pylori in humans. Gastroenterology 108, 253258.
Midolo, PD, Lambert, JR, Hull, RR & Luo, F (1995) In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by organic acids and lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 79, 475479.
Mikelsaar, M, Mändar, R & Sepp, E (1998) Lactic acid bacteria in the human microbial ecosystem and its development. In Lactic Acid Bacteria, Microbiology and Functional Aspects, 2nd ed., pp. 279342 [Salminen, S and von Wright, A, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Mitsuoka, T (1982) Recent trends in research on intestinal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1, 324.
Mitsuoka, T (1984) Taxonomy and ecology of bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria Microflora 3, 11.
Mitsuoka, T (1990) Bifidobacteria and their role in human health. Journal of Industrial Microbiology 6, 263268.
Mitsuoka, T, Hayakawa, K & Kimura, N (1974) Die faekal flora bei Menshen II, Mitteilung: die Zuzammensetzung der Bifidobakterien-flora der verschiedenen Altersgruppen. Zentralbl Bakteriolog Parasitenk A226, 469478.
Modler, HW (1994) Bifidogenic factors – sources, metabolism and applications. International Dairy Journal 4, 383407.
Modler, HW, McKellar, RC & Yaguchi, M (1990) Bifidobacteria and bifidogenic factors. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology 23, 2941.
Nes, IF, Diep, DB, Håvarstein, LS, Bruberg, MB, Eijsink, V & Holo, H (1996) Biosynthesis of bacteriocins in lactic acid bacteria. Antonie Leeuwenhook International Journal of General Molecular Microbiology 70, 113128.
Nomoto, K, Nagaoka, M, Yokokura, T & Mutai, M (1989) Augmentation of resistance of mice to bacterial infection by a polysaccharide–peptidoglycan complex (PSPG) extracted from Lactobacillus casei. Biotherapy 1, 169177.
Oksanen, PJ, Salminen, S, Saxelin, M, Hamalmein, P, Arja, IV, Leena, MI, Seppo, N, Oksanen, T, Posti, I, Salminen, E, Siitonen, S, Stuckey, H, Topilla, A & Vapaatalo, H (1990) Prevention of traveller's diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Annals of Medicine 22, 5356.
Ouwehand, AC (1998) Antimicrobial components from lactic acid bacteria. In Lactic Acid Bacteria, Microbiology and Functional Aspects, 2nd ed., pp. 139159 [Salminen, S and von Wright, A, editors]. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Oyarzabal, OA & Conner, DE (1995) In vitro fructooligosaccharide utilisation and inhibition of Salmonella spp. by selected bacteria. Poultry Science 74, 14181425.
Pant, AR, Graham, SM, Allen, SJ, Harikul, S, Sabchareon, A, Cuevas, L & Hart, CA (1996) Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 42, 162165.
Parker, RB (1974) Probiotics, the other half of the antibiotic story. Animal Nutrition and Health 29, 48.
Pelto, L, Isolauri, E & Salminen, S (1996) Milk hypersensitivity in adults. Nutrition Today S1, 3435.
Perdigon, G, Alvarez, S, Nader de Macias, ME, Roux, ME & Pesce de Ruiz Holgado, A (1990) The oral administration of lactic acid bacteria increase the mucosal intestinal immunity in response to enteropathogens. Journal of Food Protection 53, 404410.
Rabiu, B, Jay, AJ, Gibson, GR & Rastall, RA (2001) Synthesis and fermentation profiles of novel galacto-oligosaccharides by β-galactosidases from Bifidobacterium species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, 25262526.
Raza, S, Graham, SM, Allen, SJ, Sultana, S, Cuevas, L & Hart, CA (1995) Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute non-bloody diarrhoea in Pakistan. Pediatrics Infectious Disease Journal 14, 107111.
Rettger, F, Levy, MN, Weinstein, K & Weiss, JE (1935) Lactobacillus acidophilus and its Therapeutic Application. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Roberfroid, MB, Rastall, RA & Gibson, GR (1999) Prebiotics. In Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition and Health, pp. 101125 [Gibson, GR and Roberfroid, MB, editors]. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Rogosa, M (1974) Bifidobacterium. In Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th ed., pp. 669 [Buchanan, RE and Gibbons, NE, editors]. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
Saavedra, JM (1995) Microbes to fight microbes: a not so novel approach to controlling diarrhoeal disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21, 125129.
Saavedra, JM, Bauman, NA, Oung, I, Perman, JA & Yolken, RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344, 10461049.
Sahl, H-G & Bierbaum, G (1998) Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from Gram-positive bacteria. Annual Reviews of Microbiology 52, 4179.
Saito, Y, Takano, T & Rowland, IR (1992) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on the human gut microflora in in vitro culture. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 5, 105110.
Salminen, S, Ouwehand, AC & Isolauri, E (1998) Clinical application of probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal 8, 563572.
Sanders, ME (1993) Effect of consumption of lactic cultures on human health. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 37, 67130.
Scardovi, V, Trovatelli, LD, Zani, G, Gociani, F & Matenzzi, D (1971) Deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships among species of the genus Bifidobacterium. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 21, 276294.
Sepp, E, Tamm, E, Torm, S, Lutsar, I, Mikelsaar, M & Salminen, S (1995) Impact of a Lactobacillus probiotic on the faecal microflora in children with shigellosis. Microecology and Therapy 23, 7480.
Shornikova, AV, Casas, IA, Isolauri, E, Mykkänen, H & Vesikari, T (1997) Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhoea in young children. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 24, 399404.
Shortt, C (1999) The probiotic century: historical and current perspectives. Trends in Food Science & Technology 10, 411417.
Siitonen, S, Vapaatalo, H, Salminen, S, Gordin, A, Saxelin, M, Wikberg, R & Kirkkola, A (1990) Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Annals of Medicine 22, 5759.
Sperti, GS (1971) Probiotics. West Point, CT: Avi Publishing.
Surawicz, CM, Elmer, LW, Speelman, P, McFarland, LV, Chinn, J & van Belle, G (1989) Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 96, 981988.
Sütas, Y, Soppi, E, Korhonen, H, Syväoja, E, Saxelin, M, Rokka, T & Isolauri, E (1996) Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98, 216224.
Talarico, TL & Dobrogosz, WJ (1989) Chemical characterisation of an antimicrobial substance produced by Lactobacillus reuteri. Antimicrobiology Agents and Chemotherapy 33, 674679.
Tanaka, R, Takayama, H, Morotomi, M, Kuroshima, T, Ueyama, S, Matsumoto, K, Kuroda, A & Mutai, M (1983) Effects of administration of TOS and Bifidobacterium breve 4006 on the human faecal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora 2, 1724.
Tissier, H (1906) Recherches sur la flore intestinale des nourissons. University of Paris [Carre, G and Nord, C, editors]. Paris, France.
Tomoda, T, Nakano, Y & Kageyama, T (1983) Variation of intestinal Candida of patients with leukaemia and the effect of Lactobacillus administration. Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology 24, 356358.
Vaughan, EE & Mollet, B (1999) Probiotics in the new millennium. Die Nahrung 43, S148S153.
Wang, X & Gibson, GR (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 75, 373380.
Yildrim, Z & Johnson, MG (1998) Characterisation and antimicrobial spectrum of Bifidocin B, a bacteriocin produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum NCFB 1454. Journal of Food Protection 61, 4751.
Yuhara, T, Isojima, S, Tsuchiya, F & Mitsuoka, T (1983) On the intestinal flora of bottle-fed infant. Bifidobacteria Microflora 2, 3339.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed