Skip to main content

Safe levels of cadmium intake to prevent renal toxicity in human subjects

  • Soisungwan Satarug (a1), Melissa R. Haswell-Elkins (a2) and Michael R. Moore (a1)

The present review attempts to provide an update of the scientific knowledge on the renal toxicity which occurs in human subjects as a result of chronic ingestion of low-level dietary Cd. It highlights important features of Cd toxicology and sources of uncertainty in the assessment of health risk due to dietary Cd. It also discusses potential mechanisms for increased susceptibility to Cd toxicity in individuals with diabetes. Exposure assessment on the basis of Cd levels in foodstuffs reveals that vegetables and cereals are the main sources of dietary Cd, although Cd is also found in meat, albeit to a lesser extent. Cd accumulates particularly in the kidney and liver, and hence offal contains relatively high amounts. Fish contains only small quantities of Cd, while crustaceans and molluscs may accumulate larger amounts from the aquatic environment. Data on Cd accumulation in human kidney and liver obtained from autopsy studies are presented, along with results of epidemiological studies showing the relationship between renal tubular dysfunction and kidney Cd burden. These findings suggest that a kidney Cd level of 50 μg/g wet weight is a maximum tolerable level in order to avoid abnormal kidney function. This renal Cd burden corresponds to a urinary Cd excretion of 2 μg/d. Accordingly, safe daily levels of Cd intake should be kept below 30 μg per person. Individual variations in Cd absorption and sensitivity to toxicity predicts that a dietary Cd intake of 30 μg/d may result in a slight renal dysfunction in about 1 % of the adult population. The previous guideline for a maximum recommended Cd intake of 1 μg/kg body weight per d is thus shown to be too high to ensure that renal dysfunction does not occur as a result of dietary Cd intake.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Safe levels of cadmium intake to prevent renal toxicity in human subjects
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Safe levels of cadmium intake to prevent renal toxicity in human subjects
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Safe levels of cadmium intake to prevent renal toxicity in human subjects
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Soisungwan Satarug, fax +61 7 3274 9003, email
Hide All
Australian New Zealand Food Authority (1998) The Australian Market Basket Survey 1996. Melbourne, NSW: Information Australia.
Bernard, A, Schdeck, C, Cardenas, A, Buchet, J-P & Lauwerys, R (1991) Potentiation of diabetic nephropathy in uniephrectomized rats subchronically exposed to cadmium. Toxicology Letters 58, 5157.
Borjesson, J, Bellander, T, Jarup, L, Elinder, CG & Mattsson, S (1997) In vivo analysis of cadmium in battery workers versus measurements of blood, urine, and workplace air. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54, 424431.
Brand, IA & Heinickel, A (1991) Key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism as targets of the 11.5-kDa Zn2+-binding protein (parathymosin). Journal of Biological Chemistry 266, 2098420989.
Brand, IA & Kleinekel, J (1996) Intracellular zinc movement and its effect on the carbohydrate metabolism of isolated rat hepatocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271, 19411949.
Bremner, I (1993) Involvement of metallothionein in the regulation of mineral metabolism. In Metallothionein III: Biological Roles and Medical Implication, pp. 111124 [Suzuki, KT, Imura, N and Kimura, M, editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Kirkhauser Verlag.
Brozoska, MM & Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J (1998) The influence of calcium content in diet on cumulation and toxicity of cadmium in the organism. Archives of Toxicology 72, 6373.
Buchet, JP, Lauwerys, R, Roels, H, Bernard, A, Bruaux, P, Claeys, F, Ducoffre, G, Plaen, PD, Staessen, J, Amery, A, Lijnen, P, Thijs, L, Rondia, D, Sartor, F, Remy, AS & Nick, L (1990) Renal effects of cadmium body burden of the general population. Lancet 336, 699702.
Cai, S, Yue, L, Jin, T & Nordberg, G (1998) Renal dysfunction from cadmium contamination of irrigation water dose-response analysis in a Chinese population. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 76, 153159.
Chan, HM, Zhu, L-F, Zhong, R, Grant, R, Goyer, RA & Cherian, MG (1993) Nephrotoxicity in rats following liver transplantation from cadmium-exposed rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 123, 8996.
Chaney, RL, Ryan, JA, Li, Y-M & Brown, SL (1999) Soil cadmium as a threat to human health. In Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, vol. 85, pp. 219 [McLaughlin, MJ and Singh, BR, editors]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Chung, J, Nartey, NO & Cherian, MG (1986) Metallothionein levels in liver and kidney of Canadians – A potential indicator of environmental exposure to cadmium. Archives of Environmental Health 41, 319323.
Cousins, R (1994) Metal elements and gene expression. Annual Review of Nutrition 14, 449469.
Cunningham, JJ, Fu, A, Mearkle, PL & Brown, GR (1994) Hyperzincuria in individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: concurrent zinc status and the effect of high-dose zinc supplementation. Metabolism 43, 15581562.
Diamond, GL, Goodrum, PE, Felter, SP & Ruoff, WL (1997) Gastrointestinal absorption of metals. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 20, 345368.
Dight, I & Gladstone, W (1993) Pilot Study Final Report, Torres Strait Baseline Study. Cairns, Queensland: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Dorian, C, Gattone, VH & Klaassen, CD (1992) Renal cadmium deposition and injury as a result of accumulation of cadmium-metallothionein by the proximal convoluted tubules: a light microscopic autoradiography study with 109CdMT. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 114, 173181.
Dudley, RE, Gammal, LM & Klaassen, CD (1985) Cadmium-induced hepatic and renal injury in chronically exposed rats: Likely role of hepatic cadmium-metallothionein in nephrotoxicity. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 77, 414426.
Elinder, CG, Kjellstrom, T, Lind, B, Linnman, L, Piscator, M & Sundstedt, K (1983) Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased. Environmental Research 32, 220227.
Elinder, CG, Kjellstrom, T, Lind, B, Molander, ML & Silander, T (1978) Cadmium concentrations in human liver, blood, and bile: comparison with a metabolic model. Environmental Research 17, 236241.
Elinder, CG, Lind, B, Kjellstrom, T, Linnman, L & Friberg, L (1976) Cadmium in kidney cortex, liver and pancreas from Swedish autopsies: Estimation of biological half time in kidney cortex, considering calorie intake and smoking habits. Archives of Environmental Health 31, 292301.
Ellis, KJ, Cohn, SH & Smith, TJ (1985) Cadmium inhalation exposure estimates: their significance with respect to kidney and liver burden. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 15, 173187.
Ellis, KJ, Morgan, WD, Zanzi, I, Yasumura, S, Vartsky, D & Chon, SH (1981) Critical concentrations of cadmium in human renal cortex. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 7, 691703.
Ellis, KJ, Yasumura, S, Vartsky, D & Cohn, SH (1983) Evaluation of biological indicators of body burden of cadmium in humans. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 3, 169174.
Ellis, KJ, Yuen, K, Yasumura, S & Cohn, SH (1984) Dose-response analysis of cadmium in man: Body burden vs kidney dysfunction. Environmental Research 33, 216226.
Elsenhans, B, Kolb, K, Schumann, K & Forth, W (1992) Endogenous intestinal metallothionein possibly contributes to the renal accumulation of cadmium. IARC Scientific Publications 118, 225230.
Elsenhans, B, Strugala, GJ & Schafer, SG (1997) Small-intestinal absorption of cadmium and the significance of mucosal metallothionein. Human and Experimental Toxicology 16, 429434.
Escobar, O, Sandoval, M, Vargas, A & Hempe, JM (1995) Role of metallothionein and cysteine-rich intestinal protein in the regulation of zinc absorption by the diabetic rat. Pediatrics Research 37, 321327.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1998) Codex Alimentarius Commission. Discussion Paper on Cadmium, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Rane: FAO.
Flanagan, PR, McLellan, JS, Haist, J, Cherian, MG, Chamberlain, MJ & Valberg, LS (1978) Increased dietary cadmium absorption in mice and human subjects with iron deficiency. Gastroenterology 46, 609623.
Fleet, JC (1998) Identification of Nramp2 as an iron transporter protein: another piece of the intestinal iron absorption puzzle. Nutrition Review 56, 8889.
Foulkes, EC (1993) The concept of critical levels of toxic heavy metals in target tissues. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 20, 327339.
Galal-Gorchev, H (1993) Dietary intake, levels in food and estimated intake of lead, cadmium and mercury. Food Additives and Contaminants 10, 115128.
Glynn, AW, Lind, Y, Funseth, E & Ilback, N-G (1998) The intestinal absorption of cadmium increase during a common viral infection (Coxsackie virus B3) in mice. Chemicobiological Interactions 113, 7989.
Gordon, AN, Pople, AR & Ng, J (1998) Trace metal concentrations in livers and kidneys of sea turtles from south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 49, 409414.
Groten, JP, Sinkeldam, EJ, Muys, T, Luten, JB & van Bladeren, PJ (1991) Interaction of dietary Ca, P, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn and Se with accumulation and oral toxicity of cadmium in rats. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 29, 249258.
Gunshin, H, Mackenzie, B, Berger, UV, Gunshin, Y, Romero, MF, Boron, WF, Nussberger, S, Gollan, JL & Hediger, A (1997) Cloning and characterization of a mammalian proton-coupled metal-ion transporter. Nature 388, 482488.
Hanas, JS & Gunn, CG (1996) Inhibition of transcription factor IIIA-DNA interactions by xenobiotic metal ions. Nucleic Acids Research 24, 924930.
Hayano, M, Honda, R, Nogawa, K, Turitani, I, Kido, T & Kobayashi, E (1996) Dose-response relationship between urinary cadmium concentration and β2-microglobulin using logistic regression analysis. Archives of Environmental Health 51, 162166.
Hiratsuka, H, Satoh, S, Satoh, M, Nishijima, M, Katsuki, Y, Suzuki, J, Nakagawa, J, Sumiyoshi, M, Shibutani, M, Mitsumori, K, Tanaka-Kawagawa, T & Ando, M (1999) Tissue distribution of cadmium in rats given minimum amounts of cadmium-polluted rice or cadmium chloride for 8 months. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 160, 183191.
Hirsch, IB, Atchley, DH, Tsai, E, Labbe, RF & Chait, A (1998) Ascorbic acid clearance in diabetic nephropathy. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 12, 259263.
International Programme in Chemical Safety (1992) Environmental Health Criteria. vol 134 Cadmium. Geneva: WHO.
Isbir, T, Tamer, L, Taylor, A & Isbir, M (1994) Zinc, copper and magnesium status in insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes Research 26, 4145.
Iwata, K, Saito, H, Moriyama, M & Nakano, A (1992) Follow up study of renal tubular dysfunction and mortality among residents of an area polluted with cadmium. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 49, 736737.
Jarup, L, Persson, B & Elinder, CG (1997) Blood cadmium as an indicator of dose in a long-term follow-up of workers previously exposed to cadmium. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 23, 3136.
Jarup, L, Berglund, M, Elinder, C, Nordberg, G & Vahter, M (1998) Health effects of cadmium exposure – a review of literature and a risk estimate. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health 24 Suppl., 152.
Jin, T & Frankel, BJ (1996) Cadmium-metallothionein nephrotoxicity is increased in genetically diabetic as compared with normal Chinese hamsters. Pharmacology and Toxicology 79, 105108.
Jin, T, Lu, J & Nordberg, M (1998) Toxicokinetics and biochemistry of cadmium with special emphasis on the role of metallothionein. Neurotoxicology 19, 529536.
Jin, T, Nordberg, GF, Sehlin, J, Leffler, P & Wu, J (1994) The susceptibility of spontaneously diabetic mice to cadmium-metallothionein nephrotoxicity. Toxicology 89, 8190.
Kagi, JHR (1993) Evolution, structure and chemical activity of class I metallothioneins: An overview. In Metallothionein III: Biological Roles and Medical Implication, pp. 2956 [Suzuki, KT, Imura, N and Kimura, M, editors]. Basel, Switzerland: Kirkhauser Verlag.
Kuo, SM, Leaviti, PS & Lin, CP (1998) Dietary flavonoids interact with trace metals and affect metallothionein levels in human intestinal cells. Biological Trace Element Research 62, 135153.
Lauwerys, RR, Bernard, AM, Roels, HA & Buchet, JP (1994) Cadmium: Exposure markers as predictors of nephrotoxic effects. Clinical Chemistry 40/7, 13911394.
Li, YM, Chaney, RL, Schneiter, AA & Miller, JF (1995) Genotypic variation in kernel cadmium concentration in sunflower germplasm under varying soil conditions. Crop Sciences 35, 137141.
Lin, J-L, Lu, F-H & Yeh, K-H (1995) Increased body cadmium burden in Chinese women without smoking and occupational exposure. Clinical Toxicology 33, 639644.
Lind, Y, Engman, J, Jorhem, L & Glynm, AW (1998) Accumulation of cadmium from wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, carrots and cadmium chloride in the liver and kidneys of mice. British Journal of Nutrition 80, 205211.
Liu, J, Habeecu, SS, Liu, Y & Klaassen, CD (1998) Acute cadmium injection is not a good model to study chronic Cd nephropathy: Comparison of chronic CdCl2 and CdMT exposure with acute CdMT injection in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 153, 4858.
Lopez-Artiguez, M, Camean, A, Gonzalez, G & Repetto, M (1995) Metal accumulation in human kidney cortex: mutual interrelations and effect of human factors. Human and Experimental Toxicology 14, 335340.
Lupaz, MHS (1997) Diabetes nephropathy. Renal Disease 3, 679688.
Lyon, TDB, Aughey, E, Scott, R & Fell, GS (1999) Cadmium concentrations in human kidney in the UK: 1978–1993. Journal of Environmental Monitor 1, 227231.
McKenzie, J, Kjellstrom, T & Sharma, P. (1986) Cadmium intake via oysters and health effects in New Zealand: cadmium intake, metabolism and effects in people with a high intake of oysters in New Zealand. Project summary: EPA/600/S1-86/004. Research Triangle Factor, NC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
McLaughlin, MJ & Singh, BR (editors) (1999) Cadmium in soils and plants. In Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, vol. 85, pp. 17. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Miller, GJ, Wylie, MJ & McKeown, D (1976) Cadmium exposure and renal accumulation in an Australian urban population. Medical Journal of Australia 1, 2023.
Mogensen, CE (1998) Preventing end-stage renal disease. Diabetic Medicine 15, Suppl. 4, S51S56.
Moon, C-S, Zhang, Z-W, Shimbo, S, Watanabe, T, Moon, D-H, Lee, C-U, Lee, B-K, Ahn, K-D, Lee, S-H & Ikeda, M (1998) Evaluation of urinary cadmium and lead as markers of background exposure of middle-aged women in Korea. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 71, 251256.
Moon, C-S, Zhang, Z-W, Shimbo, S, Watanabe, T, Moon, D-H, Lee, C-U, Lee, B-K, Ahn, K-D, Lee, S-H & Ikeda, M (1999) Evaluation of urinary cadmium and lead as markers of background exposure of middle-aged women in Korea: dietary intake as an influential factor. Toxicology Letters 108, 173178.
Morgan, H & Sherlock, JC (1984) Cadmium intake and cadmium in the human kidney. Food Additives Contaminants 1, 4551.
Muller, M, Anke, M, Illing-Gunther, H & Thiel, C (1998) Oral cadmium exposure of adults in Germany 2: Market basket calculations. Food Additives and Contaminants 15, 135141.
Nakagawa, H, Nishijo, M, Morikawa, Y, Tabata, M, Miura, K, Nishi, M, Kido, T & Nogawa, K (1996) Increased urinary β2-microglobulin and mortality rate by cause of death in a cadmium-polluted area. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine 1, 144148.
Nakagawa, H, Nishijo, M, Morikawa, Y, Tabata, M, Senma, M, Kitagawa, Y, Kawano, S, Ishizaki, M, Sugita, N, Nishi, M, Kido, T & Nogawa, K (1993) Urinary β2-microglobulin and mortality in a cadmium polluted area. Archives of Environmental Health 48, 428435.
Nakashima, K, Kobayashi, E, Nogawa, K, Kido, T & Honda, R (1997) Concentration of cadmium in rice and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54, 750755.
Nagyova, A, Galbavy, S & Ginter, E (1994) Histopathological evidence of vitamin C protection against Cd-nephrotoxicity in guinea pigs. Experimental Toxicology and Pathology 46, 1114.
Nishijo, M, Nakagawa, H, Morikawa, M, Tabata, M, Miura, T, Yoshita, K, Higasgiguchi, K, Seto, T, Kido, T, Nogawa, K, Mizukoshi, K & Nishi, M (1999) Relationship between urinary cadmium and mortality among inhabitants living in a cadmium polluted area in Japan. Toxicology Letters 108, 321327.
Nordberg, GF, Jin, T, Kong, Q, Ye, T, Cai, S, Wang, Z, Zhuang, F & Wu, X (1997) Biological monitoring of cadmium exposure and renal effects in a population group residing in a polluted area in China. Science of Total Environment 199, 111114.
Orlowski, C, Piotrowski, JK, Subys, JK & Gross, A (1998) Urinary cadmium as indicator or renal cadmium in humans: as autopsy study. Human and Experimental Toxicology 17, 302306.
Palmiter, RD (1998) The elusive function of metallothioneins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95, 84288430.
Peters, AL, Davidson, MB, Schriger, DL & Hasselblad, V (1996) A clinical approach for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, an analysis using glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Journal of the American Medical Association 276, 12461252.
Philcox, JC, Coyle, P, Michalska, A, Choo, KH & Rofe, AM (1995) Endotoxin-induced inflammation does not cause hepatic zinc accumulation in mice lacking metallothionein gene expression. Biochemical Journal 308, 543546.
Rayment, GE (1995) Sources of Cadmium in Agricultural Products. National Cadmium Workshop, DPIE/NFA, Canberra. Brisbane, Queensland: Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Reeves, PG, Johnson, PE & Rossow, KL (1994) Absorption and organ content of cadmium from the kernels of confectionery sunflowers (Helianthus anmnis) fed to male rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42, 28362843.
Reeves, PG & Vanderpool, RA (1997) Cadmium burden of men and women who report regular consumption of confectionery sunflower kernels containing a natural abundance of cadmium. Environmental Health Perspectives 105, 10981104.
Resource Sciences (1997) Managing Cadmium in Agriculture and Food. Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Resource Sciences.
Rimbach, G & Pallauf, J (1997) Cadmium accumulation, zinc status and mineral bioavailability of growing rats fed diets high in zinc with increasing amounts of phytic acid. Biological Trace Element Research 57, 5970.
Rofe, AM, Philcox, JC & Coyle, P (1996) Trace metal, acute phase and metabolic response to endotoxin in metallothionein-null mice. Biochemical Journal 314, 793797.
Satarug, S, Baker, JR, Reilly, PEB, Esumi, H & Moore, MR (2000) Evidence for a synergistic interaction between cadmium and endotoxin toxicity and for nitric oxide and cadmium displacement of metals in the kidney. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry 4, 431440.
Scheuhammer, AM (1988) The dose-dependent deposition of cadmium in organs of Japanese quails following oral administration. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 95, 153161.
Sheth, JJ (1999) Diabetes, microalbuminuria and hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 21, 6168.
Spencer, JL, Silva, DT, Snelling, P & Hoy, WE (1998) An epidemic of renal failure among the Australian Aboriginals. Medical Journal of Australia 168, 537541.
Spickett, JT & Lazner, J (1979) Cadmium concentrations in human kidney and liver tissues from Western Australia. Bulletin of Environment and Contaminant Toxicology 23, 627630.
Staessen, JA, Buchet, JP, Ginucchio, G, Lauwerys, RR, Lijnen, P, Roels, H & Fagard, R (1996) Public health implications of environmental exposure to cadmium and lead: an overview of epidemiological studies in Belgium. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 3, 2641.
Sudo, J, Hayashi, T, Terui, J, Soyama, M, Fukata, M & Katsukiko, K (1994) Kinetics of Cd2+ in plasma and kidneys after single intravenous injection of Cd-metallothionein-II. European Journal of Pharmacology 270, 229235.
Sullivan, VK, Burnett, FR & Cousins, RJ (1998) Metallothionein expression is increased in monocytes and erythrocytes of young men during zinc supplementation. Journal of Nutrition 128, 707713.
Tandon, SK, Khandelwal, S, Jain, VK & Mathur, N (1993) Influence of dietary iron deficiency on acute metal intoxication. BioMetals 6, 133138.
Thijs, L, Staessen, J, Amery, A, Bruaux, P, Buchet, JP, Claeys, F, De-Plaen, P, Ducoffre, G, Lauwerys, R & Lijnen, P (1993) Determinants of serum zinc in a random population sample of four Belgian towns with different degrees of environmental exposure and body burden. Environmental Health Perspectives 98, 251258.
Tiran, E, Karpf, E & Tiran, A (1995) Age dependency of selenium and cadmium content in human liver, kidney and thyroid. Archives of Environmental Health 50, 242246.
Torra, M, To-Figueras, J, Rodamilans, M, Brunet, M & Corbella, J (1995) Cadmium and zinc relationships in the liver and kidney of humans exposed to environmental cadmium. Science of the Total Environment 170, 5357.
Vahter, M, Berglund, M, Nermell, B & Akesson, A (1996) Bioavailability of cadmium from shellfish and mixed diet in women. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 136, 332341.
Waalkes, MP, Coogan, TP & Barter, RA (1992) Toxicological principles of metal carcinogenesis with special emphasis on cadmium. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 22, 175201.
Wahba, ZZ & Waalkes, MO (1990) Cadmium-induced route specific alterations in essential trace element homeostasis. Toxicology Letters 54, 7781.
Walter, A, Rimbach, G, Most, E & Pallauf, J (1998) Effect of citric acid supplements to a maize-soya diet on the in vitro availability of minerals, trace elements and heavy metals. Journal of Veterinary Medicine 45, 517524.
Wang, X-P, Chan, HM, Goyer, RA & Cherian, MG (1993) Nephrotoxicity of repeated injection of cadmium-metallothionein in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 119, 1116.
Watanabe, T, Nakatsuka, H, Seiji, K, Ioue, O, Cho, K-S, Lee, K-M, Lee, B-K, Lee, S-H & Ikeda, M (1989) Blood cadmium levels in the populations of Masan, Korea and in Miyagi, Japan: an inter-regional comparison. Toxicology Letters 47, 155163.
Webb, J, Macey, DJ, Chua-Anusorn, W, Pierre, TG, Brooker, LR, Rahman, I & Noller, B (1999) Iron biominerals in medicine and the environment Coordination Chemistry Reviews 190–192, 11991215.
Will, JC, Ford, ES & Bowman, BA (1999) Serum vitamin C concentrations and diabetes: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 4952.
Williams, NR, Rajput-Williams, J, West, JD, Nigdikar, SV, Foote, JW & Howard, AN (1995) Plasma, granulocyte and mononuclear cell copper and zinc in patients with diabetes mellitus. Analyst 120, 887890.
Wing, AM (1993) The effect of whole wheat, wheat bran and zinc in the diet on the absorption and accumulation of cadmium in rats. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 199209.
Wolff, SP (1993) Diabetes mellitus and free radicals. Free radicals, transition metals and oxidative stress in the aetiology of diabetes and complications. British Medical Bulletin 49, 642652.
Wolnik, KA, Fricke, FL, Capar, SG, Braude, GL, Meyer, MW, Satzger, RD & Bonnin, E (1983) Elements in major raw agriculture crops in the United States. I. Cadmium and lead in lettuce, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, sweet corns, and wheat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 31, 12401244.
Wood, RJ & Han, O (1998) Recently identified molecular aspects of intestinal iron absorption. Journal of Nutrition 128, 18411844.
World Health Organization (1989) Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. Thirty-third Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. WHO Technical Report Series no: 776., pp. 28–31. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (1992) Environmental Health Criteria. vol. 134. Cadmium. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization (1993) Toxicology Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series no: 837. Geneva: WHO.
Yamanaka, O, Kobayashi, E, Nogawa, K, Suwazono, Y, Sakurada, I & Kido, T (1998) Association between renal effects and cadmium exposure in cadmium-nonpolluted areas in Japan. Environmental Research 77A, 18.
Yoshida, M, Ohta, H, Yamauchi, Y, Seki, Y, Sagi, M, Yamazaki, K & Sumi, Y (1998) Age-dependent changes in metallothionein levels in liver and kidney of the Japanese. Biological Trace Element Research 63, 167175.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 310 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 381 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.