Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide

  • Jennifer Hilger (a1), Angelika Friedel (a2), Raphael Herr (a1), Tamara Rausch (a1), Franz Roos (a2), Denys A. Wahl (a3), Dominique D. Pierroz (a3), Peter Weber (a2) and Kristina Hoffmann (a1)...
Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporosis and is thought to increase the risk of cancer and CVD. Despite these numerous potential health effects, data on vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are limited. The aims of the present study were to examine patterns of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels worldwide and to assess differences by age, sex and region. In a systematic literature review using the Medline and EMBASE databases, we identified 195 studies conducted in forty-four countries involving more than 168 000 participants. Mean population-level 25(OH)D values varied considerably across the studies (range 4·9–136·2 nmol/l), with 37·3 % of the studies reporting mean values below 50 nmol/l. The highest 25(OH)D values were observed in North America. Although age-related differences were observed in the Asia/Pacific and Middle East/Africa regions, they were not observed elsewhere and sex-related differences were not observed in any region. Substantial heterogeneity between the studies precluded drawing conclusions on overall vitamin D status at the population level. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that newborns and institutionalised elderly from several regions worldwide appeared to be at a generally higher risk of exhibiting lower 25(OH)D values. Substantial details on worldwide patterns of vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are needed to inform public health policy development to reduce risk for potential health consequences of an inadequate vitamin D status.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr K. Hoffmann, fax +49 621 383 9920, email kristina.hoffmann@medma.uni-heidelberg.de
References
Hide All
1 TsiarasWG & WeinstockMA (2011) Factors influencing vitamin D status. Acta Derm Venereol 91, 115124.
2 HaroonM & ReganMJ (2010) Vitamin D deficiency: the time to ignore it has passed. Int J Rheum Dis 13, 318323.
3 HolickMF (2004) Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 16781688.
4 PilzS, KienreichK, TomaschitzA, et al. (2012) Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: update and outlook. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 72, 8391.
5 MithalA, WahlDA, BonjourJP, et al. (2009) Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int 20, 18071820.
6 World Health Organization (2011) Noncommunicable Diseases Country Profiles – WHO Global Report. Geneva: WHO.
7 HolickMF (2009) Vitamin D status: measurement, interpretation, and clinical application. Ann Endocrinol 19, 7378.
8 van SchoorNM & LipsP (2011) Worldwide vitamin D status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 25, 671680.
9 ThacherTD & ClarkeBL (2011) Vitamin D insufficiency. Mayo Clin Proc 86, 5060.
10 RossAC, MansonJE, AbramsSA, et al. (2011) The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 5358.
11 HolickMF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266281.
12 HolickMF, BinkleyNC, Bischoff-FerrariHA, et al. (2011) Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 19111930.
13 ArabiA, El RassiR & El-Hajj FuleihanG (2010) Hypovitaminosis D in developing countries – prevalence, risk factors and outcomes. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6, 550561.
14 HagenauT, VestR, GisselTN, et al. (2009) Global vitamin D levels in relation to age, gender, skin pigmentation and latitude: an ecologic meta-regression analysis. Osteoporos Int 20, 133140.
15 LipsP (2007) Vitamin D status and nutrition in Europe and Asia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 620625.
16 McKennaMJ (1992) Differences in vitamin D status between countries in young adults and the elderly. Am J Med 93, 6977.
17 NairR & MaseehA (2012) Vitamin D: the “sunshine” vitamin. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 3, 118126.
18 MoherD, LiberatiA, TetzlaffJ, et al. (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6, 100097.
19 World Health Organization (2002) The World Health Report – Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO.
20 CarterGD (2011) Accuracy of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: confronting the issues. Curr Drug Targets 12, 1928.
21 WahlDA, CooperC, EbelingPR, et al. (2012) A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations. Arch Osteoporos 7, 155172.
22 GharaibehMA & StoeckerBJ (2009) Assessment of serum 25(OH)D concentration in women of childbearing age and their preschool children in Northern Jordan during summer. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 13201326.
23 GindeAA, LiuMC, CamargoCA, et al. (2009) Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988–2004. Arch Intern Med 169, 626632.
24 BatiehaA, KhaderY, JaddouH, et al. (2011) Vitamin D status in Jordan: dress style and gender discrepancies. Ann Nutr Metab 58, 1018.
25 PrenticeA (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a global perspective. Nutr Rev 66, 153164.
26 ChailurkitLO, KruavitA & RajatanavinR (2011) Vitamin D status and bone health in healthy Thai elderly women. Nutrition 27, 160164.
27 NakamuraK, NashimotoM, HoriY, et al. (2000) Serum parathyroid hormone in healthy Japanese women in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70, 287292.
28 GerdhemP, RingsbergKA, ObrantKJ, et al. (2005) Association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, physical activity, muscle strength and fractures in the prospective population-based OPRA Study of Elderly Women. Osteoporos Int 16, 14251431.
29 TheilerR, StahelinHB, TyndallA, et al. (1999) Calcidiol, calcitriol and parathyroid hormone serum concentrations in institutionalized and ambulatory elderly in Switzerland. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 69, 96105.
30 GindeAA, SullivanAF, MansbachJM, et al. (2010) Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202, 436.
31 DrorDK (2011) Vitamin D status during pregnancy: maternal, fetal, and postnatal outcomes. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 23, 422426.
32 DerSimonianR & LairdN (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7, 177188.
33 KoenigJ & ElmadfaI (2000) Status of calcium and vitamin D of different population groups in Austria. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 70, 214220.
34 KudlacekS, SchneiderB, PeterlikM, et al. (2003) Assessment of vitamin D and calcium status in healthy adult Austrians. Eur J Clin Invest 33, 323331.
35 BoonenS, LesaffreE, AerssensJ, et al. (1996) Deficiency of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis potentially involved in age-related alterations in body composition. Gerontology 42, 330338.
36 MacFarlaneGD, SackrisonJLJr, BodyJJ, et al. (2004) Hypovitaminosis D in a normal, apparently healthy urban European population. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 621622.
37 Moreno-ReyesR, CarpentierYA, BoelaertM, et al. (2009) Vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism in relation to ethnicity: a cross-sectional survey in healthy adults. Eur J Nutr 48, 3137.
38 RichartT, ThijsL, NawrotT, et al. (2011) The metabolic syndrome and carotid intima-media thickness in relation to the parathyroid hormone to 25-OH-D(3) ratio in a general population. Am J Hypertens 24, 102109.
39 ZofkovaI & HillM (2008) Biochemical markers of bone remodeling correlate negatively with circulating TSH in postmenopausal women. Endocr Regul 42, 121127.
40 AndersenR, MolgaardC, SkovgaardLT, et al. (2005) Teenage girls and elderly women living in northern Europe have low winter vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 533541.
41 BrotC, JorgensenN, MadsenOR, et al. (1999) Relationships between bone mineral density, serum vitamin D metabolites and calcium:phosphorus intake in healthy perimenopausal women. J Intern Med 245, 509516.
42 DalgardC, PetersenMS, SchmedesAV, et al. (2010) High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese. Br J Nutr 104, 914918.
43 FrostM, AbrahamsenB, NielsenTL, et al. (2010) Vitamin D status and PTH in young men: a cross-sectional study on associations with bone mineral density, body composition and glucose metabolism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 73, 573580.
44 RejnmarkL, VestergaardP, HeickendorffL, et al. (2008) Plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels decrease in postmenopausal women with hypovitaminosis D. Eur J Endocrinol 158, 571576.
45 RejnmarkL, VestergaardP, HeickendorffL, et al. (2011) Determinants of plasma PTH and their implication for defining a reference interval. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 74, 3743.
46 RudnickiM, ThodeJ, JorgensenT, et al. (1993) Effects of age, sex, season and diet on serum ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D in a random population. J Intern Med 234, 195200.
47 KullMJr, KallikormR, TammA, et al. (2009) Seasonal variance of 25-(OH) vitamin D in the general population of Estonia, a Northern European country. BMC Public Health 9, 22.
48 KauppiM, ImpivaaraO, MakiJ, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and common risk factors for bone fragility as determinants of quantitative ultrasound variables in a nationally representative population sample. Bone 45, 119124.
49 Lamberg-AllardtCJ, OutilaTA, KarkkainenMU, et al. (2001) Vitamin D deficiency and bone health in healthy adults in Finland: could this be a concern in other parts of Europe? J Bone Miner Res 16, 20662073.
50 MattilaC, KnektP, MannistoS, et al. (2007) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, 25692570.
51 ParttiK, HeliovaaraM, ImpivaaraO, et al. (2010) Skeletal status in psychotic disorders: a population-based study. Psychosom Med 72, 933940.
52 ParviainenMT, KumpusaloE, HalonenP, et al. (1992) Epidemiology of vitamins A, E, D and C in rural villages in Finland: biochemical, nutritional and socioeconomical aspects. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 62, 238243.
53 PiirainenT, LaitinenK & IsolauriE (2007) Impact of national fortification of fluid milks and margarines with vitamin D on dietary intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in 4-year-old children. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 123128.
54 ViljakainenHT, PalssaA, KarkkainenM, et al. (2006) A seasonal variation of calcitropic hormones, bone turnover and bone mineral density in early and mid-puberty girls – a cross-sectional study. Br J Nutr 96, 124130.
55 ViljakainenHT, SaarnioE, HytinanttiT, et al. (2010) Maternal vitamin D status determines bone variables in the newborn. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 17491757.
56 BlainH, JaussentA, ThomasE, et al. (2009) Low sit-to-stand performance is associated with low femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy women. Calcif Tissue Int 84, 266275.
57 BougleD, SabatierJP, BureauF, et al. (1998) Relationship between bone mineralization and aluminium in the healthy infant. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 431435.
58 ChapuyMC, PreziosiP, MaamerM, et al. (1997) Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporos Int 7, 439443.
59 de CarvalhoMJ, GuillandJC, MoreauD, et al. (1996) Vitamin status of healthy subjects in Burgundy (France). Ann Nutr Metab 40, 2451.
60 DeplasA, DebiaisF, AlcalayM, et al. (2004) Bone density, parathyroid hormone, calcium and vitamin D nutritional status of institutionalized elderly subjects. J Nutr Health Aging 8, 400404.
61 MalvyDJ, GuinotC, PreziosiP, et al. (2000) Relationship between vitamin D status and skin phototype in general adult population. Photochem Photobiol 71, 466469.
62 BramswigS, ZittermannA & BertholdHK (2003) Carbamazepine does not alter biochemical parameters of bone turnover in healthy male adults. Calcif Tissue Int 73, 356360.
63 HintzpeterB, MensinkGB, ThierfelderW, et al. (2008) Vitamin D status and health correlates among German adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 10791089.
64 ScharlaSH, Scheidt-NaveC, LeidigG, et al. (1996) Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased bone resorption markers and lower bone density at the proximal femur in normal females: a population-based study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 104, 289292.
65 WoitgeHW, KnotheA, WitteK, et al. (2000) Circannual rhythms and interactions of vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, and biochemical markers of skeletal homeostasis: a prospective study. J Bone Miner Res 15, 24432450.
66 ZittermannA, ScheldK & StehleP (1998) Seasonal variations in vitamin D status and calcium absorption do not influence bone turnover in young women. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 501506.
67 NicolaidouP, HatzistamatiouZ, PapadopoulouA, et al. (2006) Low vitamin D status in mother–newborn pairs in Greece. Calcif Tissue Int 78, 337342.
68 PapapetrouPD, TriantaphyllopoulouM, KargaH, et al. (2007) Vitamin D deficiency in the elderly in Athens, Greece. J Bone Miner Metab 25, 198203.
69 KristinssonJO, ValdimarssonO, SigurdssonG, et al. (1998) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and bone mineral density in 16–20 years-old girls: lack of association. J Intern Med 243, 381388.
70 SigurdssonG, FranzsonL, SteingrimsdottirL, et al. (2000) The association between parathyroid hormone, vitamin D and bone mineral density in 70-year-old Icelandic women. Osteoporos Int 11, 10311035.
71 SteingrimsdottirL, GunnarssonO, IndridasonOS, et al. (2005) Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D sufficiency, and calcium intake. J Am Med Assoc 294, 23362341.
72 HillT, CollinsA, O'BrienM, et al. (2005) Vitamin D intake and status in Irish postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 404410.
73 KeaneEM, HealyM, O'MooreR, et al. (1995) Hypovitaminosis D in the healthy elderly. Br J Clin Pract 49, 301303.
74 OrenY, ShapiraY, Agmon-LevinN, et al. (2010) Vitamin D insufficiency in a sunny environment: a demographic and seasonal analysis. Israel Med Assoc J 12, 751756.
75 AdamiS, ViapianaO, GattiD, et al. (2008) Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake. Bone 42, 267270.
76 CarnevaleV, ModoniS, PileriM, et al. (2001) Longitudinal evaluation of vitamin D status in healthy subjects from southern Italy: seasonal and gender differences. Osteoporos Int 12, 10261030.
77 RomagnoliE, CaravellaP, ScarnecchiaL, et al. (1999) Hypovitaminosis D in an Italian population of healthy subjects and hospitalized patients. Br J Nutr 81, 133137.
78 VezzoliG, SoldatiL, ArcidiaconoT, et al. (2005) Urinary calcium is a determinant of bone mineral density in elderly men participating in the InCHIANTI study. Kidney Int 67, 20062014.
79 Al-DelaimyWK, JansenEH, PeetersPH, et al. (2006) Reliability of biomarkers of iron status, blood lipids, oxidative stress, vitamin D, C-reactive protein and fructosamine in two Dutch cohorts. Biomarkers 11, 370382.
80 BaynesKC, BoucherBJ, FeskensEJ, et al. (1997) Vitamin D, glucose tolerance and insulinaemia in elderly men. Diabetologia 40, 344347.
81 FangY, van MeursJB, ArpP, et al. (2009) Vitamin D binding protein genotype and osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 85, 8593.
82 KuchukNO, PluijmSM, van SchoorNM, et al. (2009) Relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to bone mineral density and serum parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover in older persons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 12441250.
83 LöwikMR, SchrijverJ, OdinkJ, et al. (1990) Nutrition and aging: nutritional status of “apparently healthy” elderly (Dutch nutrition surveillance system). J Am Coll Nutr 9, 1827.
84 PilzS, DobnigH, NijpelsG, et al. (2009) Vitamin D and mortality in older men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71, 666672.
85 van SummerenMJ, van CoeverdenSC, SchurgersLJ, et al. (2008) Vitamin K status is associated with childhood bone mineral content. Br J Nutr 100, 852858.
86 BrustadM, SandangerT, AksnesL, et al. (2004) Vitamin D status in a rural population of northern Norway with high fish liver consumption. Public Health Nutr 7, 783789.
87 BrustadM, AlsakerE, EngelsenO, et al. (2004) Vitamin D status of middle-aged women at 65–71 degrees N in relation to dietary intake and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Public Health Nutr 7, 327335.
88 GrimnesG, EmausN, JoakimsenRM, et al. (2010) Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the Tromso Study 1994–95 and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus during 11 years of follow-up. Diabet Med 27, 11071115.
89 MeyerHE, FalchJA, SogaardAJ, et al. (2004) Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism and the association with bone mineral density in persons with Pakistani and Norwegian background living in Oslo, Norway, The Oslo Health Study. Bone 35, 412417.
90 NapiorkowskaL, BudlewskiT, Jakubas-KwiatkowskaW, et al. (2009) Prevalence of low serum vitamin D concentration in an urban population of elderly women in Poland. Pol Arch Med Wewn 119, 699703.
91 Sapir-KorenR, LivshitsG & KobylianskyE (2003) Genetic effects of estrogen receptor alpha and collagen IA1 genes on the relationships of parathyroid hormone and 25 hydroxyvitamin D with bone mineral density in Caucasian women. Metabolism 52, 11291135.
92 AlmirallJ, VaqueiroM, BareML, et al. (2010) Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and high arterial blood pressure in the elderly. Nephrol Dial Transplant 25, 503509.
93 GomezJM, MaravallFJ, GomezN, et al. (2004) Relationship between 25-(OH) D3, the IGF-I system, leptin, anthropometric and body composition variables in a healthy, randomly selected population. Horm Metab Res 36, 4853.
94 MoreirasO, CarbajalA, PereaI, et al. (1992) The influence of dietary intake and sunlight exposure on the vitamin D status in an elderly Spanish group. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 62, 303307.
95 MurayS, MarcoMP, CraverL, et al. (2006) Influence of mineral metabolism parameters on pulse pressure in healthy subjects. Clin Nephrol 66, 411417.
96 Perez-LlamasF, Lopez-ContrerasMJ, BlancoMJ, et al. (2008) Seemingly paradoxical seasonal influences on vitamin D status in nursing-home elderly people from a Mediterranean area. Nutrition 24, 414420.
97 BurgazA, AkessonA, OsterA, et al. (2007) Associations of diet, supplement use, and ultraviolet B radiation exposure with vitamin D status in Swedish women during winter. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 13991404.
98 BurgazA, AkessonA, MichaelssonK, et al. (2009) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D accumulation during summer in elderly women at latitude 60 degrees N. J Intern Med 266, 476483.
99 HagstromE, HellmanP, LarssonTE, et al. (2009) Plasma parathyroid hormone and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the community. Circulation 119, 27652771.
100 LindL, HanniA, LithellH, et al. (1995) Vitamin D is related to blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men. Am J Hypertens 8, 894901.
101 MelinA, WilskeJ, RingertzH, et al. (2001) Seasonal variations in serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone but no detectable change in femoral neck bone density in an older population with regular outdoor exposure. J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 11901196.
102 SalminenH, SaafM, RingertzH, et al. (2008) The role of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 status and secondary hyperparathyroidism in relation to osteoporosis in elderly Swedish women. Osteoporos Int 19, 201209.
103 BurnandB, SloutskisD, GianoliF, et al. (1992) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: distribution and determinants in the Swiss population. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 537542.
104 KriegMA, CornuzJ, JacquetAF, et al. (1998) Influence of anthropometric parameters and biochemical markers of bone metabolism on quantitative ultrasound of bone in the institutionalized elderly. Osteoporos Int 8, 115120.
105 BatesCJ, CarterGD, MishraGD, et al. (2003) In a population study, can parathyroid hormone aid the definition of adequate vitamin D status? A study of people aged 65 years and over from the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Osteoporos Int 14, 152159.
106 CarterJL, O'RiordanSE, EaglestoneGL, et al. (2008) Bone mineral metabolism and its relationship to kidney disease in a residential care home population: a cross-sectional study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 23, 35543565.
107 CashmanKD, HillTR, CotterAA, et al. (2008) Low vitamin D status adversely affects bone health parameters in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 10391044.
108 DaviesPS, BatesCJ, ColeTJ, et al. (1999) Vitamin D: seasonal and regional differences in preschool children in Great Britain. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 195198.
109 EliaM & StrattonRJ (2005) Geographical inequalities in nutrient status and risk of malnutrition among English people aged 65 y and older. Nutrition 21, 11001106.
110 ForouhiNG, LuanJ, CooperA, et al. (2008) Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990–2000. Diabetes 57, 26192625.
111 HegartyV, WoodhouseP & KhawKT (1994) Seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy elderly people. Age Ageing 23, 478482.
112 HillTR, CotterAA, MitchellS, et al. (2008) Vitamin D status and its determinants in adolescents from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts 2000 cohort. Br J Nutr 99, 10611067.
113 HiraniV & PrimatestaP (2005) Vitamin D concentrations among people aged 65 years and over living in private households and institutions in England: population survey. Age Ageing 34, 485491.
114 HypponenE & PowerC (2007) Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 860868.
115 MacdonaldHM, McGuiganFE, StewartA, et al. (2006) Large-scale population-based study shows no evidence of association between common polymorphism of the VDR gene and BMD in British women. J Bone Miner Res 21, 151162.
116 MavroeidiA, O'NeillF, LeePA, et al. (2010) Seasonal 25-hydroxyvitamin D changes in British postmenopausal women at 57 degrees N and 51 degrees N: a longitudinal study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 121, 459461.
117 WarehamNJ, ByrneCD, CarrC, et al. (1997) Glucose intolerance is associated with altered calcium homeostasis: a possible link between increased serum calcium concentration and cardiovascular disease mortality. Metabolism 46, 11711177.
118 BarakeR, WeilerH, PayetteH, et al. (2010) Vitamin D supplement consumption is required to achieve a minimal target 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of > or = 75 nmol/l in older people. J Nutr 140, 551556.
119 El HayekJ, EgelandG & WeilerH (2010) Vitamin D status of Inuit preschoolers reflects season and vitamin D intake. J Nutr 140, 18391845.
120 LangloisK, Greene-FinestoneL, LittleJ, et al. (2010) Vitamin D status of Canadians as measured in the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Rep 21, 4755.
121 LebrunJB, MoffattME, MundyRJ, et al. (1993) Vitamin D deficiency in a Manitoba community. Can J Public Health 84, 394396.
122 LiuBA, GordonM, LabrancheJM, et al. (1997) Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 45, 598603.
123 MarkS, Gray-DonaldK, DelvinEE, et al. (2008) Low vitamin D status in a representative sample of youth from Quebec, Canada. Clin Chem 54, 12831289.
124 NewhookLA, SlokaS, GrantM, et al. (2009) Vitamin D insufficiency common in newborns, children and pregnant women living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Matern Child Nutr 5, 186191.
125 OvertonTR & BasuTK (1999) Longitudinal changes in radial bone density in older men. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 211215.
126 RuckerD, AllanJA, FickGH, et al. (2002) Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. Can Med Assoc J 166, 15171524.
127 SinotteM, DiorioC, BerubeS, et al. (2009) Genetic polymorphisms of the vitamin D binding protein and plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 634640.
128 AlvarezJA, AshrafAP, HunterGR, et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone are independent determinants of whole-body insulin sensitivity in women and may contribute to lower insulin sensitivity in African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 13441349.
129 ArunabhS, PollackS, YehJ, et al. (2003) Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 157161.
130 AveryE, KleppingerA, FeinnR, et al. (2010) Determinants of living situation in a population of community-dwelling and assisted living-dwelling elders. J Am Med Dir Assoc 11, 140144.
131 ChaiW, MaskarinecG & CooneyRV (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mammographic density among premenopausal women in a multiethnic population. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 652654.
132 ChengS, MassaroJM, FoxCS, et al. (2010) Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study. Diabetes 59, 242248.
133 Dawson-HughesB, HarrisSS & DallalGE (1997) Plasma calcidiol, season, and serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in healthy elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 6771.
134 DrorDK, KingJC, DurandDJ, et al. (2011) Association of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors with vitamin D status in pregnant women and neonates in Oakland, CA. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 111116.
135 LookerAC, Dawson-HughesB, CalvoMS, et al. (2002) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 30, 771777.
136 HannanMT, FelsonDT, Dawson-HughesB, et al. (2000) Risk factors for longitudinal bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 15, 710720.
137 HillKM, McCabeGP, McCabeLD, et al. (2010) An inflection point of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone is not evident from multi-site pooled data in children and adolescents. J Nutr 140, 19831988.
138 Iannuzzi-SucichM, PrestwoodKM & KennyAM (2002) Prevalence of sarcopenia and predictors of skeletal muscle mass in healthy, older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 57, 772777.
139 IlichJZ, BrownbillRA & TamboriniL (2003) Bone and nutrition in elderly women: protein, energy, and calcium as main determinants of bone mineral density. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 554565.
140 JacquesPF, FelsonDT, TuckerKL, et al. (1997) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its determinants in an elderly population sample. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 929936.
141 JohnsonMA, DaveyA, ParkS, et al. (2008) Age, race and season predict vitamin status in African American and white octogenarians and centenarians. J Nutr Health Aging 12, 690695.
142 KhoslaS, AtkinsonEJ, MeltonLJ, et al. (1997) Effects of age and estrogen status on serum parathyroid hormone levels and biochemical markers of bone turnover in women: a population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 15221527.
143 KimDH, SabourS, SagarUN, et al. (2008) Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in cardiovascular diseases (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2004). Am J Cardiol 102, 15401544.
144 KremerR, CampbellPP, ReinhardtT, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and its relationship to body fat, final height, and peak bone mass in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 6773.
145 LappeJM, DaviesKM, Travers-GustafsonD, et al. (2006) Vitamin D status in a rural postmenopausal female population. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 395402.
146 MansbachJM, GindeAA, CamargoCA, et al. (2009) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? Pediatrics 124, 14041410.
147 MirzaFS, PadhiID, RaiszLG, et al. (2010) Serum sclerostin levels negatively correlate with parathyroid hormone levels and free estrogen index in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 19911997.
148 ReisJP, von MuhlenD, MichosED, et al. (2009) Serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels, and carotid atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 207, 585590.
149 RockCL, ThornquistMD, KristalAR, et al. (1999) Demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors differentially explain variability in serum carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins: baseline results from the sentinel site of the Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study. J Nutr 129, 855864.
150 SabettaJR, DePetrilloP, CiprianiRJ, et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One 5, 11088.
151 SheaMK, BoothSL, MassaroJM, et al. (2008) Vitamin K and vitamin D status: associations with inflammatory markers in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Epidemiol 167, 313320.
152 SteinEM, LaingEM, HallDB, et al. (2006) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls aged 4–8 y living in the southeastern United States. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 7581.
153 SullivanSS, RosenCJ, HaltemanWA, et al. (2005) Adolescent girls in Maine are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 971974.
154 WengFL, ShultsJ, LeonardMB, et al. (2007) Risk factors for low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in otherwise healthy children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 150158.
155 BowyerL, Catling-PaullC, DiamondT, et al. (2009) Vitamin D, PTH and calcium levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70, 372377.
156 BrockK, WilkinsonM, CookR, et al. (2004) Associations with vitamin D deficiency in “at risk” Australians. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 581588.
157 CenterJR, NguyenTV, SambrookPN, et al. (1999) Hormonal and biochemical parameters in the determination of osteoporosis in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 36263635.
158 DingC, CicuttiniF, ParameswaranV, et al. (2009) Serum levels of vitamin D, sunlight exposure, and knee cartilage loss in older adults: the Tasmanian older adult cohort study. Arthritis Rheum 60, 13811389.
159 NgoDT, SverdlovAL, McNeilJJ, et al. (2010) Does vitamin D modulate asymmetric dimethylarginine and C-reactive protein concentrations? Am J Med 123, 335341.
160 PascoJA, HenryMJ, NicholsonGC, et al. (2001) Vitamin D status of women in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study: association with diet and casual exposure to sunlight. Med J Aust 175, 401405.
161 SteinMS, SchererSC, WaltonSL, et al. (1996) Risk factors for secondary hyperparathyroidism in a nursing home population. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 44, 375383.
162 ZochlingJ, SitohYY, LauTC, et al. (2002) Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and falls risk in the institutionalized elderly: sex differences and relationship to vitamin D status. Osteoporos Int 13, 882887.
163 AbnetCC, ChenW, DawseySM, et al. (2007) Serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration and risk of esophageal squamous dysplasia. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 18891893.
164 ChanEL, LauE, ShekCC, et al. (1992) Age-related changes in bone density, serum parathyroid hormone, calcium absorption and other indices of bone metabolism in Chinese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 36, 375381.
165 ChenW, DawseySM, QiaoYL, et al. (2007) Prospective study of serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration and risk of oesophageal and gastric cancers. Br J Cancer 97, 123128.
166 DuX, GreenfieldH, FraserDR, et al. (2001) Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in adolescent girls in Beijing. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 494500.
167 StrandMA, PerryJ, ZhaoJ, et al. (2009) Severe vitamin D-deficiency and the health of North China children. Matern Child Health J 13, 144150.
168 TsaiKS, HsuSH, ChengJP, et al. (1997) Vitamin D stores of urban women in Taipei: effect on bone density and bone turnover, and seasonal variation. Bone 20, 371374.
169 HeereC, SkeaffCM, WaqatakirewaL, et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of Indigenous-Fijian and Fijian-Indian women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19, 4348.
170 GoswamiR, KochupillaiN, GuptaN, et al. (2008) Presence of 25(OH)D deficiency in a rural North Indian village despite abundant sunshine. J Assoc Physicians India 56, 755757.
171 HarinarayanCV, RamalakshmiT, PrasadUV, et al. (2007) High prevalence of low dietary calcium, high phytate consumption, and vitamin D deficiency in healthy south Indians. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 10621067.
172 SachanA, GuptaR, DasV, et al. (2005) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in northern India. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 10601064.
173 RinaldiI, SetiatiS, OemardiM, et al. (2007) Correlation between serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and quadriceps femoris muscle strength in Indonesian elderly women living in three nursing homes. Acta Med Indones 39, 107111.
174 SetiatiS (2008) Vitamin D status among Indonesian elderly women living in institutionalized care units. Acta Med Indones 40, 7883.
175 KuwabaraA, HimenoM, TsugawaN, et al. (2010) Hypovitaminosis D and K are highly prevalent and independent of overall malnutrition in the institutionalized elderly. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 19, 4956.
176 KwonJ, SuzukiT, YoshidaH, et al. (2007) Concomitant lower serum albumin and vitamin D levels are associated with decreased objective physical performance among Japanese community-dwelling elderly. Gerontology 53, 322328.
177 NakamuraK, NashimotoM, HoriY, et al. (1999) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in active women of middle and advanced age in a rural community in Japan. Nutrition 15, 870873.
178 NakamuraK, NashimotoM & YamamotoM (2001) Are the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in winter associated with forearm bone mineral density in healthy elderly Japanese women? Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71, 2529.
179 SuzukiT, KwonJ, KimH, et al. (2008) Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels associated with falls among Japanese community-dwelling elderly. J Bone Miner Res 23, 13091317.
180 RahmanSA, CheeWS, YassinZ, et al. (2004) Vitamin D status among postmenopausal Malaysian women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13, 255260.
181 LanderRL, EnkhjargalT, BatjargalJ, et al. (2008) Multiple micronutrient deficiencies persist during early childhood in Mongolia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17, 429440.
182 BollandMJ, GreyAB, AmesRW, et al. (2006) Determinants of vitamin D status in older men living in a subtropical climate. Osteoporos Int 17, 17421748.
183 BollandMJ, GreyAB, AmesRW, et al. (2006) Fat mass is an important predictor of parathyroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Bone 38, 317321.
184 BollandMJ, GreyAB, AmesRW, et al. (2007) Age-, gender-, and weight-related effects on levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are not mediated by vitamin D binding protein. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67, 259264.
185 CamargoCAJr, InghamT, WickensK, et al. (2010) Vitamin D status of newborns in New Zealand. Br J Nutr 104, 10511057.
186 GrantCC, WallCR, CrengleS, et al. (2009) Vitamin D deficiency in early childhood: prevalent in the sunny South Pacific. Public Health Nutr 12, 18931901.
187 HoughtonLA, Szymlek-GayEA, GrayAR, et al. (2010) Predictors of vitamin D status and its association with parathyroid hormone in young New Zealand children. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 6976.
188 LeySJ, HorwathCC & StewartJM (1999) Attention is needed to the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our older population. N Z Med J 112, 471472.
189 LucasJA, BollandMJ, GreyAB, et al. (2005) Determinants of vitamin D status in older women living in a subtropical climate. Osteoporos Int 16, 16411648.
190 RockellJE, GreenTJ, SkeaffCM, et al. (2005) Season and ethnicity are determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in New Zealand children aged 5–14 y. J Nutr 135, 26022608.
191 RockellJE, SkeaffCM, WilliamsSM, et al. (2008) Association between quantitative measures of skin color and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Osteoporos Int 19, 16391642.
192 ScraggR, HoldawayI, JacksonR, et al. (1992) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and its relation to physical activity and other heart disease risk factors in the general population. Ann Epidemiol 2, 697703.
193 KimMK, Il KangM, Won OhK, et al. (2010) The association of serum vitamin D level with presence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged Korean subjects. Clin Endocrinol 73, 330338.
194 NamgungR, TsangRC, LeeC, et al. (1998) Low total body bone mineral content and high bone resorption in Korean winter-born versus summer-born newborn infants. J Pediatr 132, 421425.
195 ChailurkitLO, RajatanavinR, TeerarungsikulK, et al. (1996) Serum vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and biochemical markers of bone turnover in normal Thai subjects. J Med Assoc Thai 79, 499504.
196 ChailurkitLO, PongchaiyakulC, CharoenkiatkulS, et al. (2001) Different mechanism of bone loss in ageing women and men in Khon Kaen Province. J Med Assoc Thai 84, 11751182.
197 ChailurkitLO, PiaseuN & RajatanavinR (2002) Influence of normal ageing on mechanism of bone loss in women and men in Bangkok. J Med Assoc Thai 85, 915921.
198 SoontrapaS, BoonsiriP & KhampitakT (2009) The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the elderly women living in the rural area of Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 92, S21S25.
199 Ho-PhamLT, NguyenND, LaiTQ, et al. (2011) Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone in a urban population in Vietnam. Osteoporos Int 22, 241248.
200 NjeminiR, MeyersI, DemanetC, et al. (2002) The prevalence of autoantibodies in an elderly sub-Saharan African population. Clin Exp Immunol 127, 99106.
201 BassirM, LaborieS, LapillonneA, et al. (2001) Vitamin D deficiency in Iranian mothers and their neonates: a pilot study. Acta Paediatr 90, 577579.
202 DahifarH, FarajiA, YassobiS, et al. (2007) Asymptomatic rickets in adolescent girls. Indian J Pediatr 74, 571575.
203 HashemipourS, LarijaniB, AdibiH, et al. (2004) Vitamin D deficiency and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health 4, 38.
204 Hossein-NezhadA, Khoshniat NikooM, MaghbooliZ, et al. (2009) Relationship between serum vitamin D concentration and metabolic syndrome among Iranian adults population. DARU 17, 15.
205 HosseinpanahF, RambodM, Hossein-nejadA, et al. (2008) Association between vitamin D and bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab 26, 8692.
206 KazemiA, SharifiF, JafariN, et al. (2009) High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in an Iranian population. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 18, 835839.
207 MasoompourSM, SadegholvaadA, LarijaniB, et al. (2008) Effects of age and renal function on vitamin D status in men. Arch Iran Med 11, 377381.
208 Mirsaeid GhaziAA, Rais ZadehF, PezeshkP, et al. (2004) Seasonal variation of serum 25 hydroxy D3 in residents of Tehran. J Endocrinol Invest 27, 676679.
209 MoussaviM, HeidarpourR, AminorroayaA, et al. (2005) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Isfahani high school students in 2004. Horm Res 64, 144148.
210 NiafarM, BahramiA, AliasgharzadehA, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status in healthy postmenopausal Iranian women. J Res Med Sci 14, 171177.
211 RabbaniA, AlavianSM, MotlaghME, et al. (2009) Vitamin D insufficiency among children and adolescents living in Tehran, Iran. J Trop Pediatr 55, 189191.
212 SalekM, HashemipourM, AminorroayaA, et al. (2008) Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in Isfahan, Iran. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 116, 352356.
213 ArabiA, BaddouraR, El-RassiR, et al. (2010) Age but not gender modulates the relationship between PTH and vitamin D. Bone 47, 408412.
214 Gannage-YaredMH, ChemaliR, YaacoubN, et al. (2000) Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: relation to lifestyle and bone markers. J Bone Miner Res 15, 18561862.
215 PfitznerMA, ThacherTD, PettiforJM, et al. (1998) Absence of vitamin D deficiency in young Nigerian children. J Pediatr 133, 740744.
216 CharltonKE, LabadariosD, LombardCJ, et al. (1996) Vitamin D status of older South Africans. S Afr Med J 86, 14061410.
217 AsprayTJ, YanL & PrenticeA (2005) Parathyroid hormone and rates of bone formation are raised in perimenopausal rural Gambian women. Bone 36, 710720.
218 OliveriMB, LadizeskyM, MautalenCA, et al. (1993) Seasonal variations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone in Ushuaia (Argentina), the southernmost city of the world. Bone Miner 20, 99108.
219 Canto-CostaMH, KuniiI & HauacheOM (2006) Body fat and cholecalciferol supplementation in elderly homebound individuals. Braz J Med Biol Res 39, 9198.
220 SaraivaGL, CendorogloMS, RamosLR, et al. (2005) Influence of ultraviolet radiation on the production of 25 hydroxyvitamin D in the elderly population in the city of Sao Paulo (23 degrees 34′S), Brazil. Osteoporos Int 16, 16491654.
221 BreenME, LaingEM, HallDB, et al. (2011) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I, and bone mineral accrual during growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 96, 8998.
222 RollandYM, PerryHM3rd, PatrickP, et al. (2007) Loss of appendicular muscle mass and loss of muscle strength in young postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62, 330335.
223 SadideenH & SwaminathanR (2004) Effect of acute oral calcium load on serum PTH and bone resorption in young healthy subjects: an overnight study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 16611665.
224 BoonenS, ChengXG, NijsJ, et al. (1997) Factors associated with cortical and trabecular bone loss as quantified by peripheral computed tomography (pQCT) at the ultradistal radius in aging women. Calcif Tissue Int 60, 164170.
225 BoonenS, LesaffreE, DequekerJ, et al. (1996) Relationship between baseline insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and femoral bone density in women aged over 70 years: potential implications for the prevention of age-related bone loss. J Am Geriatr Soc 44, 13011306.
226 KilkkinenA, KnektP, AroA, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and the risk of cardiovascular disease death. Am J Epidemiol 170, 10321039.
227 KilkkinenA, KnektP, HeliovaaraM, et al. (2008) Vitamin D status and the risk of lung cancer: a cohort study in Finland. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 32743278.
228 WoitgeHW, Scheidt-NaveC, KisslingC, et al. (1998) Seasonal variation of biochemical indexes of bone turnover: results of a population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83, 6875.
229 HillTR, McCarthyD, JakobsenJ, et al. (2007) Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 77, 320325.
230 HillTR, O'BrienMM, Lamberg-AllardtC, et al. (2006) Vitamin D status of 51–75-year-old Irish women: its determinants and impact on biochemical indices of bone turnover. Public Health Nutr 9, 225233.
231 McCarthyD, CollinsA, O'BrienM, et al. (2006) Vitamin D intake and status in Irish elderly women and adolescent girls. Ir J Med Sci 175, 1420.
232 AthertonK, BerryDJ, ParsonsT, et al. (2009) Vitamin D and chronic widespread pain in a white middle-aged British population: evidence from a cross-sectional population survey. Ann Rheum Dis 68, 817822.
233 HypponenE, BerryD, Cortina-BorjaM, et al. (2010) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and pre-clinical alterations in inflammatory and hemostatic markers: a cross sectional analysis in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. PLoS One 5, 10801.
234 HypponenE, BoucherBJ, BerryDJ, et al. (2008) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Diabetes 57, 298305.
235 HiraniV, TullK, AliA, et al. (2010) Urgent action needed to improve vitamin D status among older people in England! Age Ageing 39, 6268.
236 MacdonaldHM, MavroeidiA, BarrRJ, et al. (2008) Vitamin D status in postmenopausal women living at higher latitudes in the UK in relation to bone health, overweight, sunlight exposure and dietary vitamin D. Bone 42, 9961003.
237 BarakeR, WeilerH, PayetteH, et al. (2010) Vitamin D status in healthy free-living elderly men and women living in Quebec, Canada. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 2530.
238 KielDP, MyersRH, CupplesLA, et al. (1997) The BsmI vitamin D receptor restriction fragment length polymorphism (bb) influences the effect of calcium intake on bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res 12, 10491057.
239 CamargoCAJr, InghamT, WickensK, et al. (2011) Cord-blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of respiratory infection, wheezing, and asthma. Pediatrics 127, 180187.
240 BollandMJ, GreyAB, AmesRW, et al. (2007) The effects of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and fat mass on a diagnosis of vitamin D sufficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 959964.
241 HarinarayanCV, RamalakshmiT, PrasadUV, et al. (2008) Vitamin D status in Andhra Pradesh: a population based study. Indian J Med Res 127, 211218.
242 von MuhlenDG, GreendaleGA, GarlandCF, et al. (2005) Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels and bone mineral density in community-dwelling older women: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Osteoporos Int 16, 17211726.
243 BadalianSS & RosenbaumPF (2010) Vitamin D and pelvic floor disorders in women: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey. Obstet Gynecol Surv 115, 795803.
244 ForrestKYZ & StuhldreherWL (2011) Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res 31, 4854.
245 SkinnerHG & SchwartzGG (2009) The relation of serum parathyroid hormone and serum calcium to serum levels of prostate-specific antigen: a population-based study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 28692873.
246 HarknessLS & CromerBA (2005) Vitamin D deficiency in adolescent females. J Adolesc Health 37, 75.
247 LookerAC, PfeifferCM, LacherDA, et al. (2008) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988–1994 compared with 2000–2004. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 15191527.
248 ReisJP, von MuhlenD, MillerER, et al. (2008) Relation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels with metabolic syndrome among US adults. Eur J Endocrinol 159, 4148.
249 ReisJP, von MuhlenD, MillerER, et al. (2009) Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in the United States adolescent population. Pediatrics 124, 371379.
250 GilsanzV, KremerA, MoAO, et al. (2010) Vitamin D status and its relation to muscle mass and muscle fat in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 15951601.
251 MelhusH, SnellmanG, GedeborgR, et al. (2010) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and fracture risk in a community-based cohort of elderly men in Sweden. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 26372645.
252 TheilerR, StahelinHB, KranzlinM, et al. (1999) High bone turnover in the elderly. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 80, 485489.
253 GrimnesG, AlmaasB, EggenAE, et al. (2010) Effect of smoking on the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D depends on the assay employed. Eur J Endocrinol 163, 339348.
254 JordeR, FigenschauY, EmausN, et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are strongly related to systolic blood pressure but do not predict future hypertension. Hypertension 55, 792798.
255 JordeR, SneveM, HutchinsonM, et al. (2010) Tracking of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during 14 years in a population-based study and during 12 months in an intervention study. Am J Epidemiol 171, 903908.
256 BuizertPJ, van SchoorNM, LipsP, et al. (2009) Lipid levels: a link between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis? J Bone Miner Res 24, 11031109.
257 de JonghRT, LipsP, RijsKJ, et al. (2011) Associations between vitamin D receptor genotypes and mortality in a cohort of older Dutch individuals. Eur J Endocrinol 164, 7582.
258 HoogendijkWJ, LipsP, DikMG, et al. (2008) Depression is associated with decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels in older adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65, 508512.
259 van SchoorNM, VisserM, PluijmSM, et al. (2008) Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Bone 42, 260266.
260 WichertsIS, van SchoorNM, BoekeAJ, et al. (2007) Vitamin D status predicts physical performance and its decline in older persons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 20582065.
261 HicksGE, ShardellM, MillerRR, et al. (2008) Associations between vitamin D status and pain in older adults: the Invecchiare in Chianti study. J Am Geriatr Soc 56, 785791.
262 HoustonDK, CesariM, FerrucciL, et al. (2007) Association between vitamin D status and physical performance: the InCHIANTI study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62, 440446.
263 LauretaniF, BandinelliS, RussoCR, et al. (2006) Correlates of bone quality in older persons. Bone 39, 915921.
264 SembaRD, HoustonDK, BandinelliS, et al. (2010) Relationship of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in older community-dwelling adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 203209.
265 Bischoff-FerrariHA, KielDP, Dawson-HughesB, et al. (2009) Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to BMD among U.S. adults. J Bone Miner Res 24, 935942.
266 BlackPN & ScraggR (2005) Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and pulmonary function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Chest 128, 37923798.
267 ChoncholM & ScraggR (2007) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, insulin resistance, and kidney function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Kidney Int 71, 134139.
268 de BoerIH, IoannouGN, KestenbaumB, et al. (2007) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and albuminuria in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Am J Kidney Dis 50, 6977.
269 DietrichT, JoshipuraKJ, Dawson-HughesB, et al. (2004) Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and periodontal disease in the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 108113.
270 FordES, AjaniUA, McGuireLC, et al. (2005) Concentrations of serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults. Diabetes Care 28, 12281230.
271 FreedmanDM, LookerAC, AbnetCC, et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cancer mortality in the NHANES III study (1988–2006). Cancer Res 70, 85878597.
272 GanjiV, MiloneC, CodyMM, et al. (2010) Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int Arch Med 3, 29.
273 KantAK & GraubardBI (2008) Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in variability in nutritional biomarkers. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 14641471.
274 KendrickJ, TargherG, SmitsG, et al. (2009) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Atherosclerosis 205, 255260.
275 LookerAC & MussolinoME (2008) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and hip fracture risk in older U.S. white adults. J Bone Miner Res 23, 143150.
276 MartinsD, WolfM, PanD, et al. (2007) Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the United States: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 167, 11591165.
277 SaintongeS, BangH & GerberLM (2009) Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Pediatrics 123, 797803.
278 ScraggR & CamargoCAJr (2008) Frequency of leisure-time physical activity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in the US population: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 168, 577591.
279 ScraggR, SowersM & BellC (2004) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes Care 27, 28132818.
280 ScraggR, SowersM & BellC (2007) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ethnicity, and blood pressure in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Hypertens 20, 713719.
281 TolppanenAM, WilliamsD & LawlorDA (2011) The association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium with cognitive performance in adolescents: cross-sectional study using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 25, 6774.
282 TolppanenAM, WilliamsDM & LawlorDA (2011) The association of serum ionized calcium and vitamin D with adult cognitive performance. Epidemiology 22, 113117.
283 ZadshirA, TareenN, PanD, et al. (2005) The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among US adults: data from the NHANES III. Ethn Dis 15, 5101.
284 HashemipourS, LarijaniB, AdibiH, et al. (2006) The status of biochemical parameters in varying degrees of vitamin D deficiency. J Bone Miner Metab 24, 213218.
285 OmraniGR, MasoompourSM, SadegholvaadA, et al. (2006) Effect of menopause and renal function on vitamin D status in Iranian women. East Mediterr Health J 12, 188195.
286 RockellJE, SkeaffCM, VennBJ, et al. (2008) Vitamin D insufficiency in New Zealanders during the winter is associated with higher parathyroid hormone concentrations: implications for bone health? N Z Med J 121, 7584.
287 HolvikK, MeyerHE, SogaardA, et al. (2007) Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study. BMC Endocr Disord 7, 9.
288 HolvikK, MeyerHE, SogaardAJ, et al. (2006) Biochemical markers of bone turnover and their relation to forearm bone mineral density in persons of Pakistani and Norwegian background living in Oslo, Norway: The Oslo Health Study. Eur J Endocrinol 155, 693699.
289 LiuE, MeigsJB, PittasAG, et al. (2009) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with markers of the insulin resistant phenotype in nondiabetic adults. J Nutr 139, 329334.
290 SheaMK, BenjaminEJ, DupuisJ, et al. (2009) Genetic and non-genetic correlates of vitamins K and D. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 458464.
291 SoontrapaS & ChailurkitLO (2005) Difference in serum calcidiol and parathyroid hormone levels between elderly urban vs suburban women. J Med Assoc Thai 88, 1720.
292 GindeAA, ScraggR, SchwartzRS, et al. (2009) Prospective study of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, cardiovascular disease mortality, and all-cause mortality in older U.S. adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 57, 15951603.
293 JassalSK, ChoncholM, von MuhlenD, et al. (2010) Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo study. Am J Med 123, 11141120.
294 DelvinEE, LambertM, LevyE, et al. (2010) Vitamin D status is modestly associated with glycemia and indicators of lipid metabolism in French-Canadian children and adolescents. J Nutr 140, 987991.
295 GindeAA, MansbachJM, CamargoCA, et al. (2009) Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 169, 384390.
296 MaggioD, CherubiniA, LauretaniF, et al. (2005) 25(OH)D Serum levels decline with age earlier in women than in men and less efficiently prevent compensatory hyperparathyroidism in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60, 14141419.
297 VisserM, DeegDJ, PutsMT, et al. (2006) Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older persons and the risk of nursing home admission. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 616622.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 192
Total number of PDF views: 1270 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3001 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.