Akira, S, Takeda, K & Kaisho, T (2001) Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol 2, 675–680.
Borruel, N, Carol, M, Casellas, F, Antolin, M, de Lara, F, Espin, E, Naval, J, Guarner, F & Malagelada, JR (2002) Increased mucosal tumour necrosis factor α production in Crohn's disease can be downregulated ex vivo by probiotic bacteria. Gut 51, 659–664.
Bouhnik, Y, Flourie, B, D'Agay-Abensour, L, Pochart, P, Gramet, G, Durand, M & Rambaud, JC (1997) Administration of transgalacto-oligosaccharides increases fecal bifidobacteria and modifies colonic fermentation metabolism in healthy humans. J Nutr 127, 444–448.
Caramalho, I, Lopes-Carvalho, T, Ostler, D, Zelenay, S, Haury, M & Demengeot, J (2003) Regulatory T cells selectively express toll-like receptors and are activated by lipopolysaccharide. J Exp Med 197, 403–411.
Cario, E & Podolsky, DK (2000) Differential alteration in intestinal epithelial cell expression of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and TLR4 in inflammatory bowel disease. Infect Immun 68, 7010–7017.
Cario, E, Brown, D, McKee, M, Lynch-Devaney, K, Gerken, G & Podolsky, DK (2002) Commensal-associated molecular patterns induce selective toll-like receptor-trafficking from apical membrane to cytoplasmic compartments in polarized intestinal epithelium. Am J Pathol 160, 165–173.
Catala, I, Butel, MJ, Bensaada, M, Popot, F, Tessedre, AC, Rimbault, A & Szylit, O (1999) Oligofructose contributes to the protective role of bifidobacteria in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis in quails. J Med Microbiol 48, 89–94.
Cebra, JJ (1999) Influences of microbiota on intestinal immune system development. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 1046s – 1051s.
Clavano, NR (1982) Mode of feeding and its effect on infant mortality and morbidity. J Trop Pediatr 28, 287–293.
Dabbagh, K & Lewis, DB (2003) Toll-like receptors and T-helper-1/T-helper-2 responses. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16, 199–204.
Dai, D, Nanthkumar, N, Newberg, D & Walker, AW (2000) Role of oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates in intestinal host defence. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30, S23–S33.
Edwards, AD, Diebold, SS, Slack, EM, Tomizawa, H, Hemmi, H, Kaisho, T, Akira, S & Reise, Sousa C (2003) Toll-like receptor expression in murine DC subsets: lack of TLR7 expression by CD8 alpha+ DC correlates with unresponsiveness to imidazoquinolines. Eur J Immunol 33, 827–833.
Falk, PG, Hooper, LV, Midtvedt, T & Gordon, JI (1999) Creating and maintaining the gastrointestinal ecosystem: what we know and need to know from gnotobiology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62, 1157–1170.
Fusunyan, RF, Nanthakumar, NN, Baldeon, ME & Walker, WA (2001) Evidence for an innate immune response in the immature human intestine: toll-like receptors on fetal enterocytes. Pediatr Res 49, 589–593.
Gewirtz, AT, Navas, TA, Lyons, S, Godowski, PJ & Madara, JL (2001) Cutting edge: bacterial flagellin activates basolaterally expressed tlr5 to induce epithelial proinflammatory gene expression. J Immunol 167, 1882–1885.
Gibson, GR, Beatty, ER, Wang, X & Cummings, JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifiodobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975–982.
Hamada, H, Hiroi, T & Nishiyama, Y et al. (2002) Identification of multiple isolated lymphoid follicles on the antimesenteric wall of the mouse small intestine. J Immunol 168, 57–64.
Hershberg, RM & Mayer, LF (2000) Antigen processing and presentation by intestinal epithelial cells – polarity and complexity. Immunol Today 21, 23–28.
Higgins, SC, Lavelle, EC, McCann, C, Keogh, B, McNeela, E, Byrne, P, O'Gorman, B, Jarnicki, A, McGuirk, P & Mills, KH (2003) Toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate IL-10 activates antigen-specific regulatory T cells and confers resistance to Bordetella pertussis by inhibiting inflammatory pathology. J Immunol 171, 3119–3122.
Hooper, LV, Wong, MH, Thelin, A, Hansson, L, Falk, PG & Gordon, JI (2002) Molecular analysis of comensal host–microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 291, 881–884.
Julia, V, McSorley, SS, Malherbe, L, Breittmayer, JP, Girard-Pipau, F, Beck, A & Glaichenhaus, N (2000) Priming by microbial antigens from the intestinal flora determines the ability of CD4+ T cells to rapidly secrete IL-4 in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. J Immunol 165, 5637–5645.
Khoo, UY, Proctor, IE & Macpherson, AJ (1997) CD4+ T cell down-regulation in human intestinal mucosa: evidence for intestinal tolerance to luminal bacterial antigens. J Immunol 158, 3626–3634.
Lefrancois, L & Goodman, T (1989) In vivo modulation of cytolytic activity and Thy-1 expression in TCR-gamma delta+ intraepithelial lymphocytes. Science 243, 716–718.
Liu, T, Matsuguchi, T, Tsuboi, N, Yajima, T & Yoshikai, Y (2002) Differences in expression of toll-like receptors and their reactivities in dendritic cells in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infect Immun 70, 6638–6645.
Liu, YJ, Kanzler, H, Soumelis, V & Gilliet, M (2003) Dendritic cell lineage, plasticity and cross-regulation. Nat Immunol 2, 585–589.
McCarthy, J, O'Mahony, L & O'Callaghan, L (2003) Double blind, placebo controlled trial of two probiotic strains in interleukin 10 knockout mice and mechanistic link with cytokine balance. Gut 52, 975–980.
Macpherson, AJ, Gatto, D, Sainsbury, E, Harriman, GR, Hengartner, H & Zinkernagel, RM (2001) A primitive T cell-independent mechanism of intestinal mucosal IgA responses to commensal bacteria. Science 288, 2222–2226.
Madsen, KL, Doyle, JS, Jewell, LD, Tavernini, MM & Fedorak, RN (1999) Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 116, 1107–1114.
Medzhitov, R, Preston-Hurlburt, P & Janeway, CA Jr (1997) A human homologue of the Drosophila toll protein signals activation of adaptive immunity. Nature 388, 394–397.
Melmed, G, Thomas, LS, Lee, N, Tesfay, SY, Lukasek, K, Michelsen, KS, Zhou, Y, Hu, B, Arditi, M & Abreu, MT (2003) Human intestinal epithelial cells are broadly unresponsive to toll-like receptor 2-dependent bacterial ligands: implications for host–microbial interactions in the gut. J Immunol 170, 1406–1415.
Moreau, MC & Corthier, G (1988) Effect of the gastrointestinal microflora on induction and maintenance of oral tolerance to ovalbumin in C3H/HeJ mice. Infect Immun 56, 2766–2768.
Moreau, MC & Gaboriau-Routhiau, V (1996) The absence of gut flora, the doses of antigen ingested and aging affect the long-term peripheral tolerance induced by ovalbumin feeding in mice. Res Immunol 147, 49–59.
Moreau, MC, Ducluzeau, R, Guy-Grand, D & Muller, MC (1988) Increase in the population of duodenal immunoglobulin A plasmocytes in mice associated with different living or dead bacterial strains of intestinal origin. Infect Immun 21, 532–539.
Moro, G, Minoli, I, Mosca, M, Fanaro, S, Jelinek, J, Stahl, B & Boehm, G (2002) Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 34, 291–295.
Mottet, C, Uhlig, HH & Powrie, F (2003) Cutting edge: cure of colitis by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol 170, 3939–3943.
Mushegian, A & Medzhitov, R (2001) Evolutionary perspective on innate immune recognition. J Cell Biol 155, 705–710.
Naik, S, Kelly, EJ, Meijer, L, Pettersson, S & Sanderson, IR (2001) Absence of toll-like receptor 4 explains endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in human intestinal epithelium. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 32, 449–453.
Nanthakumar, NN, Dai, D, Newburg, DS & Walker, WA (2003) The role of indigenous microflora in the development of murine intestinal fucosyl- and sialyltransferases. FASEB J 17, 44–46.
Ortega-Cava, CF, Ishihara, S, Rumi, MA, Kawashima, K, Ishimura, N, Kazumori, H, Udagawa, J, Kadowaki, Y & Kinoshita, Y (2003) Strategic compartmentalization of toll-like receptor 4 in the mouse gut. J Immunol 170, 3977–3985.
Qi, H, Denning, TL & Soong, L (2003) Differential induction of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in dendritic cells by microbial toll-like receptor activators and skewing of T-cell cytokine profiles. Infect Immun 71, 3337–3342.
Re, F & Strominger, JL (2001) Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human dendritic cells. J Biol Chem 276, 37692–37699.
Read, S, Malmstrom, V & Powrie, F (2000) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 plays an essential role in the function of CD25+CD4+ regulatory cells that control intestinal inflammation. J Exp Med 192, 295–302.
Rescigno, M, Urbano, M, Valzasina, B, Francolini, M, Rotta, G, Bonasio, R, Granucci, F, Kraehenbuhl, JP & Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P (2001) Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol 2, 361–367.
Roller, M, Rechkemmer, & Watzl, B (2004) Prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis modulates intestinal immune functions in rats. J Nutr 134, 153–156.
Savidge, TC, Smith, MW, James, PS & Aldred, P (1991) Salmonella-induced M-cell formation in germ-free mouse Peyer's patch tissue. Am J Pathol 139, 177–184.
Sghir, A, Chow, JM & Mackie, RI (1998) Continuous culture selection of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli from human faecal samples using fructooligosaccharide as selective substrate. J Appl Microbiol 85, 769–777.
Shevach, EM (2000) Suppressor T cells: rebirth, function and homeostasis. Curr Biol 10, R572–R578.
Steege, JC, Buurman, WA & Forget, PP (1997) The neonatal development of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes in the murine small intestine. Dev Immunol 5, 1121–1128.
Sudo, N, Sawamura, S, Tanaka, K, Aiba, Y, Kubo, C & Koga, Y (1997) The requirement of intestinal bacterial flora for the development of an IgE production system fully susceptible to oral tolerance induction. J Immunol 159, 1739–1745.
Suri-Payer, E, Amar, AZ, Thornton, AM & Shevach, EM (1998) CD4+CD25+ T cells inhibit both the induction and effector function of autoreactive T cells and represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory cells. J Immunol 160, 1212–1218.
Talham, GL, Jiang, HQ, Bos, NA & Cebra, JJ (1999) Segmented filamentous bacteria are potent stimuli of a physiologically normal state of the murine gut mucosal immune system. Infect Immun 67, 1992–2000.
Wannemuehler, MJ, Kiyono, H, Babb, JL, Michalek, SM & McGhee, JR (1992) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulation of the immune response: LPS converts germfree mice to sensitivity to oral tolerance induction. J Immunol 129, 959–965.
Yamanaka, T, Helgeland, L, Farstad, IN, Fukushima, H, Midtvedt, T & Brandtzaeg, P (2005) Microbial colonization drives lymphocyte accumulation and differentiation in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches. J Immunol 170, 816–822.
Yan, F & Polk, DB (2002) Probiotic bacterium prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 277, 50959–50965.
Yoshioka, H, Iseki, K & Fujita, K (1983) Development and differences of intestinal flora in the neonatal period in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Pediatrics 72, 317–321.
Zapolska-Downar, D, Siennicka, A, Kaczmarczyk, M, Kolodieg, B & Nruszewicz, M (2004) Butyrate inhibits cytokine-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells: the role of NF-κB and PPARα. J Nutr Biochem 15, 220–228.