Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Reversible brain response to an intragastric load of l-lysine under l-lysine depletion in conscious rats

  • Tomokazu Tsurugizawa (a1), Akira Uematsu (a1), Hisayuki Uneyama (a1) and Kunio Torii (a1)

Abstract

l-Lysine (Lys) is an essential amino acid and plays an important role in anxiogenic behaviour in both human subjects and rodents. Previous studies have shown the existence of neural plasticity between the Lys-deficient state and the normal state. Lys deficiency causes an increase in noradrenaline release from the hypothalamus and serotonin release from the amygdala in rats. However, no studies have used functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain response to ingested Lys in normal, Lys-deficient and Lys-recovered states. Therefore, in the present study, using acclimation training, we performed fMRI on conscious rats to investigate the brain response to an intragastric load of Lys. The brain responses to intragastric administration of Lys (3 mmol/kg body weight) were investigated in six rats intermittently in three states: normal, Lys-deficient and recovered state. First, in the normal state, an intragastric load of Lys activated several brain regions, including the raphe pallidus nucleus, prelimbic cortex and the ventral/lateral orbital cortex. Then, after 6 d of Lys deprivation from the normal state, an intragastric load of Lys activated the ventral tegmental area, raphe pallidus nucleus and hippocampus, as well as several hypothalamic areas. After recovering from the Lys-deficient state, brain activation was similar to that in the normal state. These results indicate that neural plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hypothalamic area and limbic system is related to the internal Lys state and that this plasticity could have important roles in the control of Lys intake.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Reversible brain response to an intragastric load of l-lysine under l-lysine depletion in conscious rats
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Reversible brain response to an intragastric load of l-lysine under l-lysine depletion in conscious rats
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Reversible brain response to an intragastric load of l-lysine under l-lysine depletion in conscious rats
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr K. Torii, fax +81 44 210 5893, E-mail: kunio_torii@ajinomoto.com

References

Hide All
1Mori, M, Kawada, T & Torii, K (1991) Appetite and taste preference in growing rats given various levels of protein nutrition. Brain Res Bull 27, 417422.
2Chang, YF (1976) Pipecolic acid pathway: the major lysine metabolic route in the rat brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 69, 174180.
3Chang, YF & Gao, XM (1995) l-Lysine is a barbiturate-like anticonvulsant and modulator of the benzodiazepine receptor. Neurochem Res 20, 931937.
4Conigrave, AD, Quinn, SJ & Brown, EM (2000) l-Amino acid sensing by the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 48144819.
5Wellendorph, P, Hansen, KB, Balsgaard, A, et al. (2005) Deorphanization of GPRC6A: a promiscuous l-alpha-amino acid receptor with preference for basic amino acids. Mol Pharmacol 67, 589597.
6Smriga, M, Murakami, H, Mori, M, et al. (2000) Effects of l-lysine deficient diet on the hypothalamic interstitial norepinephrine and diet-induced thermogenesis in rats in vivo. Biofactors 12, 137142.
7Smriga, M, Kameishi, M, Uneyama, H, et al. (2002) Dietary l-lysine deficiency increases stress-induced anxiety and fecal excretion in rats. J Nutr 132, 37443746.
8Hrupka, BJ, Lin, Y, Gietzen, DW, et al. (1999) Lysine deficiency alters diet selection without depressing food intake in rats. J Nutr 129, 424430.
9Tsurugizawa, T, Uematsu, A, Uneyama, H, et al. (2010) Effects of isoflurane and alpha-chloralose anesthesia on BOLD fMRI responses to ingested l-glutamate in rats. Neuroscience 165, 244251.
10Tsurugizawa, T, Uematsu, A, Uneyama, H, et al. (2009) Blood oxygenation level-dependent response to intragastric load of corn oil emulsion in conscious rats. Neuroreport 20, 16251629.
11Paxinos, G & Watson, C (1998) The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coodinates, 4th ed.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
12Yokawa, T, Tabuchi, E, Takezawa, M, et al. (1995) Recognition and neural plasticity responding to deficient nutrient intake scanned by a functional MRI in the brain of rats with l-lysine deficiency. Obes Res 3, Suppl. 5, 685S688S.
13King, JA, Garelick, TS, Brevard, ME, et al. (2005) Procedure for minimizing stress for fMRI studies in conscious rats. J Neurosci Methods 148, 154160.
14Tsurugizawa, T, Kondoh, T & Torii, K (2008) Forebrain activation induced by postoral nutritive substances in rats. Neuroreport 19, 11111115.
15Berthoud, HR (2008) Vagal and hormonal gut–brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction. Neurogastroenterol Motil 20, Suppl. 1, 6472.
16Ren, X, Ferreira, JG, Zhou, L, et al. (2010) Nutrient selection in the absence of taste receptor signaling. J Neurosci 30, 80128023.
17Min, DK, Tuor, UI, Koopmans, HS, et al. (2011) Changes in differential functional magnetic resonance signals in the rodent brain elicited by mixed-nutrient or protein-enriched meals. Gastroenterology 141, 18321841.
18Tsurugizawa, T, Uematsu, A, Nakamura, E, et al. (2009) Mechanisms of neural response to gastrointestinal nutritive stimuli: the gut–brain axis. Gastroenterology 137, 262273.
19Uematsu, A, Tsurugizawa, T, Uneyama, H, et al. (2010) Brain–gut communication via vagus nerve modulates conditioned flavor preference. Eur J Neurosci 31, 11361143.
20Wang, SH, Crosby, LO & Nesheim, MC (1973) Effect of dietary excesses of lysine and arginine on the degradation of lysine by chicks. J Nutr 103, 384391.
21Humphrey, BD, Stephensen, CB, Calvert, CC, et al. (2006) Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 143, 218227.
22de Araujo, IE, Gutierrez, R, Oliveira-Maia, AJ, et al. (2006) Neural ensemble coding of satiety states. Neuron 51, 483494.
23Schultz, W (1997) Dopamine neurons and their role in reward mechanisms. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7, 191197.
24Abbott, A (2002) Neuroscience: addicted. Nature 419, 872874.
25Martinez-Hernandez, J, Lanuza, E & Martinez-Garcia, F (2006) Selective dopaminergic lesions of the ventral tegmental area impair preference for sucrose but not for male sexual pheromones in female mice. Eur J Neurosci 24, 885893.
26Berridge, KC (2009) ‘Liking’ and ‘wanting’ food rewards: brain substrates and roles in eating disorders. Physiol Behav 97, 537550.
27Meguid, MM, Fetissov, SO, Blaha, V, et al. (2000) Dopamine and serotonin VMN release is related to feeding status in obese and lean Zucker rats. Neuroreport 11, 20692072.
28Di Marzo, V, Ligresti, A & Cristino, L (2009) The endocannabinoid system as a link between homoeostatic and hedonic pathways involved in energy balance regulation. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, Suppl. 2, S18S24.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed