Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren

  • Huong Thi Le (a1), Inge D. Brouwer (a2), Khan Cong Nguyen (a3), Jan Burema (a2) and Frans J. Kok (a2)...
Abstract

Previous data from Vietnam show that anaemia is highly prevalent among schoolchildren, who are considered not to be iron deficient. Trichuris infection doubled the risk of anaemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that de-worming is more effective than iron fortification in an anaemic, infection-prone population. In a trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design, 425 anaemic children aged 6–8 years were randomly assigned to receive either iron-fortified noodles or placebo, and mebendazole or placebo. Outcomes considered were change in haematological indicators of iron status (Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR) and haemoglobinopathies analysis); inflammations (C-reactive protein (CRP)); parasite infection status (hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris infection); and IgE. ANOVA and logistic regression were used to assess the effects of iron fortification and de-worming on Hb, SF, TfR, body iron and anaemia. Hb improved in all groups after 6 months of intervention. Iron fortification significantly improved Hb, SF and body iron (2·6 g/l, 16·3 μg/l and 1 mg/kg, respectively). Prevalence of elevated IgE was very high at baseline (99 %) and significantly reduced to about 75 % in all groups after intervention. De-worming unexpectedly showed no effect on Hb, iron status and IgE level. It is concluded that iron fortification slightly improved anaemia and iron status in anaemic schoolchildren in rural Vietnam that were not considered iron deficient. Chronic infection or other unidentified factors may play an important role in the seasonal reduction of anaemia seen in all treatment groups.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Mrs Huong Thi Le, No. 41 Lane 101, Pham Ngoc Thach Str., Dongda, Hanoi, Vietnam, fax +84 4 7337955, email huong.lethi@wur.nl or email donghuong@fpt.vn
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

HC Baggett , AJ Parkinson , PT Muth , BD Gold & BD Gessner (2006) Endemic iron deficiency associated with Helicobacter pylori infection among school-aged children in Alaska. Pediatrics 117, e396e404.

JD Cook , CH Flowers & BS Skikne (2003) The quantitative assessment of body iron. Blood 101, 33593364.

M Dugdale (2001) Anemia. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 28, 363381.

M Gamble , N Palafox , B Dancheck , M Ricks , K Briand & R Semba (2004) Relationship of vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency, and inflammation to anemia among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 13961401.

LM Hodge , M Mrinaro , HP Jones , JR McGhee , H Kiyono & JW Simecka (2001) Immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses and IgE-associated inflammation along the respiratory tract after mucosal but not systemic immunization. Infect Immun 69, 23282338.

R Hurrell (1997) Preventing iron deficiency through food fortification. Nutr Rev 55, 210222.

P Kling , R Roberts & J Widness (1998) Plasma transferrin receptor levels and indices of erythropoiesis and iron status in healthy term infants. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20, 309314.

A Looker , P Dallman , M Carroll , E Gunter & C Johnson (1997) Prevalence of iron deficiency in the United States. JAMA 277, 973976.

BI Malope , AP MacPhail , M Alberts & DC Hiss (2001) The ratio of serum transferrin receptor and serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron status. Br J Haematol 115, 84–89.

RJ Means (2000) The anaemia of infection. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 13, 151162.

A Olsen , J Nawiri & H Friis (2000) The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94, 493499.

MM Osório (2002) Determinant factors of anemia in children. J Pediatr 78, 269–278.

S Pedersen , I Saeed , H Friis & KF Michaelsen (2001) Effect of iron deficiency on Trichuris suis and Ascaris suum infections in pigs. Parasitology 122, 589598.

R Phillips & G Pasvol (1992) Anaemia of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 5, 315–330.

B Ritchie , Y McNeil & D Brewster (2004) Soluble transferrin receptor in Aboriginal children with a high prevalence of iron deficiency and infection. Trop Med Int Health 9, 96–105.

L Sheppard & J Henion (1997) Quantitative capillary electrophoresis/ion spray tandem mass spectrometry determination of EDTA in human plasma and urine. Analyt Chem 69, 29012907.

LS Stephenson , CV Holland & ES Cooper (2000) The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura. Parasitology 121, S73–S95.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: