Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 121
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Volkert, Dorothee and Schrader, Eva 2013. Dietary assessment methods for older persons. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, Vol. 16, Issue. 5, p. 534.

    Bulló, M. Estruch, R. and Salas-Salvadó, J. 2011. Dietary vitamin K intake is associated with bone quantitative ultrasound measurements but not with bone peripheral biochemical markers in elderly men and women. Bone, Vol. 48, Issue. 6, p. 1313.

    Burdge, Graham C. 2013. Increasing numbers of citations and higher impact factor in 2012: the British Journal of Nutrition continues to show steady improvement. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 110, Issue. 07, p. 1165.

    Calder, Philip C. 2012. Record citations in 2011 contribute to maintenance of the impact factor of BJN. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 108, Issue. 05, p. 759.

    Ruano, Cristina Henriquez, Patricia Bes-Rastrollo, Maira Ruiz-Canela, Miguel del Burgo, Cristina López and Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena 2011. Dietary fat intake and quality of life: the SUN project. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 10, Issue. 1,

    Galbete, Cecilia Toledo, Jon Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel Martínez, J. Alfredo Guillén-Grima, Francisco and Marti, Amelia 2013. Lifestyle factors modify obesity risk linked to PPARG2 and FTO variants in an elderly population: a cross-sectional analysis in the SUN Project. Genes & Nutrition, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 61.

    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea Estruch, Ramón Bulló, Mònica Casas, Rosa Díaz-López, Andrés Basora, Josep Fitó, Montserrat Serra-Majem, Lluis and Salas-Salvadó, Jordi 2014. Increased Serum Calcium Levels and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Individuals at High Cardiovascular Risk. Diabetes Care, Vol. 37, Issue. 11, p. 3084.

    Gomez-Delgado, Francisco Garcia-Rios, Antonio Alcala-Diaz, Juan Francisco Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol Delgado-Lista, Javier Yubero-Serrano, Elena M. Lopez-Moreno, Javier Tinahones, Francisco Jose Ordovas, Jose M. Garaulet, Marta Lopez-Miranda, Jose and Perez-Martinez, Pablo 2015. Chronic consumption of a low-fat diet improves cardiometabolic risk factors according to theCLOCKgene in patients with coronary heart disease. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 59, Issue. 12, p. 2556.

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A Patino-Alonso, Maria-C Sanchez, Alvaro Agudo-Conde, Cristina Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A and Garcia-Ortiz, Luis 2014. Association between fat amount of dairy products with pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness in adults. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I. Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A. Patino-Alonso, Maria C. Puigdomenech, Elisa Notario-Pacheco, Blanca Mendizabal-Gallastegui, Nere de la Fuente, Aventina de la Cal Otegui-Ilarduya, Luis Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose A. de Cabo Laso, Angela Agudo-Conde, Cristina and Garcia-Ortiz, Luis 2015. Effects of kiwi consumption on plasma lipids, fibrinogen and insulin resistance in the context of a normal diet. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Sayón-Orea, Carmen Bes-Rastrollo, Maira Martí, Amelia Pimenta, Adriano M Martín-Calvo, Nerea and Martínez-González, Miguel A 2015. Association between yogurt consumption and the risk of Metabolic Syndrome over 6 years in the SUN study. BMC Public Health, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 170.

    Barragán, Rocío Coltell, Oscar Asensio, Eva Francés, Francesc Sorlí, José Estruch, Ramon Salas-Huetos, Albert Ordovas, Jose and Corella, Dolores 2016. MicroRNAs and Drinking: Association between the Pre-miR-27a rs895819 Polymorphism and Alcohol Consumption in a Mediterranean Population. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 17, Issue. 8, p. 1338.

    Recio-Rodriguez, J.I. Gomez-Marcos, M.A. Patino-Alonso, M.-C. Rodrigo-De Pablo, E. Cabrejas-Sánchez, A. Arietaleanizbeaskoa, M.S. Repiso-Gento, I. Gonzalez-Viejo, N. Maderuelo-Fernandez, J.A. Agudo-Conde, C. and Garcia-Ortiz, L. 2015. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and pulse wave reflection in adults. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 68.

    Galbete, Cecilia Toledo, E. Toledo, J. B. Bes-Rastrollo, M. Buil-Cosiales, P. Marti, A. Guillén-Grima, F. and Martínez-González, M. A. 2015. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: The sun project. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, Vol. 19, Issue. 3, p. 305.

    Barrio-Lopez, María T. Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A. Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro Beunza, Juan J. Zazpe, Itziar and Bes-Rastrollo, Maira 2013. Prospective study of changes in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and its components: the SUN cohort. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 110, Issue. 09, p. 1722.

    Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H. Galbete, Cecilia Corella, Dolores Toledo, Estefania Buil-Cosiales, Pilar Salas-Salvado, Jordi Ros, Emilio and Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Á. 2014. Genotype patterns at CLU, CR1, PICALM and APOE, cognition and Mediterranean diet: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial. Genes & Nutrition, Vol. 9, Issue. 3,

    Storniolo, C. E. Casillas, R. Bulló, M. Castañer, O. Ros, E. Sáez, G. T. Toledo, E. Estruch, R. Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V. Fitó, M. Martínez-González, M. A. Salas-Salvadó, J. Mitjavila, M. T. and Moreno, J. J. 2015. A Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or nuts improves endothelial markers involved in blood pressure control in hypertensive women. European Journal of Nutrition,

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes Guillén, Marisa Vicente Sorli, Jose Portolés, Olga Guillem-Saiz, Patricia Ignacio Gonzalez, Jose Qi, Lu and Corella, Dolores 2013. Relevant associations of the glucokinase regulatory protein/glucokinase gene variation with TAG concentrations in a high-cardiovascular risk population: modulation by the Mediterranean diet. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 109, Issue. 02, p. 193.

    Santiago, S Zazpe, I Bes-Rastrollo, M Sánchez-Tainta, A Sayón-Orea, C de la Fuente-Arrillaga, C Benito, S Martínez, J A and Martínez-González, M Á 2015. Carbohydrate quality, weight change and incident obesity in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN Project. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 69, Issue. 3, p. 297.

    Hardman, Roy J. Kennedy, Greg Macpherson, Helen Scholey, Andrew B. and Pipingas, Andrew 2016. Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Diet and Effects on Cognition in Adults: A Qualitative Evaluation and Systematic Review of Longitudinal and Prospective Trials. Frontiers in Nutrition, Vol. 3,


Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain

  • Joan D. Fernández-Ballart (a1) (a2), Josep Lluís Piñol (a3), Itziar Zazpe (a4), Dolores Corella (a2) (a5), Paula Carrasco (a2) (a5), Estefanía Toledo (a4), Manuel Perez-Bauer (a3), Miguel Ángel Martínez-González (a4), Jorge Salas-Salvadó (a1) (a2) and José M. Martín-Moreno (a6)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 27 January 2010

The aim of the present study was to assess reproducibility and relative validity of a self-administered FFQ used in the PREDIMED Study, a clinical trial for primary prevention of CVD by Mediterranean diet in a population at high cardiovascular risk. The FFQ was administered twice (FFQ1 and FFQ2) to explore reproducibility at 1 year. Four 3 d dietary records (DR) were used as reference to explore validity; participants therefore recorded their food intake over 12 d in the course of 1 year. The degree of misclassification in the FFQ was also evaluated by a contingency table of quintiles comparing the information from the FFQ2 and the DR. A total of 158 men and women (aged 55–80 years) were asked not to modify their dietary habits during the study period. Reproducibility for food groups, energy and nutrient intake, explored by the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) ranged 0·50–0·82, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0·63 to 0·90. The FFQ2 tended to report higher energy and nutrient intake than the DR. The validity indices of the FFQ in relation to the DR for food groups and energy and nutrient intake ranged (r) from 0·24 to 0·72, while the range of the ICC was between 0·40 and 0·84. With regard to food groups, 68–83 % of individuals were in the same or adjacent quintile in both methods, a figure which decreased to 55–75 % for energy and nutrient intake. We concluded that FFQ measurements had good reproducibility and a relative validity similar to those of FFQ used in other prospective studies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Relative validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in an elderly Mediterranean population of Spain
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Joan D. Fernandez-Ballart, fax +34 977759322, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2E Fernández-Jarne , E Martínez-Losa , M Prado-Santamaría , (2002) Risk of first non-fatal myocardial infarction negatively associated with olive oil consumption: a case–control study in Spain. Int J Epidemiol 31, 474480.

4JM Martin-Moreno , WC Willett , L Gorgojo , (1994) Dietary fat, olive oil intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 58, 774780.

6T Shimazu , S Kuriyama , A Hozawa , (2007) Dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japan: a prospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 36, 600609.

7R Estruch , MA Martinez-Gonzalez , D Corella , (2006) Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 145, 111.

8KT Knoops , LC de Groot , D Kromhout , (2005) Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women. JAMA 292, 14331439.

9MA Martínez-González , E Fernández-Jarne , M Serrano-Martínez , (2002) Mediterranean diet and reduction in the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction: an operational healthy dietary score. Eur J Clin Nutr 41, 153160.

10N Scarmeas , JA Luchsinger , R Mayeux , (2007) Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer disease mortality. Neurology 69, 10841093.

11A Trichopoulou , T Costacou , C Bamia , (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 25992608.

12A Trichopoulou , C Bamia & D Trichopoulos (2005) Mediterranean diet and survival among patients with coronary herat disease in Greece. Arch Intern Med 165, 929935.

13WC Willett (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

16I Zazpe , A Sanchez-Tainta , R Estruch , (2008) A large randomized individual and group intervention conducted by registered dietitians increased adherence to Mediterranean-type diets: the PREDIMED study. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 11341144.

17JM Martin-Moreno , P Boyle , L Gorgojo , (1993) Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire in Spain. Int J Epidemiol 22, 512519.

23H Cena , C Roggi & G Turconi (2008) Development and validation of a brief food frequency questionnaire for dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake assessment in Italian women. Eur J Nutr 47, 19.

26V Kipnis , AF Subar , D Midthune , (2003) Structure of dietary measurement error: results of the OPEN biomarker study. Am J Epidemiol 158, 1421.

27W Willett (2003) Invited Commentary: OPEN questions. Am J Epidemiol 158, 2224.

28AF Subar , FE Thompson , V Kipnis , (2001) Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires – The Eating at America's Table Study. Am J Epidemiol 154, 10891099.

29K Klipstein-Grobusch , JH den Breeijen , RA Goldbohm , (1998) Dietary assessment in the elderly: validation of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 588596.

30ML Molag , JH de Vries , MC Ocké , (2007) Design characteristics of food frequency questionnaires in relation to their validity. Am J Epidemiol 166, 14681478.

33Y Ahn , E Kwon , JE Shim , (2007) Validation and reproducibility of food frequency questionnaire for Korean genome epidemiologic study. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 14351441.

35EW Dumartheray , MA Krieg , J Cornuz , (2006) Validation and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in elderly Swiss women. J Hum Nutr Diet 19, 321330.

37XO Shu , G Yang , F Jin , (2004) Validity and reproducibility of the food frequency questionnaire used in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1723.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *